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Leach-Protocol

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An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks

An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks

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  • 1. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless MicrosensorNetworks<br />by<br />Wendi RabinerHeinzelman<br />AnathaChandrasakan<br />HariBalakrishnan<br />Presenter: ZhendongLun<br />1<br />
  • 2. Contents<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  • 3. Background
  • 4. LEACH Protocol Architecture
  • 5. Analysis and Simulation
  • 6. Conclusion
  • 7. Reference</li></ul>2<br />
  • 8. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Sensor Network Challenges
  • 9. Limited communication bandwidth
  • 10. Limited energy
  • 11. Parameters (Design goals)
  • 12. Ease of deployment
  • 13. System lifetime
  • 14. Latency
  • 15. Quality
  • 16. Neighboring nodes may have same data
  • 17. End user cares about a higher-level description of events</li></ul>3<br />
  • 18. LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)<br />Techniques (to achieve the design goals)<br /><ul><li>Randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation.
  • 19. Localized control of data transfers
  • 20. Low energy media access control (MAC)
  • 21. Application specific data processing, such as data aggregation </li></ul>and compression. <br />4<br />
  • 22. Background<br />Some application-specific protocols developed for MSN<br /><ul><li>Time division multiple-access(TDMA) MAC protocol for low-energy operation.
  • 23. “Power-aware” routing protocols for wireless networks.
  • 24. “Minimum transmission energy”(MTE) routing
  • 25. Clustering
  • 26. Nodes send data to central cluster head
  • 27. Cluster head forwards data
  • 28. Cluster head has to be high energy node
  • 29. Fixed Infrastructure</li></ul>5<br />
  • 30. LEACH Protocol Architecture<br />LEACH in brief<br /><ul><li>Randomized rotation of cluster heads among the sensors
  • 31. All non-cluster head nodes transmit data to their cluster head
  • 32. CH receives this data and performs signal processing </li></ul> functions on the data and transmits data to the BS<br />6<br />
  • 33. 7<br />
  • 34. 8<br />
  • 35. LEACH Protocol Architecture<br />LEACH Step by Step<br /><ul><li>Cluster Head Selection
  • 36. Cluster Formation
  • 37. Steady State Phase
  • 38. LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation</li></ul>9<br />
  • 39. Cluster Head Selection Algorithms<br /><ul><li>Pi(t) is the probability with which node i elects itself to be Cluster Head at the</li></ul> beginning of the round r+1 (which starts at time t) such that expected number of <br /> cluster-head nodes for this round is k.<br /> k= # of clusters during each round<br /> (1) N= # of nodes in the network<br /><ul><li>Each node will be Cluster Head once in N/k rounds.
  • 40. Probability for each node i to be a cluster-head at time t</li></ul>(2)<br />Ci(t) = it determines whether node i has been a cluster <br /> head in most recent (r mod(N/k))rounds.<br />10<br />
  • 41. Cluster Head Selection Algorithms (cont.)<br />(3)<br /> = total no. of nodes eligible to be a cluster-head at time t.<br />This ensures energy at each node to be approx. equal after every N/k rounds.<br />Using (2) and (3), expected #of Cluster Heads per round is,<br />11<br />
  • 42. Cluster Formation Algorithm<br /><ul><li>Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.
  • 43. ADV = node’s ID + distinguishable header.
  • 44. Based on the received signal strength of ADV message, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round.
  • 45. Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.
  • 46. Join-REQ = node’s ID + cluster-head ID + header.
  • 47. Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.
  • 48. TDMA Schedule
  • 49. Prevents collision among data messages.
  • 50. Energy conservation in non cluster-head nodes.</li></ul>12<br />
  • 51. Flowchart of the distributed cluster formation algorithm for LEACH<br />13<br />
  • 52. Steady State Phase<br /> Time line showing LEACH operation<br /><ul><li>TDMA schedule is used to send data from node to cluster head.
  • 53. Cluster head aggregates the data received from nodes in the cluster.
  • 54. Communication is via direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and each </li></ul> cluster uses a unique spreading code to reduce inter-cluster interference.<br /><ul><li>Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading </li></ul> code and CSMA. <br />14<br />
  • 55. Steady State Phase<br /> Time line showing LEACH operation<br /><ul><li>Assumptions
  • 56. Nodes are all time synchronized and start the setup phase at same time.
  • 57. BS sends out synchronized pulses to the nodes.
  • 58. Cluster Head must be awake all the time.
  • 59. To reduce inter-cluster interference, each cluster in LEACH communicates using direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).
  • 60. Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA.</li></ul>15<br />
  • 61. Flow chart for steady state phase<br />16<br />
  • 62. LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation<br />Uses a central control algorithm to form clusters<br /><ul><li>During setup phase each node sends its location and energy level to BS
  • 63. BS assigns cluster heads and clusters
  • 64. BS broadcasts this information
  • 65. The steady-state phase is same as LEACH</li></ul>17<br />
  • 66. Analysis and Simulation<br />100 node random test network<br />18<br />
  • 67. Analysis and Simulation (cont.)<br />Optimum Number of Clusters<br />19<br />
  • 68. <ul><li>LEACH distributes more data per unit energy than MTE
  • 69. LEACH-C delivers 40% more data per unit energy than LEACH</li></ul>20<br />
  • 70. <ul><li>LEACH and LEACH-C’s nodes lifetime is much longer than MTE’s
  • 71. LEACH can deliver 10 times the amount of effective data to the BS for the same number of node deaths</li></ul>21<br />
  • 72. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Microsensor network protocols must be designed for
  • 73. Bandwidth efficiency
  • 74. Energy efficiency
  • 75. High quality
  • 76. LEACH
  • 77. Better energy utilization and system lifetime
  • 78. Load balancing is achieved
  • 79. All nodes die at a time</li></ul>22<br />
  • 80. Reference<br />Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, ChandrakasanAnantha, and BalakrishnanHari. <br />An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor <br />Networks. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4, <br />October 2002<br />23<br />
  • 81. Questions&Comments???<br />THANK YOU<br />24<br />

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