Erosion anddeposition   standardized test
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Erosion anddeposition standardized test

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    Erosion anddeposition   standardized test Erosion anddeposition standardized test Presentation Transcript

    • Erosion and Deposition - Changing Earth’s Surface Wearing Down and Building Up Weathering, erosion, and deposition act together in a cycle that wears down and builds up Earth’s surface.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Changing Earth’s Surface Mass Movement The different types of mass movement include landslides, mudflows, slump, and creep.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Changing Earth’s Surface Comparing and Contrasting As you read, compare and contrast the different types of mass movement by completing a table like the one below. Mass Movement Type of Mass Speed Slope Movement Landslide rapid steep Mudflow rapid gentle to steep Slump rapid steep Creep slow gentle to steep
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Runoff and Erosion Precipitation over the United States averages about 75 cm per year. About 22.5 cm becomes runoff. Generally, more runoff means more erosion.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Runoff and Erosion Water flowing across the land runs together to form rills, gullies, and streams.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Erosion by Rivers A waterfall forms where a flat layer of tough rock lies over a layer of softer rock that erodes easily. When the softer rock erodes, pieces of the harder rock above break off, creating the waterfall’s sharp drop.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Erosion by Rivers Erosion often forms meanders and oxbow lakes where a river winds across its floodplain.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Deposits by Rivers Deposition creates landforms such as alluvial fans and deltas.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion The Course of a River The slope and size of a river, as well as the sediment it carries, determine how a river shapes the land.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Groundwater Erosion Karst topography is found in many parts of the United States where the bedrock is made up of thick layers of limestone.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Groundwater Erosion Chemical weathering of limestone and groundwater erosion can create a limestone cave.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Water Erosion Previewing Visuals Before you read, preview Figure 10. Then write two questions you have about the illustration in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. The Course of a River Q. What features does a river produce by erosion? A. V-shaped valley, bluffs Q. What feature does a river produce by deposition? A. Delta
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water How Water Erodes Most sediment washes or falls into a river as a result of mass movement and runoff. Other sediment erodes from the bottom or sides of the river. Streams carry sediment in several ways, as shown in the diagram.
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Erosion and Sediment Load A river’s slope is usually greatest near the river’s source. As a river approaches its mouth, its slope lessens.
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move The speed, or velocity, of a stream affects the size of the sediment particles the stream can carry. Study the graph, then answer the following questions.
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move Reading Graphs: What variable is shown on the x-axis of the graph? Stream velocity
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move Reading Graphs: What variable is shown on the y-axis of the graph? Diameter of sediment particles
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move Interpreting Data: What is the speed at which a stream can move coarse sand? Small pebbles? Large boulders? About 50 cm/sec; about 90 cm/sec; about 800 cm/sec
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move Predicting: A stream’s speed increases to about 600 cm per second during a flood. What are the largest particles the stream can move? Small boulders
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Sediment on the Move Developing Hypotheses: Write a hypothesis that states the relationship between the speed of a stream and the size of sediment particles it can move. The faster the speed of the flowing water, the larger the particles the stream is able to move.
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Erosion and Sediment Load A river erodes sediment from its banks on the outside curve and deposits sediment on the inside curve.
    • Erosion and Deposition - The Force of Moving Water Building Vocabulary A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. Carefully read the definition of each Key Term and also read the neighboring sentences. Then write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Key Terms: Examples: load energy The amount of sediment that a or cause change. Energy is the ability to do work river carries is its load. friction potential energy Friction is the force that opposes the stored of one Potential energy is the energy that is motion and surface to be moves across another surface. waiting as it used later. turbulence kinetic energy Instead of moving the energy anthe water movesto its Kinetic energy is downstream, object has due ever which way in a type of movement called turbulence. motion. abrasion Abrasion is the wearing away of rock by a grinding action.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers How Glaciers Form and Move A continental glacier is a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers How Glaciers Form and Move During the last ice age, a continental glacier covered most of northern North America.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers How Glaciers Shape the Land As a glacier moves, plucking breaks pieces of bedrock from the ground.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers How Glaciers Shape the Land Erosion by glaciers can carve a mountain peak into a sharp horn and grind out a V-shaped valley to form a U-shaped valley.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers How Glaciers Shape the Land As glaciers advance and retreat, they sculpt the landscape by erosion and deposition.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Glaciers Asking Questions Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, how, or where question for each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions. Question Answer What kinds of glaciers are Valley glaciers and there? continental glaciers How do glaciers shape By erosion and deposition the land?
    • Erosion and Deposition - Waves Erosion by Waves Waves shape the coast through erosion by breaking down rock and transporting sand and other sediment.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Waves Erosion by Waves Erosion and deposition create a variety of features along a coast.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Waves Deposits by Waves Waves shape a coast when they deposit sediment, forming coastal features such as beaches, spits, and barrier beaches.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Waves Identifying Main Ideas As you read the section “Erosion by Waves,” write the main idea in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then write three supporting details that further explain the main idea. Main Idea Waves cause erosion by impact and by abrasion. Detail Detail Detail Energy in waves Sediment wears Landforms are breaks apart away rock. created. rocks.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Wind How Wind Causes Erosion Wind erosion moves sediment particles of different sizes in the three ways shown below.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Wind Wind Deposition Wind erosion and deposition may form sand dunes and loess deposits.
    • Erosion and Deposition - Wind Sequencing As you read, make a flowchart like the one below that shows the process of wind erosion and deposition. Write each step of the process in a separate box in the flowchart in the order in which it occurs. Wind Erosion Wind picks up smallest particles of sediment. Fine particles are carried through the air. Medium-sized particles skip and bounce. Larger particles slide or roll.
    • Erosion and Deposition Graphic Organizer Stream Formation Raindrops strike ground. Runoff forms. Rills form. Gullies form. Gullies join together. Stream forms.