Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
chemistry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

chemistry

577

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
577
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Human Biology (BI 104-01)
    • Instructor: Dr. Zhe Xu
    • [email_address]
  • 2. Levels of Biological Organization atom molecule cell tissue organ organ system organism
  • 3. Basic Chemistry (Inorganic)
    • Atom
      • Atoms are the basic units of elements
      • 96% of human body: OCHN
    Periodic Table of The Elements
  • 4.
      • Each atom consists of a nucleus and orbiting electrons
    Helium (He) nucleus electron
  • 5.
        • Nucleus
          • Proton: “+” charged, atomic mass = 1 unit
          • Neutron: uncharged, atomic mass = 1 unit
        • Electron shell
          • Electrons: “-” charged, atomic mass  0 unit
    Atoms are electrically neutral
  • 6. Atomic mass = proton mass + neutron mass Atomic number = the number of protons All atoms of an element have the same number of protons atomic mass 4 atomic number 2 He atomic symbol
  • 7.
      • Isotopes
        • Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
    (radioactive) 12 6 Carbon 12 C 13 6 Carbon 13 C 14 6 Carbon 14 C 14 7 Nitrogen 14 N decay
  • 8.
      • Electron shells
        • The innermost shell holds up to 2 electrons.
        • The outermost shell (valence shell) is most stable with 8 electrons (rule of eights)
  • 9.
    • Chemical bonds
      • Ionic bond
      • Electrons are transferred from one atom to another
        • Anion: gain electrons, negatively charged
        • Cation: lose electrons, positively charged
  • 10.  
  • 11.
      • Covalent bond: share electrons between atoms to meet the rule of eights
    hydrogen gas (H 2 ) oxygen gas (O 2 ) water (H 2 O) nonpolar polar
  • 12.
      • Hydrogen bond: attraction between electropositive H and electronegative O or N.
    polar molecule
  • 13.
    • Properties of H 2 O: all attribute to hydrogen bond
      • High heat capacity:
        • Water temperature rises and falls slowly
      • High heat of vaporization:
        • Vaporization of water requires lots of heat
      • Solvent:
        • Dissolves ionized and polar molecules
      • Cohesive and adhesive:
        • Water molecules adhere to each other and polar surfaces
      • High surface tension:
      • Ice is less dense than liquid H 2 O
  • 14.
    • Buffer
    • A chemical or a combination of chemicals that keeps pH within normal limits, usually weak acids or weak bases.
      • Acids
        • Dissociate in water and release H +
        • Strong acid: Dissociation is almost complete.
        • HCl -> H + + Cl -
        • Weak acid: Dissociation is minimal.
    (carbonic acid) (bicarbonate ion)
      • H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 -
  • 15.
      • Bases
        • Either take up H + or release OH -
        • Strong base: Dissociation is almost complete
      • NaOH -> Na + + OH -
        • Weak base: Dissociation is minimal
    ammonia ammonium ion
      • NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH -
  • 16.
      • pH scale
        • Measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration
        • pH = -(log 10 [H + ])
    0 7 14 acid base [H + ] (moles per liter) pH 1 x 10 -6 6 1 x 10 -7 7 1 x 10 -8 8
  • 17. Study Guide
    • Which four element make up the bulk of living matter?
    • Name the elements: O, C, H, N, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, I, Fe.
    • What is the nucleus of an atom composed of?
    • What type of charge do protons carry?
    • Do neutrons have charge?
    • What type of charge do electrons carry?
    • What is the atomic number?
    • What is the atomic mass?
    • What are isotopes?
    • An atom is inert when its valence shell contain ____ electrons.
    • What type of chemical bond exists in table salt (NaCl) and O 2 ?
    • What type of chemical bond contributes to the special properties of water?
    • What is the scale of pH? What pH is acidic? What pH is alkaline?

×