Aula 3 deriv. vs. infl morphs, affixes, grammatical morphemes, content and function words
•Root + Derivational Morpheme a new word with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class)create new words, listed in the dictionary (ex)happy vs. Happiness;•not required by syntax•not very productive(ex) dis-like, *dis-hate (ungrammatical)•in English, can be prefixes or suffixes
•Root + Derivational Morpheme a new word with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class)change the part of speech or the meaning of a word;(ex) part-of-speech: us-able (Verb Adj),trouble-some (N Adj), happi-ness (Adj N),judg-ment (VN), symbol-ize (NV),happi-ly (Adj Adv)(ex) meaning:anti-feminist, dis-comfort, ex-boyfriend,bi-sexual(ex) both: use-less (VAdj)
• Inflectional morphemes have grammatical meaning or function in the sentence. do not change meaning or part of speech, just add extra grammatical information not listed in the dictionary in English, only suffixes Ex: Bound morphemes s (PLU, GEN) shoe, shoes, shoe’s nouns• Other example• Bound Morpheme ‘to’ in connection with a verb (‘ an infinitive with to’)• Bound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -ed• He sails the ocean blue.• He sailed the ocean blue.
• -s third- person singular • She waits at home. present • She waited at home.• -ed past tense • She is eating the donuts.• -ing • Mary has eaten the donuts. progressive • She ate the donuts.• -en past • Lisa’s hair is short. participle • Lisa has shorter hair than Kate.• -s plural • Lisa has the shortest hair.• -’s possessive• -er comparative• -est superlative
Derivational Inflectional further from position closer to stem stemproductive?* (often) no (usually) yes (often) meaning? predictable unpredictable *Productivity = the extent to which a word-formation rule can be applied to new morphemes, to form new words;
• Affix: a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme.• Note: An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone.• Examples: -ful, -ly, -ity, -ness. A few exceptions are able, like, and less.
• Prefix: an affix that comes before a base morpheme. The in in the word inspect is a prefix.• Suffix: an affix that comes after a base morpheme. The s in cats is a suffix.
Prefixes SuffixesBound morphemes which occur Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes. following other morphemes.Examples: Examples: un- (uncover, undo) -er (singer, performer) dis- (displeased, disconnect), -ist (typist, pianist) pre- (predetermine, prejudge) -ly (manly, friendly)
• What is the difference in meaning between apple and apples?• What is the difference in form?• What does this tell you about these two words?
• Words can have an internal structure much like the syntax of phrases.• Morphemes such as the, -s, and re- near the grammatical end of the continuum are called grammatical morphemes.• Note that grammatical morphemes include forms that we can consider to be words like the, a, and, and of and others that make up parts of words like –s and -ed.• Examples. pencils walked
• Content words denote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideas noun, verb, adjective, adverb• Content words are open class words new words can be added• Example of new words : Steganography the art of hiding information in electronic text
• Function words express Grammatical Functions e.g., preposition, article, conjunctions, pro nouns• Function words connect the content words to the larger grammatical context.• Function words are also called ‘closed class’ words no new words added to this class.