POLIOMYELITIS Also called infantile paralysis A disease that destroys the motor neurons and causes paralysis.
Cause: Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a virus known as poliovirus (PV).
Symptoms: 90% of polio infections have no symptoms at all.
RABIES Rabies is an infection caused by the rabies virus. This virus attacks the brain, causing severe inflammation (encephalitis) and death.
A person or animal can become infected with the rabies virus in one of a few ways, including:
Bites from a rabid animal (an animal with rabies) are the most common way in which rabies transmission occurs. Non-bite exposure and human-to-human exposure are both rare.
Rabies victim Symptoms may be headache, fatigue, fever and pain at the site of the bite can be present. Behavioral changes like apprehension, anxiety, agitation, irritability, insomnia and depression may also appear.
MENINGITIS Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It is usually caused by bacteria or viruses, but it can also be caused by certain medications or illnesses.
Causes: Many of the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis are fairly common and are typically associated with other routine illnesses. Bacteria and viruses that infect the skin, urinary system, gastrointestinal or respiratory tract can spread by the bloodstream to the meninges through cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that circulates in and around the spinal cord.
Symptoms: The first symptoms of bacterial or viral meningitis can come on quickly or surface several days after a child has had a cold and runny nose, diarrhea and vomiting, or other signs of an infection. Common symptoms include: fever lethargy (decreased consciousness) irritability headache photophobia (eye sensitivity to light) stiff neck skin rashes seizures
Cerebral Palsy is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious conditions that cause physical disability in human development.
Causes: • Infection During Pregnancy – rubella, cytomegalovirus, and toxoplasmosis can cause severe damage to the nervous system of the fetus and result in cerebral palsy. • Jaundice – severe jaundice can result in brain damage • Rh Incompatibility – can cause jaundice This is a condition where the mother's immune system attacks the fetus • Oxygen Shortage – a shortage of oxygen during birth can cause brain damage to the child. • Stroke – a stroke in the fetus can occur if the mother suffers from coagulation disorders • Toxicity – drug or alcohol use can result in brain damage • Bleeding – bleeding in the brain of the infant after birth can cause brain damage • Kidney/Urinary Tract Infections – can also lead to brain damage
Symptoms: CHARACTERISED BY THE FOLLOWING:
abnormal muscle tone, posture (i.e. slouching over while sitting), reflexes, or motor development and coordination.
There can be joint and bone deformities and contractures (permanently fixed, tight muscles and joints).
The classical symptoms are spasticity, spasms, other involuntary movements (e.g. facial gestures), unsteady gait, problems with balance, and/or soft tissue findings consisting largely of decreased muscle mass.
Scissor walking (where the knees come in and cross) and toe walking are common among people with CP who are able to walk, but taken on the whole, CP symptomatology is very diverse.
African Sleeping Sickness - is a protozoan infection passed to humans through the bite of the tsetse fly. It progresses to death within months or years if left untreated.
Encephalitis - is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the brain. Inflammation changes the normal blood flow in the brain.
Symptoms: Symptoms of encephalitis can be mild or very serious. Confusion. A fever. A headache (which can be very painful). A stiff neck and back. Light hurting your eyes. Nausea and vomiting. Lack of energy. Drowsiness. Seizures. Tremors. Personality changes. Memory loss. Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren't there).
Neuron affected by Alzheimer’s
Causes of Epilepsy in:Newborns Brain malformations Lack of oxygen during birth Low levels of blood sugar, blood calcium, blood magnesium or other electrolyte disturbances Inborn errors of metabolism Intracranial hemorrhage Maternal drug use Infection
In Infants and Children Fever (febrile seizures) Brain tumor (rarely) Infections
Children and Adults Congenital conditions (Down’s syndrome; Angelman’s syndrome; tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis) Genetic factors Progressive brain disease (rare) Head trauma
In Elderly Stroke Alzheimer’s disease Trauma
Quiz Multiple Choice: When a child is affected with POLIOMYELITIS, which of these will result? A.Blindness B. Paralysis C.Encephalitis D. Deafness
2. Which of the following is a symptom of PARKINSON’S DISEASE? A. Shaking of the arms and legs B. Enlargement of the head C. Drooping of the eyes D. Angry outbursts
3. What is the cause of CEREBRAL PALSY? A. Cutting off of oxygen supply to the brain B. Infection of the spinal cord C. A bruise in the nerves D. A concussion in the head
Why should a person avoid being bitted by a mad dog? A. A mad dog can make a person invalid B. A mad dog has rabies which can cause madness and death C. A mad dog can cause meningitis D. A mad dog can cause encephalitis
5. Why should you protect your head from injury? A. A mad dog can make a person invalid B. A mad dog has rabies which can cause madness and death C. A mad dog can cause meningitis D. A mad dog can cause encephalitis
Assignments Answer this: When can a spinal injury be very serious? Cite an example.