Direitos dos animais versus direitos a diversidade cultural e ao património intangivel onu
ONU Não existe nenhuma Declaração nem Convenção sobre os Direitos dos Animais aprovada pela ONU . O que se designa Declaração Universal dos Direitos dos Animais é um texto aprovado noutra sede. Ver aqui http://jose.kersten.free.fr/aap/pages/uk/UDAR_uk.html The text of the UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF ANIMAL RIGHTS has been adopted from the International League of Animal Rights and Affiliated National Leagues in the course of an International Meeting on Animal Rights which took place in London from 21st to 23rd September 1977 Encontrei referência a uma aprovação pela Unesco em 1989, mas tal documento não consta no website da Unesco nem no da ONU. Esta afirmação está num site de uma organização de defesa dos direitos dos animais, mas não consegui comprová-la na suposta fonte oficial: The Universal Declaration of Animal Rights was solemnly proclaimed in Paris on 15 October 1978 at the UNESCO headquarters. The text, revised by the International League of Animal Rights in 1989, was submitted to the UNESCO Director General in 1990 and made public that same year. Por outro lado, há diversas Convenções relacionadas com a diversidade cultural (humana) e a herança cultural intangível (património imaterial), que constam do website da Unesco. Estas nunca podem contrarias outras convenções ou tratados internacionais (caso da Declaração Universal dos Direitos da Humanidade, aprovada em 1948: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/UnescoConvention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003, ratificada por Portugalem 21/05/2008 . http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=17716&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Article 3 – Relationship to other international instruments Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as: (a) altering the status or diminishing the level of protection under the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of World Heritage properties with which an item of the intangible cultural heritage is directly associated; or (b) affecting the rights and obligations of States Parties deriving from any international instrument relating to intellectual property rights or to the use of biological and ecological resources to which they are parties. Article 15 – Participation of communities, groups and individuals Within the framework of its safeguarding activities of the intangible cultural heritage, each State Party shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of communities, groups and, where appropriate, individuals that create, maintain and transmit such heritage, and to involve them actively in its managementConvention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005 –em vigor desde 2007, ratificada por Portugal em 16/03/2007 http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31038&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Article 2 – Guiding principles
3.Principle of equal dignity of and respect for all cultures The protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions presuppose the recognition of equal dignity of and respect for all cultures, including the cultures of persons belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples. Article 20 – Relationship to other treaties: mutual supportiveness, complementarity and non-subordination 1. Parties recognize that they shall perform in good faith their obligations under this Convention and all other treaties to which they are parties. Accordingly, without subordinating this Convention to any other treaty, (a) they shall foster mutual supportiveness between this Convention and the other treaties to which they are parties; and (b) when interpreting and applying the other treaties to which they are parties or when entering into other international obligations, Parties shall take into account the relevant provisions of this Convention. 2. Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as modifying rights and obligations of the Parties under any other treaties to which they are parties.Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, 19 October 2005http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31058&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Article 12 – Respect for cultural diversity and pluralism The importance of cultural diversity and pluralism should be given due regard. However, such considerations are not to be invoked to infringe upon human dignity, human rights and fundamental freedoms, nor upon the principles set out in this Declaration, nor to limit their scope.UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 2 November 2001http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13179&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS Article 4 – Human rights as guarantees of cultural diversity The defence of cultural diversity is an ethical imperative, inseparable from respect for human dignity. It implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the rights of persons belonging to minorities and those of indigenous peoples. No one may invoke cultural diversity to infringe upon human rights guaranteed by international law, nor to limit their scope. Article 5 – Cultural rights as an enabling environment for cultural diversity Cultural rights are an integral part of human rights, which are universal, indivisible and interdependent. The flourishing of creative diversity requires the full implementation of cultural rights as defined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in
Articles 13 and 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.All persons have therefore the right to express themselves and to create and disseminatetheir work in the language of their choice, and particularly in their mother tongue; allpersons are entitled to quality education and training that fully respect their cultural identity;and all persons have the right to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conducttheir own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.