Building services report subang parade


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Building services report subang parade

  2. 2. 1 Acknowledgement We would like to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility to complete this report. A special gratitude we give to our lecturer, Mr. Kam Kenn Jhun, whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us to coordinate our project especially in writing this report. We would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the personnel of Subang Parade, Mr Radzi and Mr Rahman, who gave the permission to use all required equipment and the necessary materials to complete this report. Furthermore, many thanks go our teammates, Chia Khai Yuean, Jenny Wong Yen Li, Yap Zhi Xin, Yap Hue Eng and Teo Jun Tang who assembled the parts gave suggestions about this project. Special thanks go to our leader, Chin Wei Sun, who has invested her full effort in guiding the team in achieving the goal as well as her encouragement to maintain our progress in track. We have to appreciate the guidance given by other supervisor as well as the panels especially in our project presentation that has improved our presentation skills by their comment and tips.
  3. 3. 2 Abstract Building services is considered necessary part that equips each specific building. The services in every building are able to affect the standard or even reputation of that particular building. This report basically contain the introduction sharing the purpose of selecting Subang Parade Shopping Mall as our case study building, the functions and the history of this commercial building whereas the content part includes identifying the existing building services, analysing the problem in the existing services and giving suitable recommendation to problems encountered after comparing the existing and suggested. This report covers the topic of building services such as the fire protection system, vertical transportation system, mechanical and air-conditioning system, electricity supply system and cold water supply system in Subang Parade Shopping Mall
  4. 4. 3 List of Figures Page No. 1. Components of electric elevator 32 2. Components of hydraulic elevator 33 3. Big industrial fans 48 4. Air supply and return ductwork 48
  5. 5. 4 List of Tables Page No. 1. Table 1: Specification of electric and hydraulic elevators in 31 Subang Parade
  6. 6. 5 List of Photographs Page No. 1. Linear diffuser 9 2. Cone diffuser 10 3. Multi-direction diffuser 10 4. Condenser pump located in plant room 10 5. Package system used by T.G.I. Friday’s restaurant 11 6. Control panel that control cool air supply 11 7. Thermostat controls the temperature of air supply 12 8. Air passes through filter before enters the AHU 12 9. Chiller in the plant room 13 10. Control panel for chiller 13 11. Cooling towers located at roof top 14 12. Fan located on top of the cooling tower 14 13. Ball valve inside the cooling tower 15 14. Carbon dioxide extinguisher in services room 16 15. Extinguishers placed in metal box 16 16. Maintenance of extinguisher 16 17. Powder type extinguisher 17 18. Carbon dioxide and automatic carbon dioxide system in service rooms 17 19. Automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system 17 20. Operation system of automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system 17 21. Details of sprinkler tank 18 22. Sprinkler tank in the basement 18 23. Sprinkler system 19 24. Rows of sprinkler system underneath the pathway 19 25. Distance between two sprinklers 19 26. 3-way fire hydrant 20 27. Canvas reel and landing valve 20 28. Distance between two hydrants 20 29. Distance from hydrant to building 21 30. Hose reel room 21 31. Landing valve which is ready for connection of canvas reel 21 32. Pumps for hose reel 22 33. Smoke detector 22 34. Hose reel and wet risers behind 22 35. Wet riser pumps 23 36. Details of wet riser tank 23 37. Fire control room 24 38. Detector panel 24 39. Voice communication system 25 40. Height of manual call point 25 41. Alarm bell 25 42. Pressurized staircase 26 43. The lights above door indicates occurrence of fire inside the room 27 44. Extracting grilles in staircase 27 45. Fire switch in stair 27 46. Fire rated door for access to staircase 28
  7. 7. 6 47. One hour fire rated door 29 48. Escape route- staircase 29 49. Electric elevators accessible directly to the car park 30 50. 2 hydraulic elevator for inter floor traffic only, excluding car park 30 51. Fire elevator 31 52. Fire lift switch 31 53. On-off fire lift switch 31 54. This system shows the location of elevators. The intercom system is 34 connected to all elevators and are for emergency purpose 55. Front and side view of traction machine 35 56. Traction sheave 35 57. Control panel 35 58. Two-way traffic (parallel) 36 59. Two-way traffic (criss-cross) 36 60. High voltage room 37 61. Vacuum circuit breaker 37 62. Transformers room 38 63. Transformer 38 64. Silica gel breather 39 65. Low voltage room 39 66. Main switch board 40 67. Feeder pillar panel 40 68. Electric riser 40 69. Bar coupler 41 70. Generator set with battery 41 71. Electric panel room 42 72. Distribution panel 42 73. Bus bar 42 74. Pneumatic cylinder 43 75. Pneumatic booster pump supplied by GRUNFOS taken in the water tank room 44 76. Water storage tank 44 77. “Yellow rod” indicates the amount of water in the storage tank 45 78. Electrical control panel and hydro-pneumatic pump 45 79. Continuous running pumps with pressure indicators to supply domestic water 46 80. Make-up tank for the cold water supply which is suited at roof top 46
  8. 8. 7 Table of Content Page No. 1. Introduction 8 2. Existing system available a. HVAC system 9 b. Fire protection system 16 c. Vertical transportation 30 d. Electricity 37 e. Cold water supply 43 3. Problems and Recommendations 47 4. Conclusion 50 5. Reference 51
  9. 9. 8 1. Introduction We choose Subang Parade as our proposed building for building services assignment because we would like to know systems available in it. We want to learn how to compare building services in different aspect including structure, types and design. This germinates the critical thinking of the weakness of current system and learns to form hypothesis or recommendations. Subang Parade is the first shopping center in Selangor, Malaysia. This mall was constructed in 1987 and located in SS16. The mall consists of 1 level of service tunnel which spans the whole length of the mall. Basement car park is right above the service tunnel. The retail floors consist of a Lower Ground, Ground and First Floor. The unique aspect of the shopping center is interior layout which designed to have a good visibility of all tenants within the shopping centre.
  10. 10. 9 2.a.HVAC Mechanical ventilation system: According to Mr. Rahman, there is no natural ventilation system inside Subang Parade. Mechanical ventilation system is needed to provide comfortable environment for occupants. Extracting fan is used in the basement car park to extract excessive hot air and CO². Extraction grilles also provided in every toilet to extract out the unpleasant smells and moist produced. The fresh cooled air will be supplied into the mall through the air condition system in every floor, lifts and even inside the toilets. Air-conditioning system: 1) Centralized System 3 chillers, compressor, distributor pumps, condenser pumps, chiller pumps are located in a plant room outside the mall. The chilled air is supplied into the mall through the ducting system where it comes out from diffusers (linear, cone diffuser and multi-direction diffuser) that located in the suspended ceiling of every shop. Subang Parade uses the space between the ceiling and suspended ceiling (open ceiling) as an extraction duct to extract used air from each shop. Photo 1 Linear diffuser.
  11. 11. 10 Photo 2 Cone diffuser. Photo 3 Multi-direction diffuser. Photo 4 Condenser pump located in plant room.
  12. 12. 11 2) Package System Package system is only applicable for T.G.I.FRiDAY’S restaurant because it will be open until 2 a.m. but the centralized system is only available until 9.30 p.m., so in order to keep the restaurant cool, they use this system from 9 p.m. onward. Photo 5 Package system used by T.G.I.FRiDAY’S restaurant. Air Handling Unit (AHU): The building has 68 units of manually operated AHU. 1 AHU controls the air- conditioning system of 5 shops. The temperature of air supplied and returns is approximately 23˚C. Maintenance for the cooling coils is once per 2 months. The temperature of the air supply is controlled by the thermostat which will cut down chilled air supply if room temperature is too low. Photo 6 Control panel that control cool air supply.
  13. 13. 12 Photo 7 Thermostat controls the temperature of air supply. Photo 8 Air passes through filter before enters the AHU.
  14. 14. 13 Chiller: There are 3 chillers, where 2 of them is filled with 1500 tons of water and 1 is filled with 750 tons of water. One of the chiller works every day from 10:30a.m to 7:00 p.m. while another two chillers work from 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m alternatively on different day according to the planned schedule. According to Mr. Rahman, the chiller used for over 26 years and they don’t encounter any overheat problems. Photo 9 Chiller in the plant room. Photo 10 Control panel for chiller.
  15. 15. 14 Cooling tower: 6 cooling towers are located at the roof top of Subang Parade. The balancing pipes around the cooling tower ensure that all water is supplied at the same volume. Ball valve inside cooling tower is used to indicate and control the supply of water. The hot water is pumped from the condenser to cooling tower by using condenser water pump. Photo 11 Cooling towers located at roof top. Photo 12 Fan located on top of the cooling tower.
  16. 16. 15 Photo 13 Ball valve inside the cooling tower Zoning: Subang Parade is using single zone variable air volume which means air supplied into each of shop is same temperature, but may be different in volume. Except for MBO cinema inside the mall which uses its own control system, which is single zone constant air volume to control the temperature and volume of air supply inside the cinema.
  17. 17. 16 2.b Fire protectionsystem Protection of Subang Parade and its contents from damage by fire can be divided into passive and active categories. For the active system, Subang Parade provides portable fire extinguishers, sprinkle system, detectors, risers, hose reels, hydrants and alarms. Meanwhile for passive, it contains fire rated door and pressurized staircase. Fire extinguisher Powder and carbon dioxide type are available in Subang Parade. Both of them are suitable when the fire is caused by flammable liquids and gases, electrical hazard and machinery (Federick Hall, 1994). However, carbon dioxide extinguisher is not suitable for fire caused by solids (Federick Hall, 1994). Every tenant is provided one powder type extinguisher and requested to place inside their shop. Four powder extinguishers are stored inside a white metal box which placed nearby exist door and easily spotted. This allows occupants to extinguish fire at early stage. Meanwhile in electrical room, transformer room and plant room are provided two or more carbon dioxide extinguishers. Subang Parade replaces extinguishers once a year. An extinguisher is 9kg in weight so it can be carried by a person. Photo 14 Carbon dioxide extinguisher in services room Photo 15 Extinguishers placed in metal box Photo 16 Maintenance of extinghuisher
  18. 18. 17 Photo 17 Powder type extinguisher Photo 19 Automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system Photo 20 Operation system of automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system Figure 18 Carbon dioxde extinguisher and automatic carbon dioxide system in services room
  19. 19. 18 Automatic extinguisher Automatic carbon dioxide gas extinguisher system is provided in TNB rooms. The system is activated by both smoke and heat detectors inside the room. When detectors are activated, the carbon dioxide cylinders discharge gas to discharge nozzles through actuator. Carbon dioxide is chosen because of its non-conductive properties and its ability to reduce the oxygen in air (Roger Greeno, 2006). Another automatic extinguisher system used is wet sprinkle system. Wet sprinkler system means all the pipework is permanently charged with water in order to discharge water immediately when sprinkler head is activated (Roger Greeno, 2006). A sprinkler head is available at every 3m. It has red bulb liquid colour which means the rupturing temperature is 68 degree Celsius (Roger Greeno, 2006). System get water supply from the sprinkler tank which placed in basement. The pressed steel storage tank has 48,000 gallons capacity. Duty pump, 2 standby and jockey pumps are used to pump the water into system. Two ball valves are used to control the water level in tank (Roger Greeno, 2006). When sprinklers system is activated, fire brigade will call to fire control room to confirm the situation. Photo 21 Details of sprinkler tank Photo 22 Sprinkler tank in basement
  20. 20. 19 Photo 23 Sprinkler system Photo 24 Rows of sprinkler system underneath the pathway Photo 25 Distance between two sprinklers
  21. 21. 20 Fire hydrant There are eight 3-way yellow fire hydrants surrounding the building. The hydrant is yellow in body colour but red in cap and top which means it is private system hydrant but connected to public water mains, and it supplies water less than 500 GPM (gallon per minute) and its pressure is below 50 p.s.i (Pound per square inch). Hence, pump is required (, 2014). The distance between two hydrants is 68m and distance from hydrant to building is 0.89m. Distance from hydrant to road is 6m. Hose reel 11 sets of hose reel are provided in every level. The system consists of a wet riser tank, close range pumps, pipework, hose reel and valves. Hose reel, landing valves, wet risers and canvas reel are located together inside different rooms in the mall. Rubber hose reel is 30m long and diameter of 8.47mm, it get water supply from the wet riser tank and pumped by close range pump. Canvas reel which is longer than hose reel is placed beside hose reel. It is ready to connect to landing valve to get water supply. Photo 26 3-way fire hydrant Photo 27 Canvas reel and landing valve Photo 28 Distance between two hydrants
  22. 22. 21 Photo 29 Distance from hydrant to building Photo 30 Hose reel room Photo 31 Landing valve which is ready for connection of canvas reel
  23. 23. 22 Photo 34 Hose reel and wet risers behind Photo 32 Pumps for hose reel Photo 33 Smoke detector
  24. 24. 23 Photo 35 Wet riser pumps Photo 36 Details of wet riser tank
  25. 25. 24 Risers Wet risers are implemented in Subang Parade. Wet risers supply water from basement level to the highest level which is first floor, all total in 16.458m. Wet risers are permanently filled with water to supply hydrant valves for each floor (Roger Greeno, 2006). Wet riser tank is located in the basement water tank room. The 28feet×12feet×8feet high pressed steel tank has 16,800 gallons capacity. Two ball valves, four pumps are used for this tank. Breeching inlets are installed at the bottom of risers. Detectors Smoke and heat detectors are used. Smoke detectors are easily spotted in lift lobby and inside the mall, while heat detectors are only available in TNB room such as transformer rooms. The coverage area of smoke detector is around 35m2. All detectors are connected to fire alarm panel and linked to fire control room. Photo 37 Fire control room Photo 38 Detector panels
  26. 26. 25 Photo 40 Height of manual call point Photo 41 Alarm bell Photo 39 Voice communication system
  27. 27. 26 Fire alarm system and voice communication system Manual call points are available at every level and nearby exit door, which function to arise alarm manually when occurrence of fire (, 2014). It is 1.43m above floor level. Manual call point is connected to fire alarm panel and fire control room. Automatic alarm bells are distributed throughout the building. There are control-panels in fire control room such as detector panel which can allocate the area of detectors activate. Fire switch will cut off the electricity during occurrence of fire. Same goes to alarm control panel. Personnel will go and check whether it is a false alarm or not. The fire control room is connected to nearest fire brigade so fire brigade will call through voice communication system. Voice communication system also available in services rooms. Exhaust system panel also available in control room which function to extract the smoke when fire occurs. Escape route: Staircase pressurization Pressurized staircases are provided inside the mall and lift lobbies. They enable people to escape if fire occurs inside the building (Roger Greeno, 2006). The riser is 160mm high and tread is 270mm width. Each level has different number of riser but all is less than 16. A purpose made ventilation grille of independent pressurization system is used in every level to extract out the smoke (Roger Greeno, 2006). A 1hr fire rated door is used for the access to the staircase. Fire switch is used inside the staircase at every level, which functions to cut off the electricity of that particular level when fire occurs. Emergency light is used inside the stairway. Fire rated door 1 hour fire rated doors are used in every escape route and service rooms such as AHU rooms and electrical rooms. Photo 42 Pressurized staircase
  28. 28. 27 Photo 43 The lights above the door indicates occurrence of fire inside the room Photo 44 Extracting grilles in staircase Photo 45 Fire switch in stair
  29. 29. 28 Photo 46 Fire rated door for access to staircase
  30. 30. 29 Photo 47 One hour fire rated door Photo 48 Escape route- staircase
  31. 31. 30 2.c Vertical Transportation Elevator Elevator is electrical container that efficiently moves people or goods from one floor to another in a building. Subang Parade has 9 groups of elevators serving the whole mall. 7 groups are connected directly to car park. The balance two groups are utilised within the shopping mall excluding basement level. In one group, there are 2 elevators, with one is designated for Bomba in terms of emergency. Photo 50 2 hydarulic elevators for interfloor traffic only, excluding car park Photo 49 electric elevators accessible directly to the car park
  32. 32. 31 Table 1: Specification of electric and hydraulic elevator in Subang Parade Fire elevator All elevators will return in sequence directly to the designated floor, which is LG Floor when fire occurs. Only fire elevator can be manually operated by firemen via the fire lift switch. Occupants will use the staircase as evacuation route. Photo 53 On-off fire lift switch Electric Elevator Hydraulic Elevator ElevatorCapacity 1800kg 1360kg, 26 persons Internal CarSize 180cm*183cm 90cm*270cm Door arrangement two- speed centre opening single - speed centre opening Round-TripTime(RTT) 1 minute 2 minutes15 seconds Photo 51 fire elevator Photo 52 fire lift switch
  33. 33. 32 Operation of system Electric Elevators moves the elevator car up and down using traction steel ropes and sheaves with a counterweight to balance the load. Electric Elevators (7*2=14) Figure 1 Components of electric elevator
  34. 34. 33 Hydraulic Elevators ( 2*2 = 4) Hydraulic Elevator use hydraulic power to pressurise the piston at the base of the elevator to raise and lower the car. Figure 2 Components of hydraulic elevator
  35. 35. 34 Fire Control Room Subang Parade uses computerised control system elevator cars which is located in Fire Control Room. Location of all elevators can be tracked and monitored from the system at all times. The system will inform the monitoring server if elevator breakdowns. This enables mechanic to take immediate action. . Photo 54 This system shows the location of elevators. The intercom system is connected to all elevators and are for emergency purpose.
  36. 36. 35 Motor Room Elevator motor room is located on top of elevator shaft. It housed traction machines of all elevators, including control panel. Photo 55 Front and side view of traction machine Photo 56 Traction sheave Photo 57 control panel
  37. 37. 36 Escalator Escalators are moving stairs used to convey people between floor levels. It can be constructed in few arrangements, which are one-way traffic and two-way traffic. Consideration of arrangement is based on the required level of service. Subang parade provides two types of escalator arrangement systems, which are parallel and criss-cross layout. Parallel layout is known as up and down escalators “side by side” or separated by a distance. Whereas crisscross layout minimizes structural space requirements by “stacking escalators” that go in one direction. There are 7 criss-cross and 2 parallel escalators in Subang Parade. Photo 58 Two-way traffic (parallel) Photo 59 Two-way traffic (criss-cross) According to video attached, time taken to move from one floor to another (using escalator) : 22 seconds
  38. 38. 37 2.d. Electricity High voltage room High voltage room contains feeder and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). Feeder is a circuit conductor between the power supply source and final branch circuit overcurrent device. There are 3 Feeder which each of them consist of 11kVA switchboard section with 25 vacuum circuit breaker. Vacuum circuit breaker consists of surge protection components housed in vacuum which used to protect medium and high voltage circuits from dangerous electrical solutions. It breaks the circuit to prevent fires and power surges. (, 2014) Photo 60 High voltage room Photo 61 Vacuum circuit breaker
  39. 39. 38 Transformer room Transformer transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another without changing the frequency using electromagnetic induction. Step down transformers in Subang Parade are used to step down 11kV to 415V. 17 transformers in total are used, 5 of them used for HVAC system which include operation of chillers and pumps, while the rest are used for electrical supply for the building. Silica gel breather can be found beside the transformer as a dehumidifier to prevent damage as the incoming air consists of moisture and dirt. It’s blue when installed and turn to pink or purple colour when they absorb moisture and an oil cup is fitted with breather to trap dust particles. (Shankar, 2014) Photo 62 Transformers room Photo 63 Transformers
  40. 40. 39 Photo 64 Silica gel breather Low voltage room Low voltage room consists of main switch board and generators. There are 3 main switchboard in the room which consists of 2 feeder pillar panel, electric riser and bar coupler. Only 1 feeder pillar panel is used and another feeder is used when the existing feeder failed. Electric riser distributes electric supply to every floor of the building. Bar coupler transfers electric from 1 main switch board to another which 1 of the feeder use when another failure. 3 generator set with battery which 2 of them is 1000kVa and 1 is 1250kVa for backup when there is no electricity. Air circuit breaker is used as main circuit breakers of power distribution systems when there is a problem of electricity. Photo 65 Low voltage room
  41. 41. 40 Photo 66 Main switch board Photo 67 Feeder pillar panel Photo 68 Electric Riser
  42. 42. 41 Photo 69 Bar coupler Photo 70 Generator Set with battery Electric panel room The flow of electricity to building passes from the main switch board to miniature circuit breaker (MCCB) to distribution board by busbar. Electric panel room contains distribution panel, MCCB and busbar. Distribution panel distributes power to the consuming loads which includes the assembly of switches and circuit protection devices. MCCB is a small trip switch used to protect electric circuit which alternative to a fuse that could protect cables and conductors against overloads and short circuits, and electrical equipment from overheating. (, 2014) Busbar is an conductor that makes connection between several circuits that refers to conductors that is copper conductor which enclosed in building for safety purposes. (, 2014)
  43. 43. 42 Photo 71 Electric Panel Room Photo 72 Distribution Panel Photo 73 Busbar
  44. 44. 43 2.e. Cold water supply system The cold water supply system in Subang Parade supplies all the public usage and sanitary demands of the building. Pneumatic water pressure boosting system which is suitable for tall buildings is used. Cold water enters the building from a rising main and is stored in storage tank. The system consists of the electrical control panel of the hydro-pneumatic pump which controls the pneumatic switch, the hydro- pneumatic pump and the water holding tank. (, 2014) Water is supplied by indirect boosting from a break tank where external water is pumped to storage header, use pneumatic cylinder and have continuous running pumps. (, 2014) Here, the booster system is supplied by GRUNDFOS Holding A/S. In hydro-pneumatic system, a pressure vessel containing water with pressurized air space provides pressure to the system. When water flows in, the volume of the pressurized air space is increased, decreasing the air pressure within the pneumatic cylinder. The lowering of air pressure triggers the pump to start, following by the increase of air pressure and lowering of air volume due to excess volume backing up. (, 2014) The water tank room is at the basement. According to Mr.Radzi, GI piping rust easily, hence requiring frequent maintenance. He added the maintenance services are carried out by services contractor. The factors of selecting GI pipes is that Subang Parade was the first mall in Kuala Lumpur in the 80’s and PVC piping had not been the popular choice since then. Regarding the design, precision of pipework and fittings diameters are important to establish a complete system without leakage problems. Other than that, make-up tank is situated at the rooftop and to compensate water shortage period. Photo 74 Pneumatic cylinder.
  45. 45. 44 . Photo 75 Pneumatic booster pump supplied by GRUNDFOS taken in the water tank room. Photo 76 Water storage tank.
  46. 46. 45 Photo 77 “Yellow rod” indicates the amount of water in the storage tank. Photo 78 Electrical control panel of the hydro-pneumatic pump.
  47. 47. 46 Photo 79 Continuous running pumps with pressure indicators to supply domestic water Photo 80 Make-up tank for the cold water supply which is situated at the rooftop
  48. 48. 47 3. Problems and Recommendations HVAC System 1. Multi zone variable air volume system Different spaces have different rate of heat gain and loss. Therefore, heating and cooling must supply at varying rates to different zones in order to satisfy occupants. Subang Parade is using single zone variable air volume system which is more effective for smaller buildings because heat gain and heat loss for different areas may not vary a lot. Larger buildings like Subang Parade, HVAC system should meet the varying needs of different spaces due to different heating and cooling needs. So, multi zone variable air volume system should be applied instead of single zone. Multi zone variable air volume system supplies various quantities and temperature of air. Heating and cooling coils in central AHU operate at the same time. Mixing box mixes the hot and cold air to the temperature needed and air is supplied through different ducting to each zone. [Variable Volume & Temperature in Cold Climates Zoned comfort promised… Can it deliver? – Control Technologies | News | Blog. (n.d.)]. This system is more energy efficient and meets the varying needs of different zones. This can save 30 percent in energy cost compared to conventional system [Variable Volume & Temperature in Cold Climates Zoned comfort promised… Can it deliver? – Control Technologies | News | Blog. (n.d.)]. 2. Automatic controller Subang Parade operates the HVAC system manually by manpower every day. The manual controller should be changed to automatic controller by using sensor. The electronic control unit evaluates the signals from sensors to determine the operating conditions, and controls actuators to move dampers and valves that control the volume, temperature and direction of the air delivered [Air-conditioning ECU. (n.d.)]. In this case, the operation will be more accurate and energy efficiency. Usage of manpower and related cost can be cut down. 3. Installation of industrial fan and UV glass In Subang Parade, one will feel warmer and humidifier in higher floor. This is due to insufficient of cooling load in the mall. (, n.d.) Cool air is denser than hot air causing hot air flow towards roof level. (, 2005). Passages of sunlight will influence the cooling load too. Subang Parade can install some big industrial fan at roof to circulate hot air produced. (, 2014) Besides that, the mall could change the glass window into UV blocking glass which blocks 99% of UV radiation while transmitting the desired light. (, 2008).
  49. 49. 48 4. Return ducts Instead of using open ceiling air extraction system, return ducts can be used to extract warm air and recycle it through the system for cooling or heating purpose, which is more efficient compared to the open ceiling system. (wiseGEEK, 2003). Figure 3 Big industrial fans Figure 4 Air supply and return ductwork
  50. 50. 49 Fire protection 1. Fire blanket and fire extinguisher ball Although portable fire extinguisher available is only 9kg but some female occupants and children still can’t carry and operate it. Subang Parade can provide fire blanket and fire ball to overcome this problem. Fire blanket is flame-resistant blanket which can extinguish small fire or protect a person from fire by wrapping the blanket around (FIRE Protection Shop, 2014). When there is occurrence of fire, occupants inside the mall can use this fire blanket to protect themselves or extinguish the fire at early stage. A 1.3kg fire extinguisher ball can easily operate by everyone due to its lightweight property. The ball is activated when it is contact with flame and it will burst to spread dry chemical to extinguish fire (, 2014). 2. Fire rated door Elevators are provided to move people or goods from one level to another. However, the landing doors of elevator provided in Subang Parade are all not fire resistant. According to UBBL clause 152.2, landing door shall have a FRP (fire resistance period) of not less than half the FRP of hoistway structure with minimum FRP of one hour. Hoistway structure means the elevator shaft where elevator is hoisted (, 2014). Fire resistant landing door can prevent the spread of fire from landing side into the lift shaft for a period time (, 2014). Other than lift landing door, the door of fire control room is not fire rated too. Fire control room contains a lot of control panels, so fire rated door should be used for this room in order to protect it. So, Subang Parade should change the lift landing door and fire control room door into fire rated door. 3. Fire alarm system Fire alarm system in Subang Parade is using alarm bell. According to UBBL clause 242, special requirements for fire alarm system should be provided where occupants are undesirable for audible alarm system. Subang Parade can incorporate visible alarm signal such as fire alarm strobe lightning device inside the building other than ordinary alarm bell to alert the incapable occupants. 4. Diameter of hose reel Hose reel is a high pressure hose that carry water to extinguish fire. Diameter of hose reel provided in Subang Parade only 8.47mm diameter. According to BS EN 671-1, the diameter of reel should be 19mm or 25mm large. Old hose reel should be replaced into 19mm or 25mm diameter in order to meet the required standard.
  51. 51. 50 4. Conclusion Building services are very important to a building. The building services provided by Subang Parade bring comfort, protection and convenient for occupants or users. However, some improvement should be made in order to achieve a better environment for occupants. Fire protection in Subang Parade can be improved by installing fire blanket, fire extinguishing ball, fire rated door for both lift and fire control room and the visible alarm signal. This enables occupants to protect themselves and their properties. Meanwhile for mechanical ventilation, Subang Parade should install big industrial fan, UV glass and return ducts in order to have more comfort environment. Besides that, Subang Parade can upgrade their manually on-off HVAC system into automatic control by using sensor, and also upgrading their zoning system into multi zone variable air volume in order to develop a more energy efficient and accurate system. Maintenance should be carried out in every building but not only Subang Parade. Maintenance of services can provide a safer and comfortable environment for occupants. Good building services can rise up the reputation of a building.
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  54. 54. 53 Figure references: 1. Components of electric elevator: http://www.electrical- 2. Components of hydraulic elevator: http://www.electrical- 3. Big industrial fans: 4. Air supply and return ductwork:
  55. 55. 54 Appendix