Portugal Guided Inquiry Program 2008

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Apresentado por Ross Todd em Lisboa, 04.11.2008, como suporte a workshop

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Portugal Guided Inquiry Program 2008

  1. 1. Dr Ross J Todd Director, Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey cissl.scils.rutgers.edu [email_address] Guided Inquiry:  A Framework for Meaningful Research in the School Library
  2. 2. PROGRAM <ul><li>Learning and researching in the school library – what are the challenges? </li></ul><ul><li>What is guided inquiry? </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist foundations of inquiry learning </li></ul><ul><li>Research foundations: Information Search Process (Kuhlthau) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing and implementing inquiry learning in schools </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a school library? <ul><li>The school library is the school’s physical and virtual learning commons where literacy, inquiry, thinking, imagination, discovery, and creativity are central to students’ information-to-knowledge journey, and to their personal, social and cultural growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ban those “Bird” Units <ul><li>Many types of research assignments using library or web-based sources contribute little or nothing to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Very little evidence of building new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely guided and sustained throughout the research project </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely equip students with the range of information and technical competencies necessary to complete the task </li></ul><ul><li>Make very “low-level” use of the library </li></ul><ul><li> How do we design learning through the school library? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Typical Research Scenario <ul><li>Topic introduced in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook work is done </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher asks class to do project in library / using internet, and provides question sheet or worksheet for information (fact) collection </li></ul><ul><li>Students pick a ”bird” “dinosaur” to research </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian introduces students to a few resources and websites </li></ul><ul><li>Students copy information from sources on to their paper </li></ul><ul><li>Students report back to class or turn assignments in form grading </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Bird” units are generally a disaster <ul><li>Cut and paste information: COLLECT AND TRANSPORT information </li></ul><ul><li>Little TRANSFORMATION of information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on making a product rather demonstrating deep knowledge and understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Typically produce superficial descriptive knowledge </li></ul>
  7. 7. ” Get the material from the Net, I read it. Write down some good sentences, make a few changes and read through it again. Making my own, sort of! Then I think - Replace here and there. Pick certain words and make my own text by adding new words. I recognise the text if I read it several times. Use those expressions that fit in.” (Kris) ” I borrowed a book on sharks, picked out words from the book, from the text. I jotted these down in a little notebook as rough notes, then I rewrote it and then I painted a front page and then I put the whole thing into a booklet and the job was done.” (David) (Dr Louise Limberg, Sweden) Prof Louise Limberg Transformation of Text
  8. 8. Why do students transport text rather than transform text? <ul><li>It is rewarded: plagiarism is undetected </li></ul><ul><li>False notion that more facts = deep knowledge and deep understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Do not have the skills to do the task </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of assignments – no critical thinking required </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of product only </li></ul>
  9. 9. MEANINGFUL RESEARCH TASKS <ul><li>What do we want students to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Construct deep knowledge and deep understanding for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter alternative perspectives and conflicting ideas so that they are able to transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances </li></ul>
  10. 10. Great Minds at work? Building Effective Inquiry <ul><li>Learning habits </li></ul>
  11. 11. CISSL RESEARCH <ul><li>10 New Jersey public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced and expert school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse public schools </li></ul><ul><li>10 school librarians working on curriculum projects with 17 classroom teachers </li></ul><ul><li>574 students in Grades 6 – 12; range of disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with diverse range of resources / internet to present representation of knowledge of curriculum topics </li></ul><ul><li>Key question: Did they learn anything? What did the learning look like? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Changes in Knowledge <ul><li>Two distinctive approaches to knowledge construction: </li></ul><ul><li>-- Transport of text </li></ul><ul><li>-- Transformation of ideas </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Transport” Approach to Knowledge Construction <ul><li>Gathering facts, then more facts, then more facts </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpile of facts, even though facts were sorted, organized and grouped by end of task. </li></ul><ul><li>Remained on a descriptive level throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Limited intellectual engagement with the ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Surface knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Saw the collection of facts as the end of the research </li></ul>
  14. 14. Transform Approach to Knowledge Construction <ul><li>Initial: superficial sets of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Moved beyond gathering facts: </li></ul><ul><li>- building explanations </li></ul><ul><li>- address differences in information </li></ul><ul><li>- organizing facts in more coherent ways </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret information </li></ul><ul><li>Establish personal conclusions and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting facts was the beginning and not end </li></ul><ul><li>Facts were the basis for personal conclusions </li></ul>
  15. 16. Inquiry Learning <ul><li>An inquiry approach to learning is one where students actively engage with diverse and often conflicting sources of information and ideas to discover new ones, to build new understandings, and to develop personal viewpoints and perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>-------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>It is underpinned by stimulating encounters with information – encounters which capture their interest and attention, and which motivate and direct their ongoing inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION FOUDATION </li></ul>
  16. 17. Guided Inquiry <ul><li>Carefully planned, closely supervised, targeted intervention(s) of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that gradually lead towards deep knowledge and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Constuctivist approach to learning: staged, guided </li></ul><ul><li>Develops students’ competence with learning from a variety of sources; goal is deep knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students not abandoned in the research process </li></ul>
  17. 18. Constructivist Approach to Learning <ul><li>Key Principles: Dewey-Kelly-Brunner-Piaget-Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting on that experience </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn by building on what they already know </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop higher order thinking through guidance at critical points in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ development is structured and transformative: developing and transforming prior knowledge, skills, attitudes, values: conceptual change </li></ul><ul><li>STAGED : GUIDED : RELEVENT </li></ul><ul><li>Learning encompasses feelings and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn through social interaction with others </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Knowledge Dilemma
  19. 20. The Information Problem
  20. 21. Guided Inquiry <ul><li>The Information Foundation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Information-to-knowledge Experience </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Knowledge and Deep Understanding </li></ul>
  21. 22. Dr Carol Kuhlthau Qualitative exploration of search process of high school seniors (1983) Qualitative study of original sample after 4 years of college (1988) Longitudinal study (1988) Qualitative and quantitative study of high, middle and low achieving high school seniors (1989) Validation Study: 385 academic, public, and school library users in 21 sites (1989)
  22. 23. <ul><li>Information Search Process Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or </li></ul><ul><li>(affective) frustration direction/ disappointment </li></ul><ul><li> doubt confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts vague--------------------------------------------- -> focused </li></ul><ul><li>(cognitive) ----------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>increased interest </li></ul><ul><li>Actions seeking relevant information---------------------------- -> seeking pertinent information </li></ul><ul><li>(physical) exploring documenting </li></ul>Information-to-Knowledge Journey Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction GUIDED INQUIRY
  23. 24. Implementing G.I. Key Strategies <ul><li>Initiated though compelling situations which provide challenge and opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problems </li></ul><ul><li>Build background knowledge first </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise some choice over the specific questions they want to answer and how to present their new understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for sustained dialogue and feedback </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Information Search Process Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or </li></ul><ul><li>(affective) frustration direction/ disappointment </li></ul><ul><li> doubt confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts vague--------------------------------------------- -> focused </li></ul><ul><li>(cognitive) ----------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>increased interest </li></ul><ul><li>Actions seeking relevant information---------------------------- -> seeking pertinent information </li></ul><ul><li>(physical) exploring documenting </li></ul>Information-to-Knowledge Journey Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction GUIDED INQUIRY
  25. 26. ISP : INITIATION How Might I Intervene? <ul><li>Build engagement; develop curiosity and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Understand real world relevance and importance of the enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with the affective dimensions: doubt, uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Help with task organization, time, process and effort management; know when, where, and how to get help and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Understand knowledge requirements of task – quality of content </li></ul><ul><li>Establish existing / prior knowledge: build background knowledge (what I know about) </li></ul>
  26. 27. ISP : SELECTION How Might I Intervene? <ul><li>Choose and justify broad topics </li></ul><ul><li>Sources to build background knowledge: appropriateness & quality of sources - the are likely to be different sources to building deep knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology tools to seek, access & evaluate sources </li></ul><ul><li>Creative ways to takes students away from immediately collecting facts </li></ul><ul><li>Developing openness to new ideas, diverse perspectives </li></ul>
  27. 28. Building Background Knowledge Read View Listen Connect     I didn’t know that! Questions I have??? I agree / disagree I wonder …. D. Loertscher, C. Koechlin, S. Zwann. Ban Those Bird Units: 15 Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-Rich and Technology-Rich Environments. Salt Lake City UT: Hi Willow Research & Publishing, 2005, p. 45
  28. 29. INTERVENTIONS ISP : SELECTION & EXPLORATION D. Loertscher, C. Koechlin, S. Zwann. Ban Those Bird Units: 15 Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-Rich and Technology-Rich Environments. Salt Lake City UT: Hi Willow Research & Publishing, 2005, Explain your choice in your conference with your class teacher / teacher-librarian Rank your topics on a scale of 1 – 5 (1 = of little interest; 5 = very interesting) Circle your two most interesting topics 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Rank 1- 5 Negatives Positives Intriguing factors Topics of interest to me
  29. 30. INTERVENTIONS ISP : FORMULATION <ul><li>Developing the focus question(s) and formulating personal knowledge outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing the abstract / knowledge plan / statement of intention of the inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the structure of the inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Getting feedback on research plan, and proposed pertinent resources </li></ul>
  30. 31. Who are the early Jazz greats What is Jazz? How is Jazz different to my favourite music When did jazz begin Jazz jargon How is Jazz similar to my favourite music Why is Jazz an important music form What are important characteristics of Jazz Main Jazz instruments Jazz music / musicians I recognize / video clips /podcasts I like My feelings about Jazz What next? Questions I want to explore, and why
  31. 33. INTERVENTIONS ISP : COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION <ul><li>Analysis of sources for key ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring ideas into a coherent, integrated body of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of arguments and evidences, counter arguments and counter evidences </li></ul><ul><li>Forming evidence-based opinions / viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Develop conclusions & positions; posit actions, implications and solutions; reflect on these in terms of original knowing </li></ul><ul><li>Using ICT tools to construct appropriate representations of new knowledge </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Information Search Process Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or </li></ul><ul><li>(affective) frustration direction/ disappointment </li></ul><ul><li> doubt confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts vague--------------------------------------------- -> focused </li></ul><ul><li>(cognitive) ----------------------------------------------- -> </li></ul><ul><li>increased interest </li></ul><ul><li>Actions seeking relevant information---------------------------- -> seeking pertinent information </li></ul><ul><li>(physical) exploring documenting </li></ul>Information-to-Knowledge Journey Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction GUIDED INQUIRY
  33. 36. Hall of Fame Research “Greatness” <ul><li>Where/when born, died, lived </li></ul><ul><li>Education/Jobs/Career </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities that led to greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Awards/Commendations </li></ul><ul><li>Political offices held </li></ul><ul><li>Best remembered for what </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to NJ </li></ul>
  34. 37. Critical thinking and Deep Knowledge? <ul><li>Walt Whitman (Camden) Considered by many to be the most influential poet in U.S. history </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Class blog: personal viewpoint on greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Creative writing: My dream of greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing writing on class wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Class blog: synthesis of responses: what seems to be the idea of “greatness” in the class </li></ul><ul><li>Matching personal dreams with NJ database: search skills </li></ul><ul><li>Building background knowledge: life and times of people of interest; selecting focus </li></ul><ul><li>Creative knowledge building interventions: putting ideas together; Using variety of analytical methods; Forming evidence-based opinions / viewpoints; Developing conclusions & positions; positing actions, implications and solutions; reflecting on these in terms of original knowing </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki to share final products: group review and reflection </li></ul>Instructional Interventions
  36. 39. Lonely, Nervous, Brave, Determined, Sassy Daughter of parents who filled their house with music Music must have filled her loneliness when her father died Moved to New York for a better life. Who loved the night magic of Harlem, Who loved the celebrities and begging for autographs with her friends Who really loved singing and scatting Who loved her Aunt that took care of her as a child. Who felt loss, when her mother died Who felt anger when she was put in an orphanage Who felt trapped in those walls but they couldn’t keep her down because she felt the pull of her song and the night magic of Harlem. Who felt nervous and fear at auditions Who feared not being able to sing because she had no one to care for her Who feared dying from diabetes and possibly going blind, Who feared whom she would pass her singing crown down to Who wanted to see someone take over her singing crown Who would have liked to have spent more time with her late parents Who wanted to work with the best bands Who changed the world of jazz and swing Who was very proud of her awards and achievements She was “The First Lady Of Song”; she was “Sassy” and a Legend of Jazz Born in Virginia, grew up in New York, adopted by the world. Ella was great Fitzgerald Ella
  37. 40. A TIME OF BOLD ACTION <ul><li>“ Upon this gifted age, in its dark hour </li></ul><ul><li>Rains from the sky a meteoric shower </li></ul><ul><li>Of facts, they lie unquestioned, uncombined. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom enough to leech us of our ill </li></ul><ul><li>Is daily spun, but there exists no loom </li></ul><ul><li>To weave it into fabric. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Edna St Vincent Millay 1892-1950 </li></ul>

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