Term Report: Barriers to Communication and it effects on New Product Launches

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Submitted to Samra Javaid, Faculty Interpersonal Communication Skills, IoBM

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  • 1. Barriers to Communication Insight:Communication Flaws leading to fail Product Launches Term Research Report Presented to Mrs. Samra Javaid Interpersonal Communication Skills By Zeeshan Valliani (12543) MBA Executive
  • 2. Barriers to Communication January 4th, 2012CONTENTSCONTENTS................................................................................................................................. 2ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................................. 5 Letter of Acknowledgment................................................................................................... 5 Letter of Transmittal............................................................................................................. 6EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................. 7Communication has gained prime importance in today’s world. Its scope begins fromindividual level and goes up to organizational level where distorted messages could lead tolawsuits and tension of serious nature. Realizing the importance of communication there isno professional program where communication is not being formally taught. Its importanceeven increases where diversification is involved either in terms of business areas or globalwork force. Even effective communication plays a vital role in the success of failure of aproduct in the market. There are numerous examples where best product failed to besuccessful due to bad or misleading communication. The following report discusses thebarriers in communication which may distort the message and provides recommendationsthat may help in resolving these barriers in effective communication. .................................... 7Cost of miscommunication could be very high to the organization. A misunderstood messageto a regulatory authority or distorted / unclear details to the taxation department may beproven a serious threat to the organization. There should be a defined procedure for internaland external communication in the organization and every employee must be trained onprocedure................................................................................................................................. 7Common barriers on the sender’s part which may distort the message and create problemsin complete understanding may include ambiguous language, encoding message withoutconsidering intellect level and perception of the receiver, employing inappropriatecommunication mode and channel, poor linguistic command and under or over estimatingthe importance of message. Even the expressions and body language plays a great role insuccessful communication........................................................................................................ 7While on the receivers end there could be same or various other barriers that could bethreatening to the true delivery of intended message. Some of the common barriers include;divided or undue attention, poor listening or reading skills, language problem, culturaldifferences or bias, mood, emotions, background and semantic noises etc. ...........................7There are ways and techniques that may be employed to overcome barriers and makecommunication process suave and effective. The first and foremost way is to recheck themessage before sending it with a critical eye either it’s a written or oral message. Fororganizational communication there should be a written and approved procedure and policyfor internal and external communication which must include reviewing of critical messagesby superiors once they are written before sending. Where public or media communication isinvolved as in product launches a formal communication model must be designed in order to 2
  • 3. Barriers to Communicationmake it a success keeping in view the target audience and their requirements andexpectations............................................................................................................................. 7There are some other techniques too that may be employed for verbal and oral messagesand must be considered by teachers and public speakers in order to avoid beingmisunderstood by the audience. These include proper body language with right expressionsand posture. Right volume, tone and level of voice is also important. .....................................7BACKGROUND........................................................................................................................... 8OBJECTIVES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS...................................................................................... 9COST OF INEFFICIENT COMMUNICATION............................................................................... 10INSIGHT: COMMUNICATION FLAWS LEADING TO PRODUCT LAUNCH FAILURES ...................11POTENTIAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS......................................................................................... 12 Ambiguity............................................................................................................................ 12 Selective Attention and Context......................................................................................... 12 Perceptions......................................................................................................................... 12BARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION............................................................................ 13 Differences in perception.................................................................................................... 13 Unseemly Filtering ............................................................................................................. 13 Language difficulties .......................................................................................................... 13 Poor Listening .................................................................................................................... 13 Emotions and Moods ......................................................................................................... 13 Differing Backgrounds ........................................................................................................ 14 Cultural Background and Bias ............................................................................................ 14 Noise................................................................................................................................... 14 Ourselves ........................................................................................................................... 14 Message ............................................................................................................................. 14 Environmental Distractions................................................................................................. 14 Oppressing.......................................................................................................................... 15 3
  • 4. Barriers to Communication Stress .................................................................................................................................. 15HOW TO OVERCOME THE BARRIERS....................................................................................... 16 Using Your Body Language ................................................................................................. 16 Some areas to consider while presenting business presentations include: ........................16 Building Relationship using Eye Contact............................................................................. 17 Enhancing Voice Quality..................................................................................................... 18 Voice Component............................................................................................................... 18 Recommendations.............................................................................................................. 18 Articulation......................................................................................................................... 18 Sloppy Articulation.......................................................................................................... 18 Pitch Problems................................................................................................................ 18 Inflection problems......................................................................................................... 19CASE STUDY............................................................................................................................ 20 Strategies I Pursued for Effective Listening......................................................................... 20CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................... 20RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................................................. 21REFERENCES............................................................................................................................ 22 4
  • 5. Barriers to CommunicationACKNOWLEDGEMENTSLetter of AcknowledgmentJanuary 4th, 2012Dear ReadersI am thankful to Almighty God for giving me the strength and capability to complete thisreport on “Barriers to Communication.”I would like to thank the course instructor of Interpersonal Communication Skills Mrs. SamraJavaid for putting in all the hard work in this course to make it a memorable experience for allof us. We appreciate her guidance and shall appreciate the valuable feedback on this report.Sincerely,Zeeshan VallianiInterpersonal Communication Skills2011-3-07-12543 5
  • 6. Barriers to CommunicationLetter of TransmittalJanuary 4th, 2012Mrs. Samra JavaidLecturer Interpersonal Communication SkillsInstitute of Business ManagementDear Ms. Javaid,Presented is my report on “Barriers to Communication.” The project involved secondaryresearch on communicational barriers and is prepared according to the guidelines providedduring the semester.I would like to thank you for providing the guidelines & suggestions which enabled me tocomplete this report as my final project. I have worked vigorously on this project to bring youthe accurate and reliable results.Sincerely,Zeeshan VallianiInstitute of Business Management2011-3-07-12543 6
  • 7. Barriers to CommunicationEXECUTIVE SUMMARYCommunication has gained prime importance in today’s world. Its scope begins from individual level and goes up to organizational level where distorted messages could lead to lawsuits and tension of serious nature. Realizing the importance of communication there is no professional program where communication is not being formally taught. Its importance even increases where diversification is involved either in terms of business areas or global work force. Even effective communication plays a vital role in the success of failure of a product in the market. There are numerous examples where best product failed to be successful due to bad or misleading communication. The following report discusses the barriers in communication which may distort the message and provides recommendations that may help in resolving these barriers in effective communication.Cost of miscommunication could be very high to the organization. A misunderstood message to a regulatory authority or distorted / unclear details to the taxation department may be proven a serious threat to the organization. There should be a defined procedure for internal and external communication in the organization and every employee must be trained on procedure.Common barriers on the sender’s part which may distort the message and create problems in complete understanding may include ambiguous language, encoding message without considering intellect level and perception of the receiver, employing inappropriate communication mode and channel, poor linguistic command and under or over estimating the importance of message. Even the expressions and body language plays a great role in successful communication.While on the receivers end there could be same or various other barriers that could be threatening to the true delivery of intended message. Some of the common barriers include; divided or undue attention, poor listening or reading skills, language problem, cultural differences or bias, mood, emotions, background and semantic noises etc.There are ways and techniques that may be employed to overcome barriers and make communication process suave and effective. The first and foremost way is to recheck the message before sending it with a critical eye either it’s a written or oral message. For organizational communication there should be a written and approved procedure and policy for internal and external communication which must include reviewing of critical messages by superiors once they are written before sending. Where public or media communication is involved as in product launches a formal communication model must be designed in order to make it a success keeping in view the target audience and their requirements and expectations.There are some other techniques too that may be employed for verbal and oral messages and must be considered by teachers and public speakers in order to avoid being misunderstood by the audience. These include proper body language with right expressions and posture. Right volume, tone and level of voice is also important. 7
  • 8. Barriers to CommunicationBACKGROUNDEffective communication is a key in today’s fast paced lifestyle where money is important. Itbegins at the individual level that helps to navigate through the innovation-decision processand involves both cooperative construction and exchange of ideas.As the business world becomes more global and companies are striving for diversification,Difficulty in communication can cause great frustration from reduced self-esteem to reducedemployee potential. When the communication barriers are addressed and broken down, theindividual experience less frustration, gains self-confidence, and make effectivecommunication, which lead to increased work productivity, motivation and lower employeeturnover that can ultimately results in Corporate Profits. 8
  • 9. Barriers to CommunicationOBJECTIVES & RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe Purpose of this secondary research report was to identify the methods to overcome thebarriers to communication and develop and implement strategies through recommendations toreduce these barriers. The research focused on methods to enhance the ability to communicateeffectively by reducing the barriers.The research provides answers to the following questions: 1. Identification of common barriers for effective communication? 2. What are the root cause barriers to effective communication? 3. How ineffective communications affect corporate profits? 4. How communication flaws affect new product launches? 5. How to overcome communication flaws while launching new products? 6. How to overcome organizational barriers? 7. Which methods of overcoming communication barriers are effective?The process used to answer these questions involved review of several research journals,magazines, newspapers through sources such as libraries, online databases and the internet.The results of the research identified several communicational barriers. As a result of thesefindings, recommendations were made to overcome communicational barriers. A specialinsight is provided with the research on how communicational flaws affect business and newproduct launches. 9
  • 10. Barriers to CommunicationCOST OF INEFFICIENT COMMUNICATIONA company or organization can suffer huge and substantial monetary losses if thecommunication ideas or instructions are miscommunicated. We can understand them bytaking a look at the following examples:First, suppose we have a work team working on a very important project and hence they meetfive times a week. If there will be communication barriers then these meetings would takemore time than they should, costing the company in the form of wages and salaries wasted.Time is wasted and time is money.Second, suppose we have an employee who is very sufficient and has extensive knowledge ofcompany’s standard operating procedures but however due to communicational barrier wedidn’t passed them through a promotional position which cost the company tremendous inform of recruitment and retraining someone from outside when this ideal worker could betrained to improve his/her communication.Third, Thousands of rupees could be lost due to a misunderstanding of “fifteen thousand”versus “fifty thousand!”Finally, What if the idea is never be implemented? Because of the communication barriers,the employee’s full talent is not being exploited. 10
  • 11. Barriers to CommunicationINSIGHT: COMMUNICATION FLAWS LEADING TO PRODUCT LAUNCH FAILURESIn todays always on, social media integrated world, its much tougher to develop and launch anew product than even a few years ago. When we think of global Fortune 500 companies likeMicrosoft, Procter & Gamble, and Coca-Cola, perhaps the last word that comes to mind is the“F” word – failure. Authors Joan Schneider and Julie Hall, owners of Schneider Associates, acompany that specializes in products launches explain why even the best of companiesexperience failure in their article, “Why Most Product Launches Fail,” in the April 2011 issueof Harvard Business Review. Schneider and Hall profile product launch failures from fivecompanies, from the infamous to the unknown, and offer a list of 40 common reasons whyproduct launches fail in “40 Ways to Crash a Launch,” available at hbr.org.According to the Joan Schneider and Julie Hall the reasons most new product launches fail isalso due to the communication flawsCommunication Flaw 1: The product falls short of claims and gets failedThe Lesson: Don’t make false claimsWhen Microsoft launches Windows Vista in 2007, the media and public had highexpectations and hence the company allocated $500 million for marketing. But the softwarefailed and had so many problems that even Microsoft’s most loyal customers revolted frombuying the new Windows. Vista flopped and Apple emerges with its own operating system “Iam Mac”.If Vista were launched today, the outcome might be even worse due to the existence ofnegative feedback on social media pages.Communication Flaw 2: The product defines a new category and requires substantialcustomer education – but doesn’t get itThe Lesson: Customers won’t buy the product if they can’t grasp how to use itIn 2004, Procter & Gamble launched a scent “player” that looked like a CD player in theUnited States. The company hired singer Shania Twain for its launch commercials. Thisconfused the consumers, many of whom had thought that this new player involved both musicand scents and the ambiguity caused this new product to fail.When product is truly revolutionary, celebrity commercials may do more harm than good.The strong educational campaign may be a better way to go.Managers must learn to engage the brand team, marketing, sales, advertising, public relationsand web professionals earlier to have their say that can steer a launch. 11
  • 12. Barriers to CommunicationPOTENTIAL MISUNDERSTANDINGSAmbiguityThere is often ambiguity that results in miscommunication, it occurred due to continueduncertainty, or lack of interest that leads to it. Traditionally, communication refers to theprocess of transmitting information from a sender to receiver. It is a basic model wherepeople understand each other by encoding and decoding messages. However, communicationresearchers have made a different model, called the inferential model, which acknowledgesthat a speaker’s intended meaning cannot be entirely understood and that ambiguity exists dueto misunderstandings. 4 Sillars (2002) defined misunderstanding as “intentions, meanings,thoughts or feelings” that are different from what that is intended by the speaker in a two wayprocess. There are multiple factors that contribute to miscommunication due to sharedlanguage rules. As a result, there is always some degree of ambiguity that requires inferencewhen interpreting messages.Selective Attention and ContextSelective Attention can also result in Misunderstandings. People tend to be selective aboutwhat they hear due to multiple reasons mainly to reduce their mental stimuli to the pointwhere it’s easy for them to process information; the consequence is that it also createspotential to pay attention to different signals. People are more likely to pay attention tomessages about scientific findings if they perceive the messages to be relevant to their goalsor needs and will make their life easier.PerceptionsPerception is also significant in determining the outcome of communicational events. Theseperceptions refer to individuals who interpret messages to provide order and meaning to theirenvironments (Bowditch and Buono 2005). Humans have a natural tendency for longestablished perceptions to entrenched, which means they often hear what they expect to hearrather than what the speaker conveys. This is especially true when they are stereotypes andmake their opinion based on the stereotyping and profiling.Furthermore, people can be encouraged to maintain imprecise impressions despiteunambiguous information that contradicts these impressions (Sillars and Vangelisti2006). For example, people tend to interpret information so it is corresponding with existingbeliefs and attitudes because hearing messages that are incompatible with can lead toemotional dissonance, or internal conflict, which is troubling (Rogers 1995). By hearing whatthey want and expect to hear, people can protect their worldviews and identities and reducestress. 12
  • 13. Barriers to CommunicationBARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONCommunication is not tantamount with talking to other people to accept others point of view.Regardless of how well a sender expresses him or herself, the receiver will not always agreewith the sender. When sender sends a message with the intent to communicate meaning, themessage itself doesn’t contain any meaning. Here are barriers: Differences in perceptionAs we discussed in the previous section that difference in perceptions is one of the major rootcauses of miscommunication. Our minds organize stream of sensation inlay mental maps thatrepresents our perception. As we view the world, our mind absorbs our experiences in adistinctive and different way. Because our perception is distinctive, the ideas we expressdiffer from other people. Even when two people have experienced the same event, theirmental pictures of that event may not be identical. As senders, we select the details that seemimportant and relevant to our attention. As receivers, we try to fit it every new details into ourexisting pattern that distort the information rather rearrange the pattern. Unseemly FilteringFiltering is leaking the information out to someone else. In offices, many secretaries,assistants, receptionists, guards etc. play the role of filtering by screening out or leaking theinformation before it is conveyed by you to the receiver. To overcome filtering barriers, try toestablish more than one communication channel and eliminate intermediaries as possible. Language difficultiesWhen we start talking and encode our message to the receiver, we signal that we are amember of a particular culture or subculture and that we know the code. Language imposesits own barriers because words can have more than one meaning. To overcome languagebarriers, use specific words, avoid using jargons and be clear.Poor ListeningPerhaps the most common barrier to effective communication is simply a lack of attention onthe receiver’s front. People avoid information when they are forced to listen to something thatthey don’t want to hear. To overcome listening barriers, paraphrase what you haveunderstood, try to view the situation through the eyes of other speakers and resist jumping tothe conclusions.Emotions and MoodsEvery message contains a content meaning and a relationship meaning. We often have to dealwith people when they are upset or when we are. An upset person tends to ignore or distortwhat the other person is saying and vulnerable to present feelings and ideas effectively. Toovercome emotional barriers, be aware of the feelings that arise in you and in others as youtalk, and attempt to regulate them. 13
  • 14. Barriers to Communication Differing BackgroundsAge, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament,health, popularity, religion, even a passing mood are individual backgrounds that separate oneperson from another and make understanding difficult. To overcome the barriers associatedwith differing backgrounds, avoid projecting your own background or culture onto others.Clarify your own and understand the background of others, spheres of knowledge,personalities and perceptions and don’t assume that certain behaviors mean the same thing toeveryone. Cultural Background and BiasCultural Background biases are one of the hardest communication barriers to overcome.When receiver’s life experiences differ substantially from speaker, communication becomesmore difficult. We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. Ourculture, background, and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences tounderstand something new, it is when they change the meaning of the message then theyinterfere with the communication process. To overcome the barriers associated with differingbackgrounds, avoid projecting your own background or culture onto others. Clarify your ownand understand other’s backgrounds, spheres of knowledge, personalities and perceptions. NoiseNoise of any type, either from environment or equipment impedes clear communication. Thesender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to eachother. Noise is any interference in the communication process that distorts or obscures thesender’s meaning and such communication barriers can exist between people and withinorganizations.OurselvesTo remain the center of the attraction we often focus on ourselves, rather than the speaker thatleads to confusion and conflict. The “Me Generation” is out when it comes to effectivecommunication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone isattacking us), superiority (we feel we know more than the other), and ego (we feel we areimportant). MessageEducational institutions unfortunately reinforce facts rather than the idea with tests andquestions that results in semantic distractions which occur when a word is used differentlythan you prefer. For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson may cause you tofocus on the word and not the message. Environmental DistractionsSudden entrance, Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus alsoprovides a potential for environmental distraction. 14
  • 15. Barriers to Communication OppressingWe take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Not true! Toooften we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware ofthe facts. StressPeople don’t understand and see things the way when they are under stress. They see andbelieve things based on their psychological frames of references which include beliefs,morals, understanding, proficiencies and goals. 15
  • 16. Barriers to CommunicationHOW TO OVERCOME THE BARRIERSUsing Your Body LanguageEffective communication is more than just talking to your audience. Your body languageplays an important part in communication. Body language including proximity and eyecontact are the three main areas to emphasis upon in nonverbal communication. It is said that“It’s not what you say, but how you say it matters the most”.Some areas to consider while presenting business presentations include:• Facial Expressions: Facial expressions like smiling often convey friendliness, warmth, and approachability. Smiling is often contagious and others will react favorably. The audience will be more comfortable around you and more open to the information you are presenting.• Posture: Importance of your message is conveyed by the way you hold yourself while presenting. A person who is slouching or leaning with arms across their chest may be perceived as being uninterested or unapproachable. On the other hand, standing erect, facing the audience with an open stance, and leaning forward conveys that you are receptive and friendly. Similarly, speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest and display lack of confidence.• Gestures: If energetic style for speaking is adopted, it will capture attention, makes the material more interesting, and facilitates understanding. Use of the natural movements to emphasize topics, for example, free, easy arm and hand movements add personality to your presentation. Consequently, if you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring and unexciting. Using gestures too often can also be a distraction for some audience.• Movement: Moving naturally around the audience increases interaction, adds interest, and draws attention to the presenter. Staying frozen in the front of the audience can be distracting and boring for people to watch. Similarly, shuffling feet, moving to and fro and pacing can convey nervousness and lack of confidence.• Proximity: Considering the cultural norms are also very important as it dictates a comfortable distance for interaction with others. When interacting with adults, a presenter needs to be aware of people’s defined levels of personal space. Discomfort is caused when you invade other’s space for example, by rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion. You should not invade a student’s intimate space. Further, most adults also feels uncomfortable, even if rapport has been established. 16
  • 17. Barriers to CommunicationBuilding Relationship using Eye ContactNormally eye contact helps to control the flow of communication. It also encouragesparticipation and can be used to develop relationship with the audience. When audience feelsthat the presenter is communicating with them as individuals, they are more likely to trust thepresenter and be more open to the learning experience.Certain tips for using eye contact to build relationship include:• Length of Eye Contact: Maintain eye contact with one person at a time for small interval for example at least 3 – 5 seconds or until you deliver a thought. This often establishes a connection with audience and helps the presenter to avoid darting eyes, which can be distracting and transmits nervousness.• Movement of Eyes: Presenter should make direct eye contact towards different parts of the audience throughout the course of the presentation. Staring for too long in one direction may cause certain audience members feel less important and distracts them from the presenter.• Search for Friendly Eyes: It is very helpful to remember that if you are feeling nervous during a presentation, you should look for a friendly person in the audience and establish eye contact with that person. Gradually, it will help to establish eye contact with other people in the audience.Certain habits to avoid include:• Talking to the Ceiling: Never lecture at a spot over the top of the student’s heads. This conveys negative perception that you don’t care and they may feel that you are “above them.”• Talking to the Board: Never lecture to your desk, to the whiteboard, or to your visuals. This may create distortion as the audience may not be able to hear you and may become disinterested.• Clutching Your Notes: Try to be familiar with the content and material of the presentation. Tied to the notes or a manual keeps you from establishing steady eye contact. This may also cause students to question your knowledge, preparedness, and confidence. 17
  • 18. Barriers to CommunicationEnhancing Voice QualityVoice is an important tool that can be used in communication to affect the quality of learningin a presentation. An energetic and audible voice will engage students, while monotone voicecan cause boredom or disinterest amongst the audience. It is most difficult to listen to andchange our own voice that suits for the presentation; however, with awareness and practice, itis possible to improvise and use voice effectively. To refine your voice, the first step is tounderstand the different components of your voice and identify common voice problems.After identification, the second step involves altering some habits, and practicing newbehaviors on a regular basis, by which most of the voice problems can be improved.Voice Component RecommendationsPace Continuously talking too fast or too slowHow long a sound lasts. Talking too • Be aware of your normal conversationalfast causes words and syllables to be pace and keep in mind how tension affectsshort while talking slowly lengthens the speed in which you talk.them. Varying pace helps to • Use breathing and natural pauses to slowmaintain the audience’s interest. down your pace • Constantly vary your pace in order to maintain audience interest.Projection Problems with ProjectionThe direction of the voice so that it • Avoid projecting from your throat whichcan be plainly heard at a distance. can lead to sore throats, coughing, andProblems with projection are often loss of your voice.the result of tension, breathiness, • Take slow, deep breaths, initiated fromand breathing from your throat. your abdomen • Open your mouth fully and speak to the people in the back of the room.Articulation Sloppy ArticulationThe ability to pronounce words • Speak at a slower pace than your normaldistinctly. It often reflects our conversational tone.attitude towards the words we are • Take the time to pronounce each letter orspeaking. Clear enunciation reflects sound within a word.self-confidence and interest, while • Listen for common articulation problems,slurred or mumbled speech indicates such as dropping the “g” at the end ofinsecurity or indifference. words such as finding or going.Pitch Pitch ProblemsThe normal range of the voice – its • Adjust pitch to convey different meaningshighness or lowness. Think Pee Wee 18
  • 19. Barriers to CommunicationHerman for high and James Earl throughout a presentation.Jones for low. Everyone is capable • To alter pitch, control your breathing;of a wide voice range. Stress and breathe from your abdomen and slow yourpoor breathing can greatly alter the rate of speech.pitch of your voice. • Take pauses to relax between pitch changesInflection Inflection problemsThe manner in which pitch varies as • Use upward and downward inflectionswe speak. Inflection serves as verbal appropriately.punctuation and involves changing • Avoid constant middle inflection wherepitch to convey meaning. Upward the voice neither rises nor falls but justinflections ask a question, suggest drones on and on.uncertainty or doubt, andcommunicate hesitancy. Downwardinflections give information andconvey strength and authority to theaudience. 19
  • 20. Barriers to CommunicationCASE STUDYThink of a time when you were a poor listener. What were the barriers to Listening?Now, that you are familiar with the strategies, how could you be the better listener nexttimeWhen I was a kid I had very bad listening skills. I completed my early education from aCatholic Missionary School where most of the students were either British or Christians intheir origin with English as their first language. I used to face problems in comprehending thepure British accent of the teachers who used difficult words and idiomatic phrases in lecturesand conversations. School culture was very strict and disciplined; questions by students wereusually discouraged. Due to all this I developed an awful habit of pretending that I am gettingthings when I was not getting them and seemingly tried to be a good listener. In addition toabove I usually used to lose focus and attention towards lecture in the class and my thoughtsused to get distracted towards unrelated things and events.Strategies I Pursued for Effective Listening1. I try to read between the words when I don’t get the accent and draw a mental picture2. I focus on the ideas and the concept and not just words3. I avoid distractions by sitting appropriately close to the speaker and avoid sitting near a window, a talkative neighbor or some noisy place4. I maintain eye contact with the speaker and ask questions and provide feedback5. I focus my attention on the subject and stop all non-relevant activities beforehand to orient myself to the speaker and the topic6. Whenever my thoughts starts wandering I immediately force myself to refocus7. I try not to interrupt the speaker while they speak and wait for pause to ask questionsCONCLUSIONThe findings of this study are particularly relevant to the corporate sector which incurs hugeoperational losses due to ineffective communication which plays a vital role in business,government and personal life.Governments pass laws and businesses market their products and services through effectivecommunication. Much of the communication about innovations is initiated by researchers andresearch solicitation experts. With so much potential for misunderstanding due to ambiguityof communication, inference, and selective attention, researchers and others who strive tocommunicate research results need to understand contextual stimuli to the outcome ofcommunication between researchers and managers.The findings indicate that Effective communication is an ongoing process with clear purposeand objectives and people can use knowledge of possible bearings of misunderstanding todevelop strategies aimed at achieving greater mutual understanding between others. 20
  • 21. Barriers to CommunicationRECOMMENDATIONSThe research identified the need for effective communication and indicates the importance ofovercoming communicational barriers.Key Research findings: • Speaker’s intended meaning cannot be entirely understood and that ambiguity exists due to misunderstandings • An organization can suffer huge monetary losses if the communication ideas or instructions are miscommunicated. • Managers must communicate with the brand team, marketing, sales, advertising, public relations and web professionals to get their feedback before the launch of a product. • People tend to be selective about what they hear to reduce their mental stimuli to the point where it’s easy for them to process informationAs a result of this research several recommendations have been made in the overcomingbarriers section and in the case study. 21
  • 22. Barriers to CommunicationREFERENCES 1. Ball, Ellison and Adamy, The Costly Challenge of Discovering Consumers Unmet Needs--and Meeting Them http://www.wsjclassroomedition.com/archive/05jan/mktg_whatyouneed.htm, date upload January 2005, Date viewed July 4th, 2011 2. Interview of Schneider and Hall, Harvard Business Review, Lessons from New Product Launches http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TW4g32BW5oY, date upload: April 13th, 2011, date viewed: July 4th, 2011 3. Schneider, Hall, 40 ways to crash a product launch HBR.org http://hbr.org/2011/04/why-most-product-launches-fail/sb3 Retrieved April 2011 4. Schneider, Hall, Why most product launches fail. Harvard Business Review, April 2011 5. Champe, Gertrud Graubart, editor. 2002. Programs in Translation Studies: An ATA Handbook. Alexandria, Virginia: American Translators Association. 6. Collins, M.M., O’Leary, M.P., Calhoun, E.A., Pontari, M.A., Adler, A., Eremenco, 7. Hatim, Basil. 2001. Teaching and researching translation. (Applied Linguistics in Action Series.) Harlow, England: Pearson Education Ltd. 8. Herrera, R.S., DelCampo, R.L., and Ames, M.H. 1993. A serial approach for translating family science instrumentation. Family Relations 42, 357-360. 9. House, J. 1981. A model for translation quality assessment. Tübingen: Narr. 10. Marin, G., and Marin, B.V.O. 1991. Research with Hispanic populations. Applied Social 11. Research Methods Series, Vol. 23. Newberry Park, CA: Sage. 12. Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Toward a science of translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 13. Nida, E. A., and Taber, C. 1969. The theory and practice of translation. Leiden: E. J.Brill. 14. Nord, Christiane. 1997. Translation as a purposeful activity: Functionalist approaches explained. (Translation Theories Explained.) Manchester, UK: St. Jerome 15. Publishing. 16. O’Neill, Mary J. 2002. Navigating the translation maze: A how-to guide. In Champe, 17. Gertrud Graubart, editor. Pp. 151-158. 18. Prieto, A.J. 1992. A method for translation of instruments to other languages. Adult Education Quarterly 43, 1-14. 22
  • 23. Barriers to Communication 19. Schäffner, Christina. 1998. Skopos theory. In Mona Baker, ed., Routledge encyclopediaof translation studies. London and New York: Routledge. Sofer, Morrie. 1999. The Translator’s Handbook, 3rd revised edition. Rockville, MD: Schreiber Publishing. 20. Sperber, A.D., Devellis, R.F., Boehlecke, B. 1994. Cross-cultural translation:Methodology and validation. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 25, 501-524. 21. Vari-Cartier, P. 1981. Development and validation of a new instrument to assess the readability of Spanish prose. The Modern Language Journal 65(2): 141-148. 22. Wells, Rosalie P. 2002. The consumer-oriented guide to quality assurance in translation and localization. In Champe, Gertrud Graubart, editor. Pp. 159-160. 23