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Leach-Protocol

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An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks

An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks

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  • 1. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless MicrosensorNetworks
    by
    Wendi RabinerHeinzelman
    AnathaChandrasakan
    HariBalakrishnan
    Presenter: ZhendongLun
    1
  • 2. Contents
    • Introduction
    • 3. Background
    • 4. LEACH Protocol Architecture
    • 5. Analysis and Simulation
    • 6. Conclusion
    • 7. Reference
    2
  • 8. Introduction
    • Sensor Network Challenges
    • 9. Limited communication bandwidth
    • 10. Limited energy
    • 11. Parameters (Design goals)
    • 12. Ease of deployment
    • 13. System lifetime
    • 14. Latency
    • 15. Quality
    • 16. Neighboring nodes may have same data
    • 17. End user cares about a higher-level description of events
    3
  • 18. LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)
    Techniques (to achieve the design goals)
    • Randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation.
    • 19. Localized control of data transfers
    • 20. Low energy media access control (MAC)
    • 21. Application specific data processing, such as data aggregation
    and compression.
    4
  • 22. Background
    Some application-specific protocols developed for MSN
    • Time division multiple-access(TDMA) MAC protocol for low-energy operation.
    • 23. “Power-aware” routing protocols for wireless networks.
    • 24. “Minimum transmission energy”(MTE) routing
    • 25. Clustering
    • 26. Nodes send data to central cluster head
    • 27. Cluster head forwards data
    • 28. Cluster head has to be high energy node
    • 29. Fixed Infrastructure
    5
  • 30. LEACH Protocol Architecture
    LEACH in brief
    • Randomized rotation of cluster heads among the sensors
    • 31. All non-cluster head nodes transmit data to their cluster head
    • 32. CH receives this data and performs signal processing
    functions on the data and transmits data to the BS
    6
  • 33. 7
  • 34. 8
  • 35. LEACH Protocol Architecture
    LEACH Step by Step
    • Cluster Head Selection
    • 36. Cluster Formation
    • 37. Steady State Phase
    • 38. LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation
    9
  • 39. Cluster Head Selection Algorithms
    • Pi(t) is the probability with which node i elects itself to be Cluster Head at the
    beginning of the round r+1 (which starts at time t) such that expected number of
    cluster-head nodes for this round is k.
    k= # of clusters during each round
    (1) N= # of nodes in the network
    • Each node will be Cluster Head once in N/k rounds.
    • 40. Probability for each node i to be a cluster-head at time t
    (2)
    Ci(t) = it determines whether node i has been a cluster
    head in most recent (r mod(N/k))rounds.
    10
  • 41. Cluster Head Selection Algorithms (cont.)
    (3)
    = total no. of nodes eligible to be a cluster-head at time t.
    This ensures energy at each node to be approx. equal after every N/k rounds.
    Using (2) and (3), expected #of Cluster Heads per round is,
    11
  • 42. Cluster Formation Algorithm
    • Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.
    • 43. ADV = node’s ID + distinguishable header.
    • 44. Based on the received signal strength of ADV message, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round.
    • 45. Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.
    • 46. Join-REQ = node’s ID + cluster-head ID + header.
    • 47. Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.
    • 48. TDMA Schedule
    • 49. Prevents collision among data messages.
    • 50. Energy conservation in non cluster-head nodes.
    12
  • 51. Flowchart of the distributed cluster formation algorithm for LEACH
    13
  • 52. Steady State Phase
    Time line showing LEACH operation
    • TDMA schedule is used to send data from node to cluster head.
    • 53. Cluster head aggregates the data received from nodes in the cluster.
    • 54. Communication is via direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and each
    cluster uses a unique spreading code to reduce inter-cluster interference.
    • Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading
    code and CSMA.
    14
  • 55. Steady State Phase
    Time line showing LEACH operation
    • Assumptions
    • 56. Nodes are all time synchronized and start the setup phase at same time.
    • 57. BS sends out synchronized pulses to the nodes.
    • 58. Cluster Head must be awake all the time.
    • 59. To reduce inter-cluster interference, each cluster in LEACH communicates using direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).
    • 60. Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA.
    15
  • 61. Flow chart for steady state phase
    16
  • 62. LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation
    Uses a central control algorithm to form clusters
    • During setup phase each node sends its location and energy level to BS
    • 63. BS assigns cluster heads and clusters
    • 64. BS broadcasts this information
    • 65. The steady-state phase is same as LEACH
    17
  • 66. Analysis and Simulation
    100 node random test network
    18
  • 67. Analysis and Simulation (cont.)
    Optimum Number of Clusters
    19
  • 68.
    • LEACH distributes more data per unit energy than MTE
    • 69. LEACH-C delivers 40% more data per unit energy than LEACH
    20
  • 70.
    • LEACH and LEACH-C’s nodes lifetime is much longer than MTE’s
    • 71. LEACH can deliver 10 times the amount of effective data to the BS for the same number of node deaths
    21
  • 72. Conclusion
    • Microsensor network protocols must be designed for
    • 73. Bandwidth efficiency
    • 74. Energy efficiency
    • 75. High quality
    • 76. LEACH
    • 77. Better energy utilization and system lifetime
    • 78. Load balancing is achieved
    • 79. All nodes die at a time
    22
  • 80. Reference
    Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, ChandrakasanAnantha, and BalakrishnanHari.
    An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor
    Networks. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4,
    October 2002
    23
  • 81. Questions&Comments???
    THANK YOU
    24