Water ConservationBY:ZHI CHENER ，Eden Ng Jing Wen Lee Zi Yi，Joey Tan
What is Water Conservation• Water conservation is any in water loss, use or waste as well as the and a reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures or improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water.
Water management• Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world, water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands.
How to manage water• Water is an essential resource for all life on the planet. Of the water resources on Earth only three per cent of it is not salty and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Of the remaining one per cent, a fifth is in remote, inaccessible areas and much seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot easily be used. At present only about 0.08 per cent of all the world’s fresh water . is exploited by mankind in ever increasing demand for sanitation, drinking, manufacturing, leisure and agriculture
Water management in Singapore• Singapore has increasingly been looked upon by the international community as a role model for water management• The Four National Taps refer to water from four different sources of water: water from local catchment areas, imported water, recycled water (branded as NEWater) and desalinated water.
NEWater• Introduced in 2003, NEWater marked a new era in Singapore’s water history. Produced using state-of-the-art membrane technologies involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection, the result is an ultra- clean product that has been vetted by more than 30,000 scientific tests, surpassing even the World Health Organisation standards for drinking water
Use of the NEWater• NEWater is primarily supplied to wafer fabrication, electronics and power generation industries for process use as well as commercial and institutional complexes for air-con cooling purposes. A small amount of NEWater is also put through a "naturalization" process in the raw water reservoirs before processing it in waterworks for potable use.
Imported water in Singapore• Singapore has relied on importation from Johor state in Malaysia to supply half of its water consumption.
These are thepipelines to importwater from othercountries
Local catchment water• As a small island that doesnt have natural aquifers and lakes and with little land to collect rainwater, Singapore needs to maximise whatever it can harvest.• Currently, Singapore uses two separate systems to collect rainwater and used water. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers and stormwater collection ponds before it is channelled to Singapores 17 reservoirs for storage. This makes Singapore one of the few countries in the world to harvest urban stormwater on a large scale for its water supply.
Desalinated water• Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals . Salt water is desalinated in order to produce fresh water that is suitable for human consumption or irrigation