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Inno db internals innodb file formats and source code structure

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InnoDB Internals InnoDB File Formats and Source Code Structure

InnoDB Internals InnoDB File Formats and Source Code Structure

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  • 1. Transactional Storage for MySQL FAST. RELIABLE. PROVEN. InnoDB Internals: InnoDB File Formats and Source Code Structure MySQL University, October 2009 Calvin Sun Principal Engineer Oracle Corporation
  • 2. Today’s Topics • Goals of InnoDB • Key Functional Characteristics • InnoDB Design Considerations • InnoDB Architecture • InnoDB On Disk Format • Source Code Structure • Q & A
  • 3. Goals of InnoDB • OLTP oriented • Performance, Reliability, Scalability • Data Protection • Portability
  • 4. InnoDB Key Functional Characteristics • Full transaction support • Row-level locking • MVCC • Crash recovery • Efficient IO
  • 5. Design Considerations • Modeled on Gray & Reuter’s “Transactions Processing: Concepts & Techniques” • Also emulated the Oracle architecture • Added unique subsystems • Doublewrite • Insert buffering • Adaptive hash index • Designed to evolve with changing hardware & requirements
  • 6. InnoDB Architecture IO Buffer File Space Manager Transaction Handler API Embedded InnoDB API Cursor / Row Mini- transaction LockB-tree Page Server Applications
  • 7. InnoDB On Disk Format • InnoDB Database Files • InnoDB Tablespaces • InnoDB Pages / Extents • InnoDB Rows • InnoDB Indexes • InnoDB Logs • File Format Design Considerations
  • 8. InnoDB Database Files ibdata files Systemtablespace internal data dictionary MySQL Data Directory InnoDB tables OR innodb_file_per_table .ibd files .frm files undo logs insert buffer
  • 9. InnoDB Tablespaces • A tablespace consists of multiple files and/or raw disk partitions. file_name:file_size[:autoextend[:max:max_file_size]] • A file/partition is a collection of segments. • A segment consists of fixed-length pages. • The page size is always 16KB in uncompressed tablespaces, and 1KB-16KB in compressed tablespaces (for both data and index).
  • 10. System Tablespace • Internal Data Dictionary • Undo • Insert Buffer • Doublewrite Buffer • MySQL Replication Info
  • 11. InnoDB Tablespaces Extent Segment Extent Extent Extent an extent = 64 pages Extent Trx id Row Field 1 Roll pointer Field pointers Field 2 Field n Row Page Row Row Row Row Leaf node segment Tablespace Rollback segment Non-leaf node segment RowRow
  • 12. InnoDB Pages Symbol Value Notes FIL_PAGE_INODE 3 File segment inode FIL_PAGE_INDEX 17855 B-tree node FIL_PAGE_TYPE_BLOB 10 Uncompressed BLOB page FIL_PAGE_TYPE_ZBLOB 11 1st compressed BLOB page FIL_PAGE_TYPE_ZBLOB2 12 Subsequent compressed BLOB page FIL_PAGE_TYPE_SYS 6 System page FIL_PAGE_TYPE_TRX_SYS 7 Transaction system page others i-buf bitmap, I-buf free list, file space header, extent desp page, new allocated page InnoDB Page TypesInnoDB Page Types
  • 13. InnoDB Pages A page consists of: a page header, a page trailer, and a page body (rows or other contents). Page header Page trailer row offset array Row RowRow Row Row RowRow Row Row RowRow
  • 14. Page Declares typedef struct /* a space address */ { ulint pageno; /* page number within the file */ ulint boffset; /* byte offset within the page */ } fil_addr_t; typedef struct { ulint checksum; /* checksum of the page (since 4.0.14) */ ulint page_offset; /* page offset inside space */ fil_addr_t previous; /* offset or fil_addr_t */ fil_addr_t next; /* offset or fil_addr_t */ dulint page_lsn; /* lsn of the end of the newest modification log record to the page */ PAGE_TYPE page type; /* file page type */ dulint file_flush_lsn;/* the file has been flushed to disk at least up to this lsn */ int space_id; /* space id of the page */ char data[]; /* will grow */ ulint page_lsn; /* the last 4 bytes of page_lsn */ ulint checksum; /* page checksum, or checksum magic, or 0 */ } PAGE, *PAGE;
  • 15. InnoDB Compressed Pages •InnoDB keeps a “modification log” in each page •Updates & inserts of small records are written to the log w/o page reconstruction; deletes don’t even require uncompression •Log also tells InnoDB if the page will compress to fit page size •When log space runs out, InnoDB uncompresses the page, applies the changes and recompresses the page Page header modification log Page trailer page directory compressed data BLOB pointers empty space
  • 16. InnoDB Rows prefix(768B) …… overflow page COMACT formatCOMACT format Record hdr Trx ID Roll ptr Fld ptrs overflow-page ptr .. Field values overflow page … … DYNAMIC formatDYNAMIC format 20 bytes
  • 17. InnoDB Indexes - Primary ●Data rows are stored in the B-tree leaf nodes of a clustered index ●B-tree is organized by primary key or non-null unique key of table, if defined; else, an internal column with 6-byte ROW_ID is added. xxxxxxxxxxxx ---- nnnnnnnnnnnn001001001001 ---- 275275275275 276276276276 –––– 500500500500 clustered (primary key) index 501501501501 ---- 630630630630 631631631631 ---- 768768768768 769769769769 ---- 800800800800 801801801801 ---- 949949949949 950950950950 ---- xxxxxxxxxxxx 001001001001 –––– 500500500500 801801801801 –––– nnnnnnnnnnnn 500500500500 –––– 800800800800 PK valuesPK valuesPK valuesPK values 001001001001 ---- nnnnnnnnnnnn Key valuesKey valuesKey valuesKey values 501501501501----630630630630 + data for+ data for+ data for+ data for corresponding rowscorresponding rowscorresponding rowscorresponding rows …… Primary Index
  • 18. InnoDB Indexes - Secondary ● Secondary index B- tree leaf nodes contain, for each key value, the primary keys of the corresponding rows, used to access clustering index to obtain the data clustered (primary key) index clustered (primary key) index Secondary index PK valuesPK valuesPK valuesPK values 001001001001 ---- nnnnnnnnnnnn B-tree leaf nodes, containing data key valueskey valueskey valueskey values A ZA ZA ZA Z B-tree leaf nodes, containing PKs Secondary index key valueskey valueskey valueskey values A ZA ZA ZA Z B-tree leaf nodes, containing PKs Secondary Index
  • 19. DATA InnoDB Logging Rollback segments Log Buffer Buffer Pool redo log rollback Log File #1 Log File #2 log thread write thread log files ibdata files
  • 20. InnoDB Redo Log Redo log structure: Space id PageNo OpCode Data end of log min LSN start of log last checkpoint
  • 21. File Format Management • Builtin InnoDB format: “Antelope” • New “Barracuda” format enables compression,ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC • Fast index creation, other features do not require Barracuda file format • Builtin InnoDB can access “Antelope” databases, but not “Barracuda” databases • Check file format tag in system tablespace on startup • Enable a file format with new dynamic parameter innodb_file_format • Preserves ability to downgrade easily .ibd data files (file per table)
  • 22. InnoDB File Format Design Considerations • Durability • Logging, doublewrite, checksum; • Performance • Insert buffering, table compression • Efficiency • Dynamic row format, table compression • Compatibility • File format management
  • 23. Source Code Structure • 31 subdirectories • Relevant InnoDB source files on file formats • Tablespace: fsp0fsp {.c, .ic, .h} • Page: page0page, page0zip {.c, .ic, .h} • Log: log0log {.c, .ic, .h}
  • 24. Source Code Subdirectories • buf • data • db • dict • dyn • eval • fil • fsp • fut • ha • handler • ibuf • include • lock • log • math • mem • mtr • os • page • pars • que • read • rem • row • srv • sync • thr • trx • usr • ut
  • 25. Summary: Durability, Performance, Compatibility & Efficiency • InnoDB is the leading transactional storage engine for MySQL • InnoDB’s architecture is well-suited to modern, on- line transactional applications; as well as embedded applications. • InnoDB’s file format is designed for high durability, better performance, and easy to manage
  • 26. Q U E S T I O N SQ U E S T I O N S A N S W E R SA N S W E R S
  • 27. InnoDB Size Limits • Max # of tables: 4 G • Max size of a table: 32TB • Columns per table: 1000 • Max row size: n*4 GB • 8 kB if stored on the same page • n*4 GB with n BLOBs • Max key length: 3500 • Maximum tablespace size: 64 TB • Max # of concurrent trxs: 1023