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Adjective Compounds
Verb Compounds

P
repared by
Zhian Fadhil
Asaad
Category: is a network of sense structured in term
of prototype and periphery.






The prototype of compound class is...
Adjective Compounds
Adjective

Compounds: is a structure that is composed of two or more
free morphemes or lexical substr...
Feature : refers to a typical quality or an important
.aspect of something
The

feature schema for an adjective compound ...
Adjective Compounds
prototypically
Have such relationships as:

M is
the thing
and H is
the the type

H is the
colour
of M...
Prototypically
an adjective compound consist of two substructures the first which
is a noun. Depending on the nature of th...
M is a goal for H: This sense the purpose emerges when the
modifier is a noun representing the goal towards which the
adje...
H is the feature of M: this sense of make surfaces when the
modifier is a noun naming the object and the head is an
adject...
M

is the cause for H: this sense of causation appears when
the modifier is a noun signifying the cause and the head is a...
M

is the field for H: this sense of activity occurs when the
modifier is a noun signaling the area or field to which the...
M

is place for H: this sense of location follows when the
modifier is a noun suggesting the place or the circumstances
a...
M

is the measure of H: this sense of measurement proceeds
when the modifier is a noun symbolizing the entity and the hea...
M

is without H :this sense of privation happens when the
modifier is a noun denoting the thing which the adjective as th...
M

is the thing and H its action: this sense of affliction applies
when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing and...
M

is thing to which H is disposed: This sense of disposition show up
when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing ...
• M is the destination towards which H moves: this sense of motion
materializes when the modifier is a noun referring to t...
M

is the thing and H is the type: this sense of resemblance
realizes when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing
...
Peripherally: an adjective compound consist of two
substructures, both the modifier and the head being
adjectives. Dependi...
M

is a shade of H: this sense comes to attention when the
modifier is an adjective signifies the shade of colour denoted...
M is the quality and H is the possessor: this sense comes to surface
when the modifier is an adjective signifying quality ...
Verb Compounds:

is a structure that is
made up of two free morphemes or lexical
substructures.
The compound structure is ...
The term event: refers to something that happens
at a given time together with the circumstances in
which it takes place.
...
Prototypically: a verb compound consist of two
substructures , the first of which is a noun. depending
on the nature of th...
M

performs H: this sense of purpose arises when the modifier is
a noun representing an instrument and the head is a tran...
M

undergoes H: this sense of causation emerges when the
modifier is noun symbolizing a receiver and the head is a transi...
M

Triggers H: this sense of causation when the modifier is a
noun naming the agent and the head is a transitive verb nam...
M

is the manner H is done: this sense of comparison appears
when the modifier is a noun indicating the manner and the he...
H

is made of M: this sense of make occurs when the modifier is
a noun denoting the material and the head ia a verb (tran...
M

is the place for H: this sense of location follows when the
modifier is a noun referring to the place and the head is ...
Peripherally:
substructures,
adjective and
nature of the
expresses the

a verb compound consist of two
the modifier is eit...
M

and H happen simultaneously: this sense proceeds when
both the modifier and the head are verbs (transitive or
intransi...
M

is the feature and H the action: this sense happens when
the modifier is an adjective suggesting the feature and the h...
The most nine powerf ul
letter word…
…
K
nowledge
Acquire it
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Adjective compounds zhian

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Transcript of "Adjective compounds zhian"

  1. 1. Adjective Compounds Verb Compounds P repared by Zhian Fadhil Asaad
  2. 2. Category: is a network of sense structured in term of prototype and periphery.    The prototype of compound class is usually the most frequent sense and first sense which is learnt in acquiring a language. The periphery of compound class comprises its other sense which are linked to the prototype via semantic extensions. The morphological form of compound is motivated by its semantic organization, thus form and meaning are inseparable. In each formation ,the modifier provides a certain piece of semantic information .
  3. 3. Adjective Compounds Adjective Compounds: is a structure that is composed of two or more free morphemes or lexical substructures. The compound structure is used to describe a new situation or change the modification of an entity Adjective Compounds (Modifier (M (noun, adjective, verb( (Head (H (adjective(
  4. 4. Feature : refers to a typical quality or an important .aspect of something The feature schema for an adjective compound is [-- + Adj], with the slot being filled by items of different word classes. The items represents aspects that are part of the meaning of an adjective, whose use depends on the way the speaker conceptualizes the sense and chooses the right item to modify the adjective. They include (purpose , make, location, privation, affliction, disposition, motion, and resemblance(.
  5. 5. Adjective Compounds prototypically Have such relationships as: M is the thing and H is the the type H is the colour of M M is destination towards which H moves M is thing to which H is disposed M is a goal for H H is the feature of M M is the cause :for H prototypically M is the thing and H its action M is without H M is the Field for H M is the measure of H M is place for H
  6. 6. Prototypically an adjective compound consist of two substructures the first which is a noun. Depending on the nature of the combining substructures, the adjective compounds have such relations as: H is the colour of M : This sense of comparison arises when the modifier is a noun referring to an object and the head is an adjective naming colour, thus expressing an object colour relationship. For example: Snow-white hair is hair that is as white as snow, ash -grey face, brick- red complexion, coal -black eyes, sky -blue blouse, sun bright sabre…and so on.
  7. 7. M is a goal for H: This sense the purpose emerges when the modifier is a noun representing the goal towards which the adjective as the head is directed , thus expressing a goal -quality relationship. for example: A peace -eager campaigner is a campaigner who is eager for peace, class-envious moron, cost -effective approach, fortune -hungry , money- covetous trader, profit -thirsty trade, user -friendly system, …and so on. 
  8. 8. H is the feature of M: this sense of make surfaces when the modifier is a noun naming the object and the head is an adjective naming its feature , thus expressing an object-feature relationship. For example: A rock- hard body is a body that is as hard as rock, crystal -clear lake, feature -light touch, ice- cold water, paper-thin slices, razor- sharp blade, stone- deaf person ,..and so on. 
  9. 9. M is the cause for H: this sense of causation appears when the modifier is a noun signifying the cause and the head is an adjective signifying the effect, thus expressing a cause-effect relationship. For example: A travel- weary motorist a motorist who is weary from travel, camera -shy minister ,crime -guilty plea, girl- crazy world, oilrich country, travel -sick person, water-sick soil ,..and so on.
  10. 10. M is the field for H: this sense of activity occurs when the modifier is a noun signaling the area or field to which the adjective as the head applies, thus the expressing a field -application relationship. For example: A computer-literature employee is an employee who is knowledge in the use of computer, colour-blind bats, energy-efficient products , machine-readable dictionaries, …and so on.
  11. 11. M is place for H: this sense of location follows when the modifier is a noun suggesting the place or the circumstances and the head is an adjective suggesting the characteristic, thus expressing a place- characteristic relationship. For example: An oceanfront hotel is a hotel that is situated on the seashore near the ocean, brain- dead patient, heartfelt apology , seaborne invasion, world -famous writer, world -wide problem,.. And so on.
  12. 12. M is the measure of H: this sense of measurement proceeds when the modifier is a noun symbolizing the entity and the head is an adjective symbolizing measurement ,thus expressing an entitymeasurement relationship. For example: Knee- high stocks are stocks that reach the knees, mile- long queue, shoulder -high wall, skin -deep fashion, state -wide reform, week -long visit, ..and so on.
  13. 13. M is without H :this sense of privation happens when the modifier is a noun denoting the thing which the adjective as the head, mostly with free and less denotes its absence, thus expressing a thing -without relationship. For example: A weed -free garden is a garden that is without weed, child -free gathering, cloud- free sky, meat -free diet, queue- free check, smoke -free city, sugar- free tea ,..and so on Examples in -less: Boneless fish, characterless room, flawless performance, fruitless tree, motherless child, spotless house ,..and so on
  14. 14. M is the thing and H its action: this sense of affliction applies when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing and the adjective as the head , mostly with -redden and stricken, is its action ,thus expressing a thing-action relationship. For example: A drought-ridden area is an area that is plagued by drought ,acneridden face, crime-ridden city, injury-ridden event, lice- ridden hair, mosquito- ridden swamp, plague- ridden village ,..and so on Examples in -stricken : famine-stricken region, grief-stricken mother , hurricane-stricken coast , panic-stricken crowd, povertystricken area, terror- stricken people,… and so on
  15. 15. M is thing to which H is disposed: This sense of disposition show up when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing towards which the adjective as the head, mostly with -conscious,-minded and -prone, is disposed ,thus expressing a thing inclined relationship. For examples: A dress -conscious teenager who takes an interest in clothes, budgetconscious businessman, camera-conscious person, garden-conscious housewife, health-conscious person, weight-conscious model,… and so on. Examples in minded: business-minded official, chic-minded person, environment-minded activist, fashion-minded buyer, peace-minded proponent ,tend-minded people,.. And so on Examples in -prone: accident-prone child, failure-prone student, gaffepone person, injury-prone kid, mischief-prone child, quarrel-prone teenager,.. And so on.
  16. 16. • M is the destination towards which H moves: this sense of motion materializes when the modifier is a noun referring to the destination towards which the adjective is as a head ,mostly with -bound ,-based and -ward, moves thus expressing distinction-moving relationship For examples: East-bound train, is train whose destination is the east. homebound ship, Leeds-bound passenger, London -bound train, ..and so on. In some compounds, the meaning is that of dependent on the place expressed by modifier. For example: A chair- bound patient is a patient dependent on wheelchair for mobility. Fog-bound ship, studio-bound programme, earth-bound satellite,…and so on. Examples in -based : Ground-based telescope, land-based missile, London-based news agency ,..and so on. Example in -ward: Ceiling -ward smoke, homeward journey, southward walk, ..and so on.
  17. 17. M is the thing and H is the type: this sense of resemblance realizes when the modifier is a noun referring to the thing which the noun as the head, mostly with -style and -type, refers to its type, thus expressing a thing-similar relationship. For example: a Beatles-style band is a band whose music resembles that of the Beatles. Antique-style furniture ,European-style clothes, family-style food, French-style perfume, Germanstyle car, theatre-style ballroom, ..and so on. Examples in type: California-type barbecue, circus-type room, hospital-type bed, London-type jug, military-type car, Rome-type harrow, ..and so on.
  18. 18. Peripherally: an adjective compound consist of two substructures, both the modifier and the head being adjectives. Depending on the nature of the combining substructures, the adjective compound expresses the following semantic relationship: M is a shade of H Peripherally M is The quality And H is the possessor
  19. 19. M is a shade of H: this sense comes to attention when the modifier is an adjective signifies the shade of colour denoted by the adjectival head, thus expressing a shade-colour relationship. For example: A dark-blue suit is a suit which has a dark shade of blue. Bluegreen water, pale-yellow wallpaper, red-brown hair ,..and so on. In some examples, the modifier is a normal adjective such as bitter-sweet beer, silky-soft skin, wide-awake baby ,..and so on.
  20. 20. M is the quality and H is the possessor: this sense comes to surface when the modifier is an adjective signifying quality which the adjectival head, either present or past participle possesses ,thus expressing a qualitypossessor relationship. For example: A kind-hearted man is a man with a kind heart. Examples of present participle include: beautiful-looking woman, far-reaching benefit, hard-working student, long-lasting friendship, quick-dyeing colour,.. And so on. Examples of past participles include: blue-eyed man, lefthanded child, old-fashioned person, red-haired girl, right-footed player,.. And so on. The modifier can also be a noun, as in money-saving tips, sundried bricks, tongue-tied lovers, ..and so on.
  21. 21. Verb Compounds: is a structure that is made up of two free morphemes or lexical substructures. The compound structure is used to present a new idea . The left-hand substructure, which is the modifier (M), can belong to any word class. The right-hand substructure, which is the head (H), is a verb. The resulting is Verb compound ,describing a class of non-stable, temporal event. Verb Compounds (modifier (M (Noun, verb, adjective( (head (H ((Verb
  22. 22. The term event: refers to something that happens at a given time together with the circumstances in which it takes place.   The event schema for a verb compound is[ - + V] ,with the slot being filled by items of different word classes. The aspects which modify a verb disclose precise details of the schema. They include( purpose, causation, comparison ,make, location, and feature).
  23. 23. Prototypically: a verb compound consist of two substructures , the first of which is a noun. depending on the nature of the combining substructures, the verb compounds express such relation as: M performs H M is the Place for H M undergoes H Prototypically M triggers H H is made of M M is the Manner H done
  24. 24. M performs H: this sense of purpose arises when the modifier is a noun representing an instrument and the head is a transitive verb representing the action ,thus expressing an instrument-action relationship. For example: To spoon-feed a baby is to feed a baby with a spoon. Bottle-feed, breastfeed, hand-weave, head-shake, tape-record, vacuum-clean, and so on.
  25. 25. M undergoes H: this sense of causation emerges when the modifier is noun symbolizing a receiver and the head is a transitive verb symbolizing action, thus expressing a receiver-action relationship. For example: to manhunt is to search for a person ,especially a criminal. Baby-sit, book-review, brainwash, haircut, housekeep, and so on.
  26. 26. M Triggers H: this sense of causation when the modifier is a noun naming the agent and the head is a transitive verb naming action ,thus expressing an agent-action relationship. For example: To force-feed people is force someone to swallow food against his or her will. Blow-dry, browbeat, count-martial, frog-march, spin-dry, and so on.
  27. 27. M is the manner H is done: this sense of comparison appears when the modifier is a noun indicating the manner and the head is an intransitive verb indicating the action, thus expressing a manner-action relationship. For example: To goose-step is to march with the legs lifted high and straight. Double-park, hitch-hike, mass-produce, play-act, touch-type, wolfwhistle, and so on.
  28. 28. H is made of M: this sense of make occurs when the modifier is a noun denoting the material and the head ia a verb (transitive or intransitive) denoting the action, thus expressing a material-action relationship. The formations refer to tools or devices. For example: To sandbag is to use bags full of sand as a defence against flooding, explosions, and so on. Bar-code, machine-gun, rubberstamp, sand-paper, snowball, stonewall, and so on.
  29. 29. M is the place for H: this sense of location follows when the modifier is a noun referring to the place and the head is a verb (transitive or intransitive) referring to the action, thus expressing a place-action relationship. For example: To lip-read is to understand what someone is saying by watching the movements of their mouth. Back-comb, field-test, ice-skate, sight-read, toilet-train, water-ski, and so on.
  30. 30. Peripherally: substructures, adjective and nature of the expresses the a verb compound consist of two the modifier is either a verb or an the head is a verb. Depending on the combining substructures, the compound following semantic relationship: M and H Happen simultaneously Peripherally M is the Feature and H the action
  31. 31. M and H happen simultaneously: this sense proceeds when both the modifier and the head are verbs (transitive or intransitive) and denoted action, thus expressing an actionaction relationship. For example: To sleepwalk is to walk in ones sleep. Chain-smoke, crashland, cross-check, cross-examine, drink-drive, kick-start, shrink-wrap, stir-fry, and so on.
  32. 32. M is the feature and H the action: this sense happens when the modifier is an adjective suggesting the feature and the head is the verb suggesting the action, thus expressing a feature-action relationship. For example: To dry-clean is to clean clothes with a chemical solvent rather than water. blacklist, highlight, deep-freeze, deep-fry, fasttrack, fine-tune, soft-land, white-wash, and so on.
  33. 33. The most nine powerf ul letter word… … K nowledge Acquire it
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