Changing Life in Urban Society


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Changing Life in Urban Society

  1. 1. Changing Life in 19 century Europe
  2. 2. Social realities <ul><li>19 th century -rapid industrialization & urbanization (the social process whereby cities grow) </li></ul><ul><li>The western society once agrarian and rural was rushed forward toward urbanization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Focus
  4. 4. Urban growth, Vienna Urban growth, Vienna This 1873 chromolithograph by G. Veith gives a panoramic view of the Ringstrasse, a broad and handsome boulevard that had replaced the old ramparts of Vienna after they were pulled down in 1857. Within the Ring--which was lined with public buildings--lay the old city, clustered round the cathedral  of St. Stephen. (Museen der Stadt, Vienna) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Apartment living in Paris Apartment living in Paris This drawing shows how different social classes lived close together in European cities about 1850. Passing the middle-class family on the first floor of this Paris apartment, the economic condition of the tenants declined until one reached abject poverty in the garret. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Cities: Medieval vs. Industrial <ul><li>What was the difference in European cities in the middle ages & industrial age? </li></ul><ul><li>-congested, dirty, unhealthy (SAME) </li></ul><ul><li>City was normally walking city. </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL CITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Cities awful places to live? people poor lived in bad housing, bad sanitation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Industrial Cities
  8. 8. Conditions of industrial cities
  9. 9. Problems in Industrialized Cities
  10. 10. Dore engraving of London Dore engraving of London This engraving by the French artist Gustave Dore (1832-83, the most popular and successful French book illustrator of the mid-nineteenth century) depicts the overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in industrial London in the nineteenth century. Because municipal authorities were unable to cope with the rapid pace of urbanization, the working class was forced to live in dwellings such as these row houses, which did not have adequate sanitation or recreational facilities. (Courtesy, Dover Publications) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution.
  12. 12. Urban Planning& Public Transportation <ul><li>In Paris and other European cities urban planners demolished buildings and medieval walls to create wide boulevards/avenues and public parks. </li></ul><ul><li>A broad city street, often tree-lined and landscaped </li></ul><ul><li>Mass public transport, including electric streetcars, enabled city dwellers to live further from the city center, relieving overcrowding </li></ul>
  13. 13. Urban landscape, Madrid Urban landscape, Madrid This wistful painting of a square in Madrid on a rainy day, by Enrique Martinez Cubella y Ruiz (1874-1917), includes a revealing commentary on public transportation. Coachmen wait atop their expensive hackney cabs for a wealthy clientele, while modern electric streetcars that carry the masses converge on the square from all directions. (Museo Municipal, Madrid/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Paris lit up by electricity Paris lit up by electricity The electric light bulb was invented in the United States and Britain, but Paris made such extensive use of the new technology that it was nicknamed the &quot;City of Lights.&quot; To mark the Paris Exposition of 1900, the Eiffel Tower and all the surrounding buildings were illuminated with strings of light bulbs while powerful spotlights swept the sky. (Civica Raccolta delle Stampe Achille Bertarelli, Milanoi) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Premarital Sex & Illegitimate children
  16. 16. Illegitimate children
  17. 17. Prostitution
  18. 18. Prost.
  19. 19. Social Structure & Problems
  20. 20. The Urban Social Structure
  21. 21. Classes Working Classes Middle Classes Aristocracy
  22. 22. 1.Aristocracy 2.Middle Classes-> 3. Working Classes Upper Middle Lower Skilled Semi-Skilled Unskilled
  23. 23. Middle Classes <ul><li>Middle ranks included doctors, lawyers, and moderately successful bankers and industrialists. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower middle class included small business owners, salespeople, store managers, clerks, and other white-collar employees (workers whose work usually does not involve manual labor and who are often expected to dress with a degree of formality). </li></ul><ul><li>They were also united by a shared code of stylish behavior </li></ul>
  24. 24. THE WORKING CLASSES <ul><li>1.Skilled workers lived very different lives from the semiskilled and unskilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers’ income approached that of the lower middle classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers tended to embrace the middle-class moral code. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Semiskilled and 3.unskilled workers included many different occupations, from carpenters and bricklayers to street vendors, and domestic servants. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic servants were a large proportion of the population </li></ul>
  25. 25. Working-Class Leisure and Religion <ul><li>1. Working-class leisure included drinking in bars; watching sports, especially racing and soccer; and attending music hall performances. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Working-class church attendance declined in the nineteenth century </li></ul>
  26. 26. Working class home Working class home This charming engraving Sunday Morning, Workman's Home, Leather Lane depicts a new emphasis on emotional ties within ordinary working-class homes in 1875. Parents gave their children more love and better care. (Illustrated London News Library) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.