SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
QSB 2714 BUILDING SERVICES 2
CASE STUDY: SUBANG PARADE
STUDENT NAME STUDENT ID
CHIA KHAI YUEAN 0314368
CHIN WEI SUN 0314369
JENNY WONG YEN LI 0314518
TEO JUN TANG 0314667
YAP HUE ENG 0314857
YAP ZHI XIN 0314542
LECTURER: MR KAM KENN JHUN
SUBMISSION DATE: 26th
We would like to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided
us the possibility to complete this report. A special gratitude we give to our lecturer,
Mr. Kam Kenn Jhun, whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and
encouragement, helped us to coordinate our project especially in writing this report.
We would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of
the personnel of Subang Parade, Mr Radzi and Mr Rahman, who gave the
permission to use all required equipment and the necessary materials to complete
Furthermore, many thanks go our teammates, Chia Khai Yuean, Jenny Wong
Yen Li, Yap Zhi Xin, Yap Hue Eng and Teo Jun Tang who assembled the parts gave
suggestions about this project. Special thanks go to our leader, Chin Wei Sun, who
has invested her full effort in guiding the team in achieving the goal as well as her
encouragement to maintain our progress in track.
We have to appreciate the guidance given by other supervisor as well as the
panels especially in our project presentation that has improved our presentation skills
by their comment and tips.
Building services is considered necessary part that equips each specific building. The
services in every building are able to affect the standard or even reputation of that
particular building. This report basically contain the introduction sharing the purpose
of selecting Subang Parade Shopping Mall as our case study building, the functions
and the history of this commercial building whereas the content part includes
identifying the existing building services, analysing the problem in the existing
services and giving suitable recommendation to problems encountered after
comparing the existing and suggested. This report covers the topic of building
services such as the fire protection system, vertical transportation system,
mechanical and air-conditioning system, electricity supply system and cold water
supply system in Subang Parade Shopping Mall
List of Figures Page No.
1. Components of electric elevator 32
2. Components of hydraulic elevator 33
3. Big industrial fans 48
4. Air supply and return ductwork 48
List of Tables Page No.
1. Table 1: Specification of electric and hydraulic elevators in 31
List of Photographs Page No.
1. Linear diffuser 9
2. Cone diffuser 10
3. Multi-direction diffuser 10
4. Condenser pump located in plant room 10
5. Package system used by T.G.I. Friday’s restaurant 11
6. Control panel that control cool air supply 11
7. Thermostat controls the temperature of air supply 12
8. Air passes through filter before enters the AHU 12
9. Chiller in the plant room 13
10. Control panel for chiller 13
11. Cooling towers located at roof top 14
12. Fan located on top of the cooling tower 14
13. Ball valve inside the cooling tower 15
14. Carbon dioxide extinguisher in services room 16
15. Extinguishers placed in metal box 16
16. Maintenance of extinguisher 16
17. Powder type extinguisher 17
18. Carbon dioxide and automatic carbon dioxide system in service rooms 17
19. Automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system 17
20. Operation system of automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system 17
21. Details of sprinkler tank 18
22. Sprinkler tank in the basement 18
23. Sprinkler system 19
24. Rows of sprinkler system underneath the pathway 19
25. Distance between two sprinklers 19
26. 3-way fire hydrant 20
27. Canvas reel and landing valve 20
28. Distance between two hydrants 20
29. Distance from hydrant to building 21
30. Hose reel room 21
31. Landing valve which is ready for connection of canvas reel 21
32. Pumps for hose reel 22
33. Smoke detector 22
34. Hose reel and wet risers behind 22
35. Wet riser pumps 23
36. Details of wet riser tank 23
37. Fire control room 24
38. Detector panel 24
39. Voice communication system 25
40. Height of manual call point 25
41. Alarm bell 25
42. Pressurized staircase 26
43. The lights above door indicates occurrence of fire inside the room 27
44. Extracting grilles in staircase 27
45. Fire switch in stair 27
46. Fire rated door for access to staircase 28
47. One hour fire rated door 29
48. Escape route- staircase 29
49. Electric elevators accessible directly to the car park 30
50. 2 hydraulic elevator for inter floor traffic only, excluding car park 30
51. Fire elevator 31
52. Fire lift switch 31
53. On-off fire lift switch 31
54. This system shows the location of elevators. The intercom system is 34
connected to all elevators and are for emergency purpose
55. Front and side view of traction machine 35
56. Traction sheave 35
57. Control panel 35
58. Two-way traffic (parallel) 36
59. Two-way traffic (criss-cross) 36
60. High voltage room 37
61. Vacuum circuit breaker 37
62. Transformers room 38
63. Transformer 38
64. Silica gel breather 39
65. Low voltage room 39
66. Main switch board 40
67. Feeder pillar panel 40
68. Electric riser 40
69. Bar coupler 41
70. Generator set with battery 41
71. Electric panel room 42
72. Distribution panel 42
73. Bus bar 42
74. Pneumatic cylinder 43
75. Pneumatic booster pump supplied by GRUNFOS taken in the water tank
76. Water storage tank 44
77. “Yellow rod” indicates the amount of water in the storage tank 45
78. Electrical control panel and hydro-pneumatic pump 45
79. Continuous running pumps with pressure indicators to supply domestic
80. Make-up tank for the cold water supply which is suited at roof top 46
Table of Content Page No.
1. Introduction 8
2. Existing system available
a. HVAC system 9
b. Fire protection system 16
c. Vertical transportation 30
d. Electricity 37
e. Cold water supply 43
3. Problems and Recommendations 47
4. Conclusion 50
5. Reference 51
We choose Subang Parade as our proposed building for building services
assignment because we would like to know systems available in it.
We want to learn how to compare building services in different aspect
including structure, types and design. This germinates the critical thinking of the
weakness of current system and learns to form hypothesis or recommendations.
Subang Parade is the first shopping center in Selangor, Malaysia. This mall
was constructed in 1987 and located in SS16.
The mall consists of 1 level of service tunnel which spans the whole length of
the mall. Basement car park is right above the service tunnel. The retail floors consist
of a Lower Ground, Ground and First Floor.
The unique aspect of the shopping center is interior layout which designed to
have a good visibility of all tenants within the shopping centre.
Mechanical ventilation system:
According to Mr. Rahman, there is no natural ventilation system inside
Subang Parade. Mechanical ventilation system is needed to provide comfortable
environment for occupants. Extracting fan is used in the basement car park to extract
excessive hot air and CO². Extraction grilles also provided in every toilet to extract
out the unpleasant smells and moist produced. The fresh cooled air will be supplied
into the mall through the air condition system in every floor, lifts and even inside the
1) Centralized System
3 chillers, compressor, distributor pumps, condenser pumps, chiller pumps are
located in a plant room outside the mall. The chilled air is supplied into the mall
through the ducting system where it comes out from diffusers (linear, cone diffuser
and multi-direction diffuser) that located in the suspended ceiling of every shop.
Subang Parade uses the space between the ceiling and suspended ceiling (open
ceiling) as an extraction duct to extract used air from each shop.
Photo 1 Linear diffuser.
Photo 2 Cone diffuser.
Photo 3 Multi-direction diffuser.
Photo 4 Condenser pump located in plant room.
2) Package System
Package system is only applicable for T.G.I.FRiDAY’S restaurant because it will
be open until 2 a.m. but the centralized system is only available until 9.30 p.m., so in
order to keep the restaurant cool, they use this system from 9 p.m. onward.
Photo 5 Package system used by T.G.I.FRiDAY’S restaurant.
Air Handling Unit (AHU):
The building has 68 units of manually operated AHU. 1 AHU controls the air-
conditioning system of 5 shops. The temperature of air supplied and returns is
approximately 23˚C. Maintenance for the cooling coils is once per 2 months. The
temperature of the air supply is controlled by the thermostat which will cut down
chilled air supply if room temperature is too low.
Photo 6 Control panel that control cool air supply.
Photo 7 Thermostat controls the temperature of air supply.
Photo 8 Air passes through filter before enters the AHU.
There are 3 chillers, where 2 of them is filled with 1500 tons of water and 1 is
filled with 750 tons of water. One of the chiller works every day from 10:30a.m to 7:00
p.m. while another two chillers work from 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m alternatively on
different day according to the planned schedule. According to Mr. Rahman, the chiller
used for over 26 years and they don’t encounter any overheat problems.
Photo 9 Chiller in the plant room.
Photo 10 Control panel for chiller.
6 cooling towers are located at the roof top of Subang Parade. The balancing
pipes around the cooling tower ensure that all water is supplied at the same volume.
Ball valve inside cooling tower is used to indicate and control the supply of water.
The hot water is pumped from the condenser to cooling tower by using condenser
Photo 11 Cooling towers located at roof top.
Photo 12 Fan located on top of the cooling tower.
Photo 13 Ball valve inside the cooling tower
Subang Parade is using single zone variable air volume which means air
supplied into each of shop is same temperature, but may be different in volume.
Except for MBO cinema inside the mall which uses its own control system, which is
single zone constant air volume to control the temperature and volume of air supply
inside the cinema.
2.b Fire protectionsystem
Protection of Subang Parade and its contents from damage by fire can be
divided into passive and active categories. For the active system, Subang Parade
provides portable fire extinguishers, sprinkle system, detectors, risers, hose reels,
hydrants and alarms. Meanwhile for passive, it contains fire rated door and
Powder and carbon dioxide type are available in Subang Parade. Both of
them are suitable when the fire is caused by flammable liquids and gases, electrical
hazard and machinery (Federick Hall, 1994). However, carbon dioxide extinguisher is
not suitable for fire caused by solids (Federick Hall, 1994). Every tenant is provided
one powder type extinguisher and requested to place inside their shop. Four powder
extinguishers are stored inside a white metal box which placed nearby exist door and
easily spotted. This allows occupants to extinguish fire at early stage. Meanwhile in
electrical room, transformer room and plant room are provided two or more carbon
dioxide extinguishers. Subang Parade replaces extinguishers once a year. An
extinguisher is 9kg in weight so it can be carried by a person.
Photo 14 Carbon dioxide extinguisher in
services room Photo 15 Extinguishers placed
in metal box
Photo 16 Maintenance of extinghuisher
Photo 17 Powder type
Photo 19 Automatic carbon dioxide
Photo 20 Operation system of automatic carbon dioxide
Figure 18 Carbon dioxde
extinguisher and automatic carbon
dioxide system in services room
Automatic carbon dioxide gas extinguisher system is provided in TNB rooms.
The system is activated by both smoke and heat detectors inside the room. When
detectors are activated, the carbon dioxide cylinders discharge gas to discharge
nozzles through actuator. Carbon dioxide is chosen because of its non-conductive
properties and its ability to reduce the oxygen in air (Roger Greeno, 2006).
Another automatic extinguisher system used is wet sprinkle system. Wet
sprinkler system means all the pipework is permanently charged with water in order
to discharge water immediately when sprinkler head is activated (Roger Greeno,
2006). A sprinkler head is available at every 3m. It has red bulb liquid colour which
means the rupturing temperature is 68 degree Celsius (Roger Greeno, 2006).
System get water supply from the sprinkler tank which placed in basement. The
pressed steel storage tank has 48,000 gallons capacity. Duty pump, 2 standby and
jockey pumps are used to pump the water into system. Two ball valves are used to
control the water level in tank (Roger Greeno, 2006). When sprinklers system is
activated, fire brigade will call to fire control room to confirm the situation.
Photo 21 Details of sprinkler tank
Photo 22 Sprinkler tank in basement
Photo 23 Sprinkler system
Photo 24 Rows of sprinkler system underneath
Photo 25 Distance between two sprinklers
There are eight 3-way yellow fire hydrants surrounding the building. The
hydrant is yellow in body colour but red in cap and top which means it is private
system hydrant but connected to public water mains, and it supplies water less than
500 GPM (gallon per minute) and its pressure is below 50 p.s.i (Pound per square
inch). Hence, pump is required (Firehydrant.org, 2014). The distance between two
hydrants is 68m and distance from hydrant to building is 0.89m. Distance from
hydrant to road is 6m.
11 sets of hose reel are provided in every level. The system consists of a wet
riser tank, close range pumps, pipework, hose reel and valves. Hose reel, landing
valves, wet risers and canvas reel are located together inside different rooms in the
mall. Rubber hose reel is 30m long and diameter of 8.47mm, it get water supply from
the wet riser tank and pumped by close range pump. Canvas reel which is longer
than hose reel is placed beside hose reel. It is ready to connect to landing valve to
get water supply.
Photo 26 3-way fire hydrant
Photo 27 Canvas reel and landing valve
Photo 28 Distance between two hydrants
Photo 29 Distance from hydrant to building
Photo 30 Hose reel room
Photo 31 Landing valve which is ready
for connection of canvas reel
Photo 34 Hose reel and wet risers behind
Photo 32 Pumps for hose reel
Photo 33 Smoke detector
Photo 35 Wet riser pumps
Photo 36 Details of wet riser tank
Wet risers are implemented in Subang Parade. Wet risers supply water from
basement level to the highest level which is first floor, all total in 16.458m. Wet risers
are permanently filled with water to supply hydrant valves for each floor (Roger
Greeno, 2006). Wet riser tank is located in the basement water tank room. The
28feet×12feet×8feet high pressed steel tank has 16,800 gallons capacity. Two ball
valves, four pumps are used for this tank. Breeching inlets are installed at the bottom
Smoke and heat detectors are used. Smoke detectors are easily spotted in lift
lobby and inside the mall, while heat detectors are only available in TNB room such
as transformer rooms. The coverage area of smoke detector is around 35m2. All
detectors are connected to fire alarm panel and linked to fire control room.
Photo 37 Fire control room
Photo 38 Detector panels
Photo 40 Height of manual call point
Photo 41 Alarm bell
Photo 39 Voice communication system
Fire alarm system and voice communication system
Manual call points are available at every level and nearby exit door, which
function to arise alarm manually when occurrence of fire (Coopermedc.com, 2014). It
is 1.43m above floor level. Manual call point is connected to fire alarm panel and fire
control room. Automatic alarm bells are distributed throughout the building.
There are control-panels in fire control room such as detector panel which can
allocate the area of detectors activate. Fire switch will cut off the electricity during
occurrence of fire. Same goes to alarm control panel. Personnel will go and check
whether it is a false alarm or not. The fire control room is connected to nearest fire
brigade so fire brigade will call through voice communication system. Voice
communication system also available in services rooms. Exhaust system panel also
available in control room which function to extract the smoke when fire occurs.
Escape route: Staircase pressurization
Pressurized staircases are provided inside the mall and lift lobbies. They
enable people to escape if fire occurs inside the building (Roger Greeno, 2006). The
riser is 160mm high and tread is 270mm width. Each level has different number of
riser but all is less than 16. A purpose made ventilation grille of independent
pressurization system is used in every level to extract out the smoke (Roger Greeno,
2006). A 1hr fire rated door is used for the access to the staircase. Fire switch is
used inside the staircase at every level, which functions to cut off the electricity of
that particular level when fire occurs. Emergency light is used inside the stairway.
Fire rated door
1 hour fire rated doors are used in every escape route and service rooms
such as AHU rooms and electrical rooms.
Photo 42 Pressurized staircase
Photo 43 The lights above the door indicates occurrence of
fire inside the room
Photo 44 Extracting grilles in staircase Photo 45 Fire switch in stair
Photo 46 Fire rated door for access
Photo 47 One hour fire rated door
Photo 48 Escape route- staircase
2.c Vertical Transportation
Elevator is electrical container that efficiently moves people or goods from
one floor to another in a building.
Subang Parade has 9 groups of elevators serving the whole mall. 7 groups
are connected directly to car park. The balance two groups are utilised within the
shopping mall excluding basement level. In one group, there are 2 elevators, with
one is designated for Bomba in terms of emergency.
Photo 50 2 hydarulic elevators for interfloor traffic only, excluding car park
Photo 49 electric elevators accessible directly to the car park
Table 1: Specification of electric and hydraulic elevator in Subang Parade
All elevators will return in sequence directly to the designated floor, which is
LG Floor when fire occurs. Only fire elevator can be manually operated by firemen
via the fire lift switch. Occupants will use the staircase as evacuation route.
Photo 53 On-off fire lift switch
Electric Elevator Hydraulic Elevator
ElevatorCapacity 1800kg 1360kg, 26 persons
Internal CarSize 180cm*183cm 90cm*270cm
Door arrangement two- speed centre opening single - speed centre
Round-TripTime(RTT) 1 minute 2 minutes15 seconds
Photo 51 fire elevator Photo 52 fire lift switch
Operation of system
Electric Elevators moves the elevator car up and down using traction steel
ropes and sheaves with a counterweight to balance the load.
Electric Elevators (7*2=14)
Figure 1 Components of electric elevator
Hydraulic Elevators ( 2*2 = 4)
Hydraulic Elevator use hydraulic power to pressurise the piston at the base of
the elevator to raise and lower the car.
Figure 2 Components of hydraulic elevator
Fire Control Room
Subang Parade uses computerised control system elevator cars which is
located in Fire Control Room. Location of all elevators can be tracked and monitored
from the system at all times. The system will inform the monitoring server if elevator
breakdowns. This enables mechanic to take immediate action.
Photo 54 This system shows the location of
elevators. The intercom system is connected to all
elevators and are for emergency purpose.
Elevator motor room is located on top of elevator shaft. It housed traction machines
of all elevators, including control panel.
Photo 55 Front and side view of traction machine
Photo 56 Traction sheave Photo 57 control panel
Escalators are moving stairs used to convey people between floor levels. It can be
constructed in few arrangements, which are one-way traffic and two-way traffic.
Consideration of arrangement is based on the required level of service.
Subang parade provides two types of escalator arrangement systems, which are
parallel and criss-cross layout. Parallel layout is known as up and down escalators
“side by side” or separated by a distance. Whereas crisscross layout minimizes
structural space requirements by “stacking escalators” that go in one direction. There
are 7 criss-cross and 2 parallel escalators in Subang Parade.
Photo 58 Two-way traffic (parallel)
Photo 59 Two-way traffic (criss-cross)
According to video attached, time taken to move from one floor to another (using escalator) :
High voltage room
High voltage room contains feeder and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). Feeder
is a circuit conductor between the power supply source and final branch circuit
overcurrent device. There are 3 Feeder which each of them consist of 11kVA
switchboard section with 25 vacuum circuit breaker. Vacuum circuit breaker consists
of surge protection components housed in vacuum which used to protect medium
and high voltage circuits from dangerous electrical solutions. It breaks the circuit to
prevent fires and power surges. (Electrical4u.com, 2014)
Photo 60 High voltage room
Photo 61 Vacuum circuit breaker
Transformer transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another without
changing the frequency using electromagnetic induction. Step down transformers in
Subang Parade are used to step down 11kV to 415V. 17 transformers in total are
used, 5 of them used for HVAC system which include operation of chillers and pumps,
while the rest are used for electrical supply for the building. Silica gel breather can be
found beside the transformer as a dehumidifier to prevent damage as the incoming
air consists of moisture and dirt. It’s blue when installed and turn to pink or purple
colour when they absorb moisture and an oil cup is fitted with breather to trap dust
particles. (Shankar, 2014)
Photo 62 Transformers room
Photo 63 Transformers
Photo 64 Silica gel breather
Low voltage room
Low voltage room consists of main switch board and generators. There are 3
main switchboard in the room which consists of 2 feeder pillar panel, electric riser
and bar coupler. Only 1 feeder pillar panel is used and another feeder is used when
the existing feeder failed. Electric riser distributes electric supply to every floor of the
building. Bar coupler transfers electric from 1 main switch board to another which 1 of
the feeder use when another failure. 3 generator set with battery which 2 of them is
1000kVa and 1 is 1250kVa for backup when there is no electricity. Air circuit breaker
is used as main circuit breakers of power distribution systems when there is a
problem of electricity.
Photo 65 Low voltage room
Photo 66 Main switch board
Photo 67 Feeder pillar panel
Photo 68 Electric Riser
Photo 69 Bar coupler
Photo 70 Generator Set with battery
Electric panel room
The flow of electricity to building passes from the main switch board to
miniature circuit breaker (MCCB) to distribution board by busbar. Electric panel room
contains distribution panel, MCCB and busbar. Distribution panel distributes power to
the consuming loads which includes the assembly of switches and circuit protection
devices. MCCB is a small trip switch used to protect electric circuit which alternative
to a fuse that could protect cables and conductors against overloads and short
circuits, and electrical equipment from overheating. (Lke-electric.com, 2014) Busbar
is an conductor that makes connection between several circuits that refers to
conductors that is copper conductor which enclosed in building for safety purposes.
Photo 71 Electric Panel Room
Photo 72 Distribution Panel
Photo 73 Busbar
2.e. Cold water supply system
The cold water supply system in Subang Parade supplies all the public usage
and sanitary demands of the building. Pneumatic water pressure boosting system
which is suitable for tall buildings is used. Cold water enters the building from a rising
main and is stored in storage tank. The system consists of the electrical control panel
of the hydro-pneumatic pump which controls the pneumatic switch, the hydro-
pneumatic pump and the water holding tank. (Hse.gov.uk, 2014) Water is supplied by
indirect boosting from a break tank where external water is pumped to storage
header, use pneumatic cylinder and have continuous running pumps.
(Dlsweb.rmit.edu.au, 2014) Here, the booster system is supplied by GRUNDFOS
Holding A/S. In hydro-pneumatic system, a pressure vessel containing water with
pressurized air space provides pressure to the system. When water flows in, the
volume of the pressurized air space is increased, decreasing the air pressure within
the pneumatic cylinder. The lowering of air pressure triggers the pump to start,
following by the increase of air pressure and lowering of air volume due to excess
volume backing up. (Grundfos.com, 2014) The water tank room is at the basement.
According to Mr.Radzi, GI piping rust easily, hence requiring frequent maintenance.
He added the maintenance services are carried out by services contractor. The
factors of selecting GI pipes is that Subang Parade was the first mall in Kuala
Lumpur in the 80’s and PVC piping had not been the popular choice since then.
Regarding the design, precision of pipework and fittings diameters are important to
establish a complete system without leakage problems. Other than that, make-up
tank is situated at the rooftop and to compensate water shortage period.
Photo 74 Pneumatic cylinder.
Photo 75 Pneumatic booster pump supplied by GRUNDFOS taken in the water tank
Photo 76 Water storage tank.
Photo 77 “Yellow rod” indicates the amount of water in the storage tank.
Photo 78 Electrical control panel of the hydro-pneumatic pump.
Photo 79 Continuous running pumps with pressure indicators to supply domestic
Photo 80 Make-up tank for the cold water supply which is situated at the rooftop
3. Problems and Recommendations
1. Multi zone variable air volume system
Different spaces have different rate of heat gain and loss. Therefore, heating and
cooling must supply at varying rates to different zones in order to satisfy occupants.
Subang Parade is using single zone variable air volume system which is more
effective for smaller buildings because heat gain and heat loss for different areas
may not vary a lot. Larger buildings like Subang Parade, HVAC system should meet
the varying needs of different spaces due to different heating and cooling needs. So,
multi zone variable air volume system should be applied instead of single zone.
Multi zone variable air volume system supplies various quantities and temperature
of air. Heating and cooling coils in central AHU operate at the same time. Mixing box
mixes the hot and cold air to the temperature needed and air is supplied through
different ducting to each zone. [Variable Volume & Temperature in Cold Climates
Zoned comfort promised… Can it deliver? – Control Technologies | News | Blog.
This system is more energy efficient and meets the varying needs of different
zones. This can save 30 percent in energy cost compared to conventional system
[Variable Volume & Temperature in Cold Climates Zoned comfort promised… Can it
deliver? – Control Technologies | News | Blog. (n.d.)].
2. Automatic controller
Subang Parade operates the HVAC system manually by manpower every day.
The manual controller should be changed to automatic controller by using sensor.
The electronic control unit evaluates the signals from sensors to determine the
operating conditions, and controls actuators to move dampers and valves that
control the volume, temperature and direction of the air delivered [Air-conditioning
ECU. (n.d.)]. In this case, the operation will be more accurate and energy
efficiency. Usage of manpower and related cost can be cut down.
3. Installation of industrial fan and UV glass
In Subang Parade, one will feel warmer and humidifier in higher floor. This is
due to insufficient of cooling load in the mall. (Engineeringtoolbox.com, n.d.) Cool air
is denser than hot air causing hot air flow towards roof level.
(Usatoday30.usatoday.com, 2005). Passages of sunlight will influence the cooling
load too. Subang Parade can install some big industrial fan at roof to circulate hot air
produced. (Bigassfans.com, 2014) Besides that, the mall could change the glass
window into UV blocking glass which blocks 99% of UV radiation while transmitting
the desired light. (Grayglass.net, 2008).
4. Return ducts
Instead of using open ceiling air extraction system, return ducts can be used to
extract warm air and recycle it through the system for cooling or heating purpose,
which is more efficient compared to the open ceiling system. (wiseGEEK, 2003).
Figure 3 Big industrial fans
Figure 4 Air supply and return ductwork
1. Fire blanket and fire extinguisher ball
Although portable fire extinguisher available is only 9kg but some female
occupants and children still can’t carry and operate it. Subang Parade can provide
fire blanket and fire ball to overcome this problem. Fire blanket is flame-resistant
blanket which can extinguish small fire or protect a person from fire by wrapping the
blanket around (FIRE Protection Shop, 2014). When there is occurrence of fire,
occupants inside the mall can use this fire blanket to protect themselves or extinguish
the fire at early stage. A 1.3kg fire extinguisher ball can easily operate by everyone
due to its lightweight property. The ball is activated when it is contact with flame and
it will burst to spread dry chemical to extinguish fire (Bestfireball.com, 2014).
2. Fire rated door
Elevators are provided to move people or goods from one level to another.
However, the landing doors of elevator provided in Subang Parade are all not fire
resistant. According to UBBL clause 152.2, landing door shall have a FRP (fire
resistance period) of not less than half the FRP of hoistway structure with minimum
FRP of one hour. Hoistway structure means the elevator shaft where elevator is
hoisted (Merriam-webster.com, 2014). Fire resistant landing door can prevent the
spread of fire from landing side into the lift shaft for a period time (Lift-report.de,
2014). Other than lift landing door, the door of fire control room is not fire rated too.
Fire control room contains a lot of control panels, so fire rated door should be used
for this room in order to protect it. So, Subang Parade should change the lift landing
door and fire control room door into fire rated door.
3. Fire alarm system
Fire alarm system in Subang Parade is using alarm bell. According to UBBL
clause 242, special requirements for fire alarm system should be provided where
occupants are undesirable for audible alarm system. Subang Parade can incorporate
visible alarm signal such as fire alarm strobe lightning device inside the building other
than ordinary alarm bell to alert the incapable occupants.
4. Diameter of hose reel
Hose reel is a high pressure hose that carry water to extinguish fire. Diameter
of hose reel provided in Subang Parade only 8.47mm diameter. According to BS EN
671-1, the diameter of reel should be 19mm or 25mm large. Old hose reel should be
replaced into 19mm or 25mm diameter in order to meet the required standard.
Building services are very important to a building. The building
services provided by Subang Parade bring comfort, protection and convenient for
occupants or users. However, some improvement should be made in order to
achieve a better environment for occupants.
Fire protection in Subang Parade can be improved by installing fire
blanket, fire extinguishing ball, fire rated door for both lift and fire control room
and the visible alarm signal. This enables occupants to protect themselves and
their properties. Meanwhile for mechanical ventilation, Subang Parade should
install big industrial fan, UV glass and return ducts in order to have more comfort
environment. Besides that, Subang Parade can upgrade their manually on-off
HVAC system into automatic control by using sensor, and also upgrading their
zoning system into multi zone variable air volume in order to develop a more
energy efficient and accurate system.
Maintenance should be carried out in every building but not only
Subang Parade. Maintenance of services can provide a safer and comfortable
environment for occupants. Good building services can rise up the reputation of a
1. Air-conditioning ECU. (n.d.). [online]. Available at:
[Accessed 13 Jun. 2014]
2. Bestfireball.com (2014). Fire Extinguisher Ball. [online] Available at:
http://www.bestfireball.com/EN/features.htm [Accessed 7 Jun. 2014]
3. Bigassfans.com, (2014). Element Ceiling Fan | Big Ass Fans. [online]
Available at: http://www.bigassfans.com/products/element/ [Accessed 16 Jun.
4. Buildingwell - Energy Efficiency - Equipment - Elevators. (2014). Buildingwell
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1. Components of electric elevator: http://www.electrical-
2. Components of hydraulic elevator: http://www.electrical-
3. Big industrial fans: http://www.bigassfans.com/products/element/
4. Air supply and return ductwork: