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Project lunex, 1961, 198p
 

Project lunex, 1961, 198p

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    Project lunex, 1961, 198p Project lunex, 1961, 198p Document Transcript

    • / .. . 92 LUNAR EXPEDITION PLAN CLASP rFICATION CHATWC& TO • B V . A L T I j p r i r Or lUy*if I V T™ LUNEX DATE fA/79-^ferfg MAY 1961HEADQUARTERS SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMANLT DOWNGRADED AT 12 YEAR INTERVALS; NOT /.J 1 . L MATICALLY DECLASSIFIED. DOb D.R 5200.10 WDLAR-S-45S C (* n4nC
    • KHl FCRCE SPACE SYSTEMS DTVISION AIR FCRCE SYSTEMS CQWAND 29 Jfey 1961 FCREtfCRD This document provides a plan for a maimed Lunar Expedition. It was prepared to furnish more detailed Information In support of the Rational Space Program proposed by a USAF committee chaired by Major General J. B. Kolzapple. That report pointed out the dire peed for a goal for our national space program. The £unar Expedition ¥as cnosen as the goal since it not only" provides a sufficient challenge to the nation, but also provides technical fall-outs for greatly improved space capabilities- Previous editions of this plan have provided guidance and incentive to Air Force technical groups. Consequently, their efforts have established a broad technical base within the Air Force from which rapif - ivances can be made- This capa- bility hasbeen taken Into account in laying out the accelerated schedules in this plan. CL.. r::iFICAT!ON C^AISFP To J!W«feP=4S&_.. 7- *•*< Tail #»»paiit a m a i n infarnMio* uffrttlm (hj anllaaal Arbjiwa 1 Urn UnlMd StM*i w i t l h «m aMntna • ! I k * EiabooM U r n , t u l a I I , U,S,C aaeliMi 7*3 and 7V4, fh» tramfnltiion mt n H l a H M af which in any awwar to art unaalborratd M W H prvhibHvd bf law. G hl*fnL
    • ^<«8S^iS^^£*^: GENERAL LUNAR DATA Ceniial NAMES LEGEND Thi* i l a contrallad mowic. Position »a»Dlitont* hoiii north 239,000 datarniinad through H w u i a f Hlonogrophic mman (BIICF-) Craton |HloiMl»ri) 387,000 tontml Hrobfahcd primarily hum tnn N O - {dimmrlcr» m ihiloi) y n of J. h u m vid S > . SoyndMi. A coltuMrfBiotodM1 100 and a m CLAVHJS 2140 Hiring of rhna pnitient n w pubHibid imdor mFJtt SO to 100 m » lutanMIH 34B0 th* o i m n i of the Morriotionnl AirrononiienlTamptraturH Union In 1»33. U » than 5 0 — . um at Mnnh 101CtD )30*C MmngtapBy Mountain Rang*! night -1S3*C Th* moioic » eomprnad of photognjpln (inngth m nilm) token olY*rfi«.McDonaldandMt. Wihon 400 andovct APENK1NE Kounr»i*s ObtorvoJorlai. PholDsiniphi with high carwiil- I H I Hon 400 »•(•£(« •!& llltt hi" ongHH u r n HHrttvd ID maintain GRAPHIC INFORMATION uniform portrayal of lunar c r a w l and prom- Mountain Poakt. Vallvyn WalkNai»i ianrmir and drK*ailU* marlo ragwn*. and Rilln >rrcH» M i l Thn ftvrurt nanw Hhctid w i n odoptad frpn th* T935 Inlvmational ArinnOffkal Orrantanoli OcooM, Girlfl. oayt, Sou, an: Uniap flpmMKlBturt By"***" with minor Cardrool dltncHont h a n bean M t e b l i i W In conform *rth tertogrophic tradition, not* to (Ivngth of motor anil in miln] ihnngMoy Ynkci Obwrralory in I f 5 * . tea and aatt la fight, rathar than cBtronomLcai MO and«™ MARE IMBRIUM*re[*diDn canvonlion. Thk afnmrfltion ^HilroTa 1h* 200 to 400 MAK£ NVBIUM • s o n in Hi trvt nriaKorahip hi Hit •orlh. km man 2 0 0 SIKU1 MOXB An wlliuuiBRhk prajtdion porttg^i tnt n o w n o vh*r* rnHw hun p t y c r i w * troulnd by 1 * 0 * of t h . ™ U . d»< a t moan nbrnnor. i . inown. timing (ram a t Inflnlh diUm<x. thUnL
    • CONTENTS I. SUMMARY n. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION in. MASTER SCHEDULES IV. DEVELOPMENT - TEST - PRODUCTION v. BUDGET AMD FINANCIAL VI. PROGRAM MANAGEMENT VII. MATERIEL SUPPORT VIII. CIVIL ENGINEERING EC. PERSONNEL AND TR/. "SING X. INTELLIGENCE Appendix # 1 G l o s s a r y o f Terms VDLAB-S^58Ikit daotmaM caMariu nifatmatisfi affaclina ttii notional M i n n of Hit U n I M SfoNi within lha ntentng of tbm EtplWMaa: lowi, Till*I I , U . I . C , Saclian 793 and 794, Hn bsniniiiien v ranaloHan al which in any mm™r la en anevlhariiad paten i> aiaaibliad ay law.
    • PROPOSED EIS1EM EACKfttffi P U N KR LUNAR EXFEDITIOH Prepared toy Support Systeas Plans Dinaion Approved by l l ^ i t i ^ ^ ^LxJcAjV*^^ Horaix M. Lulejian y Colonel, USAF Director, Advanced Systems Flans And Analysis Classification c&qnsed ti By antfccri ty oT &*tM.tudr Pate * j A j ^ j _ DOWNGRADED AT 12 YEAR INTERVALS: MOT AUTOMATICALLY DECLASsiMra non niR 520010 WDLAR-3^50ThU dKiimtnl contain latonnatiM oB«lin» H» Mflanal tfvftflw »t « • U"»«* **»« » » " • « • ««»1"» •• •*• f«pl»MJ* I * " . JW"11, U.S.C.. Wlw> 7M « d /»4. H» HaiimtntM *r rmlotl— «f wk>ch i" •«» •>»••> to «• M H H W M IWHH <• pnMbfad «r »•».
    • SECTION I SUMMAHT LUHAH EXPEDITIOH (U) (LUHEX) 1.1 TOLAE-S-458I f * „ * " " * " t «"™ n » inlariHrtlni ofbcliiM tin M i a m i d*h»w of H H United Hotel within In* wMiiiiD of Ma E i B i m t * lowi, TltMft * . U-5.C, Section 793 ond 794, ft* rramfnUfton or mtwtalisn vf whkh in nay •mifwr ta an •ftauthoriMd panan *• prohibited by tanr. ^iiC*- < - - - ~ i ~
    • + * n3--& INDEX TITLE PAGE 1.1 RECORD OF CHANGES . - , . . . , . , , 1.2 INDEX 1.3 1.0 SUMMARY 1-5 1.1 PURPOSE 1.5 1.2 BACKGROUND 1.5 1-3 DESCRIPTION 1.5 l.U MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS 1-7 1-5 MILESTONES 1.7 1.6 CAPABILITIES DEVELOPED 1.8 1.7 MAHAQEHEHT ACTIONS REQUIRED , 1.8 ATTACHMENTS CHART I-A LUNAR EXPEDmON PROGRAM MILESTONE SCHEDULE CHART I - B LUNAR EXPEDITION MANAGEMENT MILESTONES FZ6S - FY63••-a- .T^-trg*^ :NTTAL 1-3 wDLAB-s-ii.58 • o - •*. Tali dacaawnt csntaiai. infanaallM affatlina IKa notional detain* el It™ United Stalaa within iha aiaaniaa el the Eipisnea* towt, Title I I . U.S.C, Saciiofl 743 and 79*. the tiaainiulea or reveler*" af which [a a n , a g > « i Is on fanaaHietlied partafl !• anhlbitod fay law. -—-7-
    • T **?*n?-- 1.0 SUMMARY 1.1 PURPOSE The Lunar Expedition has as its objective manned exploration of the moon with the first manned landing and return in late 196?. This one achievement if accomplished "before the USSR, will serve --*• to demonstrate conclusively that thiB nation possesses the capability to win future competition in technology. Ho space achievement short of this goal will have equal technological significance, historical Impact, or excite the entire world. 1.2 BACKGROUND Extensive studies by Air Force-Industry teams during 1958* 1959» and i960 examined all facets of the problem and techniques of sending men to the moon and resulted in a feasible concept which is attainable at an early date and ie economical and reliable.•&&? Laboratories within the Air Force participated In this effort, thus establishing a broad technological base which can-react (illicitly to an expanded high priority program. 1-3 DESCRIPTION The lunar mission would be initiated by the launching of the lunar payload by a large, three-stage liquid or solid propellant booster to escape velocity on a lunar intercept trajectory. The payload, consisting of a Lunar Landing Stage, Lunar Launching Stage*?^- and a manned vehicle, would use a lunar horizon scanner and a doppler altimeter for orientation prior to a soft landing using the Lunar Landing Stage. Terminal guidance using prepositioned beacons would be required for landing at a preselected site. The Lunar Launch Stage .would provide the necessary boost for the return to earth of the manned Lunex Re-entry Vehicle. Using mid-course guidance and aerodynamic braking, the vehicle would effect re-entry and a normal unppwered aircraft landing at a ZI base. In addition to the manned vehicle a.cargo payload is Included» - * - * • in this plan. The cargo payload would utilize the same three-stage earth launch booster and the same lunar landing techniques. Hov-f~&* ever it would not be returned to earth and would be used only to11II laH transport supplies and cargo to the expedition on the moon. The primary concept recommended in this plan is the "direct shot" method since studies have indicated it could be available WDLAR-S-458 Tfcit i n i W cwitaim i n l m s t l o n affecting * • nqtiiMat aafaau af Ma I M M SWtai wMiht * • • -aanina at Ik* Etplenai* l o o t , 1Mfe> I I . U.S.C.. UdU*i 7 M awl 7 M . to tiemntiilen „ n M l r i i M * l * • ! < • In w B » B » M aa • m t t v i i a d aanaa i i arafciMM ht km.
    • CTSf --at an earlier date and it vould be more reliable. Another, .concept. is also suggested which consists of the rendezvous and assembly of components in an earth orbit before injection into a lunar trajectory. The techniques and development required for this latter concept are documented under a separate SSP titled, S1AIHT. Therefore, no details of this concept are presented in this plan. All schedules relating the two plans have been coordinated to insure compatibility and to take advantage of mutual advances. Since neither rendezvous techniques nor large boosters have been demonstrated, both approaches£:* must be pursued until it becomes obvious that one of than has clear advantages over the other. The following developments are required in order to accomplish the lunar expedition: a. A three-man Lunex Re-entry Vehicle. This vehicle must be capable of re-entry into the earths atmosphere at velocities of 37,000 ft/sec. It must also be capable of making a conventional aircraft landing. Control and improved guidance for entering the43 earths atmosphere at the proper place and angle is needed as veil as improved materials to withstand tbe high surface temperatures. Adequate life support equipment is also required. The development of this vehicle is the key to the accomplishment of the LUHEX program and is one of the pacing development items. A detailed schedule for its development is included. b- A Lunar Landing Stage for decelerating and landing the entire payload. This stage must have the capability to decelerate 13^000 pounds from a velocity of almost 9,000 ft/sec to 20 ft/sec at touchdown. A doppler altimeter is required to provide information for ignition and control of the engine. Horizon scanners must be used to orient the payload to the local vertical. c. A Lunar Launch Stage capable of launching the manned Lunex He-entry Vehicle from the lunar surface. Lunar ascent guidance is required to place the vehicle on the proper trajectory. d. A three-stage earth launch booster, referenced as a Space launching system. The first stage will use either L O X / L H O with six million pounds of thrust or a solid fuel with an equivalent launch capability. The second and third stages will use LOX/LHg. The development of this space launching system is considered the*-£« pacing development item for the LUHEX program. Because Of the magnitude of the booster program and the applicability of the WEIAR-S-U58 thh rfacwmnt twitalni lafomrtla* efbtlins Hw natisMl dataua at Hw United M o m wMita t i n H s n l n i *f H» Etpionop* lowi, Till* I I . U.S.C., faction W J nod 7W, Hw tiamnaitiian *r nvfiBttwi af vlildi In our mmmr «. M »nii»Jtior!i»iJ parivn It prohibited by taw.
    • *•* •sJzr-T^NTTAibooster to other programs, the plan for its development is beingpresented separately. In addition to the above listed hardware developments,additional Information is required about the lunar surface suchas its physical and roughness characteristics. High resolutionphotographs of the entire lunar surface may provide this information.Present NASA plans if expedited could provide the information forthis LUMEX program. HASAs SURVEYOR (soft lunar landing) programcould also incorporate radio-light beacons which vould be usedlater in conjunction with a terminal landing system. A core sampleof lunar material is required as soon as possible so that designof lunar landing devices and lunar facilities can be accomplished.l.h MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS The development of techniques for re-entering the earths at-mosphere at 37,000 ft/sec is one of the major problems. Guidanceequipment must be very accurate to Insure that the re-entry angleis within ± 2°. Too steep an entry angle will cause overheatingand untolerable G loads, while too shallow an entry angle maypermit the Lunex Be-entry Vehicle to skip out of the atmosphereinto a highly eccentric earth orbit. If this happens, the vehiclet ^ spend several days in the trapped radiation belts and may exceed nythe time limits of the ecological system. The Lunar Landing Stage will be a difficult development be-cause of a requirement for orientation with the local verticalwhen approaching the moon- It must also be guided to the selectedlanding site. Many tests will be required to develop the necessaryequipment. The Lunar Launching Stage will be another difficult development.The prelaunch countdown must be performed automatically and, if thelaunching booster is not vertical upon launch, corrections must bemade in order to attain the required moon-earth trajectory. Although the foregoing developments are difficult, notechnological break-through will be required. All designs can bebased on extrapolation of present technology- #•1.5 MILESTONES Major milestones in the program are: WDiAR-s-^58Tkil dacnaaaf contain Jafamellan affattSaa laa Rattanl dafana at Ibt Unllad M a i n wHhln Hw aao*ti«i af ttv EuianeM l a w l , tlrlaI I , I M . C Sattfon / * 3 awl 794, Hw trontnjMton or nwaJatian «f wtikli In any Biaftnar I D an •MutHorind panan it pfstiibftad br taw. -,.__-.-- -
    • <«* •-° **• a. Becovery of t manned re-entry vehicle from 50,000 mllee fin 1965. b. Manned circumlunar flight in 1966. c. Manned lunar lunging and return in 1967. These and other significant events are shown on Chart I-A.1.6 CAPABILITIES DEVELOPED • The development of large boosters, rendezvous techniques andmaneuverable Space vehicles, all required for the Lunar Expedition,will also provide a capability for many new and advanced spaceachievements. For example, the Space Launching System which willboost 13^,000 pounds to escape velocity will boost approximately350,000 pounds into a 300 nm orbit, or will launch a manned vehicleon a pass around either Mars or Venus.1.7 MANAGEMENT ACTIONS REQUIRED The major Management Milestones for FX62 and FY63 are shornon Chart I-B. Immediate attention by Management to obtain ProgramApproval and Funding by July 1961 is necessary if the UnitedStates is to put a "man on the moon" by August 1967. Throughout the LUHEX program time allocated for managementand Air Force technical evaluations has been kept to a minimum.This is essential to meet the schedules, and delays In providingfunding as indicated, or in receiving notification of requireddecision, will have the direct effect of delaying the program end .objective. 1.8 UDLAR-S-lt58 •*Thlt d m m M c«iiei*i S»(MBCH«I •FhcTi»9 « • mtianal 4af*w •! the Unitotl Haiti wMiln HM •Mitt*! a) it» EwKnM l m , TM*II, U.S.C, Ssdton 7W s*4 7M, A* franimiuiM *r MnlatlMi *f vliich In any m u m to •» ••nHiariiM Bansa d •nfcHriM •» M«.
    • CHART I - A LUNAR EXPEDITION PROGRAM MILESTONE SCHEDULE CALENDAR YEARS I9(51 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 I96SPRELIMINARY DESIGN COMPLETE ( LUNEX PAYLOAD) "^PROGRAM APPROVAL AND FUNDING j ENGINEERING DESIGN AND MOCK-UPINITIATE HARDWARE PROCUREMENT _3E J— 3>RE-ENTRY VEHICLE 1 9 0 % ENS REL )LUNAR LANDING STAGE ( 9 0 % ENG REL) . 0 jFIRST MANNED ORBITAL FLIGHTCARGO PAYLOAD ( 9 0 % ENG REL) 9LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE t 9 0 % ENG REL) ]}FIRST LUNAR LANDING (CARGO TEST FLIGHT) _ 3 CMANNED CIRCUMLUNAR FLIGHT ASPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM FLIGHT QUALIFIEDM A L D LUNAR LANDING A»2 RETURN ::!B£PtSwANENTLY MANNED LUNAR EXPEDITION 3E; q t _ n- - ULUNAR EXPEDITION FUNDING REQUIREMENTS (MILLIONS) 27 112 350 1 | 710 T1 1920 |40S -"- 1760 WDLAR-S-458 v .• * • - * • - . , -- •
    • FROORAM tamau IB J LUNAR EXPEDITION CV 60 C*61 MANAGEMENT MILESTONES FY62 - FY63 j F n i l JDO R 1 Jf M 11 J JA 1 1 r START PRELIMINARY DESIGN (LRV) ) * i COMPLETE PRELIMINARY DESIGN (LRV :: JIIJ * 1 PROGRAM APPROVAL AND FUNDING - —_ _ U _ 1 1 ENGINEERING DESIGN COMPETITION f AND MOCK-UP "• 11 Contractor No. 1 (Lunex Payloads) If 0 Contractor No. 2 (Lunex Payloads) H I! DEVELOPMENT - PRODUCTION FUNDING II 17 DESIGN CONCEPT DECISION 11 If APPROVAL FOR HARDWARE GO-AHEAD * . , 11 CONTRACT AWARD»23 LUNAR TRANSPORT VEHICLE PROGRAMMIS LUNAR EXPEDITIONH PROGRAMV L,n REQUIRED FUNDING (MILLIONS)»H FY-6231 ::::i"2E== " ~ j t - p-.H FY-6311M FY-64««« -L_M s*M - Ofljj41 LKV - Lunex R e - e n t r y Vehicle i f M A M 1 J A 5 0 II F Jl A • J J A S | fi J FY 6 1 1
    • <"* »- •••?. CY 62 CY 63 a 6k i > S0 t M i JA S • • ^ = * u 0 11 u L. <[ 2* 2S IS *£ n u n 12 ^ n ID • n • a • umFY 6Z i J F II FY 63 FY 64 FI FY WDLAK-S-458 &u
    • -* *, r SECTION II PROGRAM BESCRIFTIOH LUHAH EXPEDITION ( u ) (LUNEX) sas «to4i 2.1 ~ WDLAH-S-U581M> riscniwt twtslnt intainmlion afhcllna M M nqllanal dafaiua sf « M Unilad Metal wHMa I t * Mantua a) Ida Cialanaaa law!, TWat t . U.l.t,, S»Oiwi 743 am) 7*4, th* l>Bn>*ii>ian at- n x t o t l a n a l whitk In aa> m M W N> an unmitfcoriW acnan h pnhlbltaal • » law.
    • : * • * . - T«* BECCRD 0 ? CHANGES INSCRIPTION OF CHAHGE { MOE OF CEABGE MO. - A 3^* v »-• rt*^1 2/2 - VDLAR-S-lt58 1 * • Iiptmaa* l"wi, WH»I I . U.S.C., IMiio 7*3 wM 7W, * r I W I U » » ! M *r iHttoHo •f.vhfch U > ( r • • n B " (• M i ^MnM It vnkihlM b* la*.
    • -"-*•••• *r--> •*TK- , INDEX*- TITLE PAGE , 2.1 RECORD OF CHANGES 2.2 INDEX 2.3 2.0 BACKGROUND •. 2-5 2.1 LUNEX PROGRAM OBJECTIVE 2.52.2 LUREX PROGRAM - DESCRIPTION 2-52.3 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 2.72.k ABORT PHILOSOPHY , 2.72.5 EXPEDITION PLANNING .. 2.11 t**^ ! «*.-..•*.. jjj..., 2-3 WDLAR-S-^58U h a n w cwtMiu Mmsllan •fficfii* Ik* noilMwl aMwu* •» ffca UMMrf SUM *llMn Mn Manila si H* EMJSIM** low, THI»It, U.S.C., J»rtFm 7»3 and 7M, MMtommlitis* ar nmrieHoii at vfcrch in any aiamar M aa •MmtharJind panwi li ataklMM by law. - - - » * — ° ? r ^ — • • -*•-—r=~••
    • V;V1 2. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 2.0 BACKGROUND Shortly after the first Sputnik was launched in October 1957,-Headquarters, AHDC Initiated a series of studies to examine the military potential of space operations. These studies were accomplished by Industry-Air Force teams each working independently. Two of these studies which were the forerunners of this Lunex plan were "Lunar Observatory*1 and "Strategic Lunar System." The objective of the first study was to examine an economical, sound and .logical approach for establishing a manned intelligence observatory on themoon, and the second study examined the military potential of lunar operations. These studies showed that It is technically and economically feasible to build a manned lunar facility. A third study titled, "Permanent Satellite Base and LogisticStudy" is presently under way and will be completed in August 1961.This study will provide a conceptual design Of a three-man re-entryvehicle which will carry men to and from the moon. The three-manvehicle is the key item in the lunar transportation Bystem as itsweight will dictate the booster sizes. For this reason it is givenspecial attention in this plan.2.1 LUNEX PROGRAM OBJECTIVE The objective of the Lunar Expedition program is the mannedexploration of the moon with the first manned lunar iBpfllng tooccur as soon as possible. The execution of thiB plan will landthree men on the moon and return them during the 3rd quarter ofcalendar year 1967, and will establish the Lunar Expedition . •In 1968. Completion of this plan will require the development ofequipment! materials, and techniques to transport men to and fromthe lunar surface and to provide a lunar facility which will allow,men to live and work in the extremely harsh lunar environment.2.2 LUNEX PROGRAM - DESCRIPTION The Lunar E x p e d i t i o n Program i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h edevelopment of t h e equipment n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s p o r t men and s u p p l i e sto the lunar surface. The key development I n t h i s program i s t h e Lunar TransportVehicle which i s composed of t h e Space Launching System and e i t h e rt h e Manned Lunar Payload o r t h e Cargo Payload.The Manned Lunar Payload c o n s i s t s of a three-man Lunex Re-EntryVehicle, a Lunar Launch S t a g e , and a Lunar Landing S t a g e . Thesame Lunar Landing S t a g e , p l u s a cargo package, composes t h e CargoPayload. The r e l a t i v e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e development of t h e s e WDLAR-S-U58I M i BHMHfit E M M l a lateaoHsn • f f r t i n i Iht nolienol * * f t m t t f Wit Vnlltd Slorti wiltiln Iht (Msnint •( H M E i p l v M t * lV?l 7"**I t , U.S.C, S M i t a 7 M antf 7 M , Hw ttommluloo or nvttotkM • ( * M d i in • * » mwitiM to an •titoatliwTnd ptnmti ta pnalbihta kr to"-
    • two payloads in comparison with other portions of the complete Lunar Expedition Program is shown in Figure 2-1. A breakdown of the Lunar Transport Vehicle Is shown In Figure 2-2. The Space Launching System consists of a three-stage booster capable of placing either the (fanned Lunar Peyload or the Cargo Payload on a lunar Intercept trajectory at escape velocity. This plan does not contain development information on the Launching System since such information is contained in a separate System Package Plan being prepared concurrently. The development schedules in these plans have been coordinated to insure compatibility. In operation, the Manned Lunar Payload, weighing 13^,000 pounds,will be boosted to escape velocity of approximately 37, OCX) ft/secon a trajectory which intercepts the moon. Velocity will be sufficientto reach the moon in approximately 2^ days. As the Manned Lunar Pay-load approaches the moon it is oriented with the local vertical bythe use of horizon scanners. The Lunar Landing Stage decelerates theManned Lunar Payload for a soft landing at a preselected site usingan altitude sensing device to determine time of ignition. Landingat the preselected site will be accomplished using terminal guidanceequipment and a prepositioned beacon to effect an off-set landing. The Lunar Launching Stage, using the Landing Stage as a base,will launch the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle on the return trajectory.In early test shots before men are included, the countdown andlaunch will be effected automatically by command from the earth.Small mid-course corrections may be necessary to insure re-entryinto the earths atm sphere within allowable corridor limits. The Lunex Be-entry Vehicle will re-enter the earths atmospherewithin the allowable corridor so that It will not skip back intospace again nor burn from excess heat. It will use aerodynamicbraking to decelerate and will have sufficient lift capability toeffect a normal uhpowered aircraft landing at a base such asEdwards Air Force Base. Several successful unmanned, completely automatic flights ofthe type Just described must be completed in order to establishconfidence in the system reliability before manned missions will beattempted. Cargo will he transported to the lunar surface using the sameprocedures and equipment except that the Lunar Launch Stage is notneeded. The Cargo Package will have a weight equal to the combinedweight of the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle and the Lunar Launch Stage. As a separate approach to the problem of placing Large payloads -on the moon, techniques of rendezvous and assembly in earth orbit . WDIAB-S-^58 3ECRBT :**&Thh a a c n w n l iwHolH Sutnawlian offaCfin* H H natiaaal <•(•••• al Ht» United Slain wHMa lha m*oniii» at H» Elphmoaa l o w i , TMa,II. U.S.C.. Itcflm 7*3 and 7W, Km fraawSiiIa* ar raoalaHaa af - H < 1 i* anr manual la an n o u t t w i n d M M * h f a h i b M d by low.
    • are being examined. Use of these techniques would require the launch,rendezvous and orbital assembly of sections, of the Manned Lunar Payloadand the Cargo Payload along with tde -required. orbital launch boosterand its fuel. Ike assembled vehicle would then be boosted from orbitalvelocity to escape velocity and would proceed as described above. De-tails of the major developments required such as rendezvous, dockingand orbital assembly are outlined in a System Package Plan titled, SAINTbeing prepared concurrently. All programming information and scheduleshave been coordinated with this plan to Insure compatibility andmutual support.2.3 DESIQN PHILOSOPHY The Lunar Expedition Plan has been oriented toward the developmentof a useful capability rather than the accomplishment of a difficulttask on a one-time basis. The use of a large booster is favored forthe direct shot approach since studies have shown this to be more re-liable, safer and more economical as well as having earlier availability.However, another approach using a smaller booster in conjunction withorbital rendezvous and assembly is also considered. The manned Lunex Re-entry Vehicle is the key Item in determiningbooster sizes. Its weight determined the size of the Lunar LaunchStage which in turn determined the size of the Lunar Landing Stage.The total weight of these three Items is the amount that must beboosted to earth escape velocity by the Space Launching System. Inthis manner the size of the Space Launching System was determined. A 2^ day trajectory each way was selected as a conservativedesign objective. Longer flights would have more life support andguidance problems while shorter flights require higher boost velocity. An abort capability will be included in the design insofar aspossible. The next section describes the abort system in consider-able detail. Development and tests are scheduled on a high priority basis.Thus, the schedules shown in this plan are dictated by technological *limitations and not by funds. The entire program as described herein is an integrated programIn that later development testB build on the results of early tests.Thus, equipment and techniques are proved out early, and confidencein the reliability is obtained by the time a man is included.2.1* ABORT PHILOSOPHY The insertion of a man into a space system creates a safety andreliability problem appreciably greater than the problem faced toy HDIAR-S-45BTMi fcHM caaraim tnfsriMltoi •ft.tiine M M MtlsiHl M M I M sf W Unitad R a i n wMitn Hn aaanlna at tfc* EwionoM tawi, Tiltt ™I I , U.S.C., fcttlen 7*3 and 7 W , tfc* honnnrulw at nutlatiM af «hi(h in any mennti fa m MaaHiaiiiMf p a i m It prahlblM be low. i
    • any unmanned BystemT It Is veil recognized that maximum reliabilityIs desirable, but also known that reliabilities In excess of 6$ to9056 are extremely difficult to achieve with systems as complex asthe Lunar Transportation System- Therefore, the need for an abortsystem to protect the man duringthe "unreliable" portions of thelunar mission is accepted. A review of the proposed techniques and equipments to provide a"full abort" capability has shown that due to payload limitationsthis is not practical during the early lunar missions. Thus areasonable element of risk will be involved. In order to decreasethis element of risk and to understand where it occurs the lunarmission has been divided Into six time-periods. These time periodsare as follows: a. Earth ascent. b. Earth-moon t r a n s i t . c. Lunar terminal. d. Lunar ascent. e. Moon-earth transit. f. Re-entry. The development and test philosophy for this program Is tolaunch the manned systems as early as possible in the program, butin an unmanned status. This will provide experience and allow thesystem to be checked out and "man-rated" before the first mannedflight. It also means that the lunex Be-entry Vehicle will be usedfor orbital and clrcumlunar flights prior to the lunar landing andreturn flight. The propulsion systems used for these early flightswill be used throughout the program and the experience gained fromeach flight will increase the probability of success in reachingthe final lunar landing and return objective. Also these pro-pulsion systems will be used concurrently In other programs andat the time of man-rating v l U possess greater launch experiencethan can be expected for the largest booster of the Space LaunchingSystem. This would indicate that a larger number of unmanned flightsshould be scheduled for the larger full boost system than for theearly flights. It also points out the need for a sophisticatedEarth Ascent Abort capability during the first manned lunar iimfl-twgand return flight. VDLAR-S-458Tkli tfKimil HMBhn MimwTtai •fbcHni tk* MtiMMl atfcu* «f ttw UnrWd SMMi wllhta tat M n f * * af ft* bptoaoaa Lawi. IMaI I , U.S.C-, SK)!M 7V3 and 7M, th* (rannhilM m I H I M I H «f which to an) m w M aa H H I M a d psoas ii arahJMM uw to". >
    • In providing an abort philosophy for the Lunar Program it shouldbe noted that the Lunex He-entry Vehicle, the Lunar Landing Stage -and the Lunar Launching Stage all possess Inherent abort capabilityif utilized properly during an emergency. With sufficient velocitythe re-entry vehicle is capable of appreciable maneuvering andlanding control to provide its own recovery system. The LunarLaunching and Lunar Landing Stages possess an appreciable ,£vcapability that can be used to alter the payload trajectory tobetter accomplish recovery of the man. However, in either case themaneuvers will have to rely on computingtechniquesto select thebest possible abort solution for any specific situation. With this background, and with the understanding that in afuture final design effort "full abort" may be required, thefollowing abort design objectives for the Manned Lunar Payload arepresented: a. Earth Ascent Phase (1) On Pad. Full abort system will be provided. (2) Lift-ofX Ho Flight Velocity for the He-entryVehicle. . Full abort system will be provided. (3) Flight Velocity for the- He-entry Vehicle toEscape Velocity. The basic Manned Lunar Payload will providethe abort capability. b. Earth-Moon Transit (1) Injection Abort capability to compensate for injectionerror is desired as part of the basic Manned Lunar Payload.Computing, propulsion, etc., capabilities should be designed intothe basic system to provide for the selection of the optimum aborttrajectory. , I-B-t58 >TfcTi tfMVWm unMlnt ^Htmattmn o*UrtIn« f t * iwDwm vjatema *f H* United S f s t n v.tfcln MM * » * n . m tS MM E«pf**oi* L m , TIH*I I , U-3.C-, Svftian 7*3 and 7*4* tfc* f T « i » i i t . e a m rmfettea of wfcicli !• • • * awio-ir to an *MbHt*r]»d BtftM h a/oMbttfta by few* - . - • p - i - * - - " - r — » - - •*-> .•*•-••• r
    • SfiGftcT Abort capability during Earth-Moon transit isdesired for the He-Entry Vehicle by means of a direct earth return,earth orbit, or circumlunar flight and earth return. Circumlunarflight generally requires the least^v.v, but the actual selectionof the optimum trajectory should be accomplished vben required bya computing capability, and executed by the Lunar Fayload. c. Lunar Terminal This type of abort generally results from loss ofpropulsion or control of the Lunar Landing Stage. Where possiblethe Lunar Launching Stage will be used to attain a direct or circum-lunar trajectory that terminated in an earth return. When this isnot possible the Lunar Launching Stage will be used to accomplishthe safest possible lunar landing. Recovery of the crew will notbe provided in this system and selection of the above .alternativeswill be accomplished automatically on-board. Crew recovery willbe provided by another stand-by Lunar Transport Vehicle. d. Lunar Ascent Maximum inherent reliability by overdesign ofcomponents and systems in the Lunar Launching Stage seems to bethe most logical approach for this phase due to the extreme weightpenalty imposed by a separate abort system. The early missions will be faced with the highestrisk, but as a facility on the lunar surface is developed, arescue capability and the addition of an abort capability can bedeveloped. Ho specific abort system will be provided for thisphase, but consideration should be given to tbe possibility offuture lunar modifications to provide for abort. e. ttwn-Earth Transit This would generally be associated with a grosstrajectory error, or loss of control on re-entry. The onlysolution is to utilize the on-board capability that remains toachieve an earth orbit. After achieving orbit an earth launchedrescue mission would be initiated. This approach requires noadditional abort -system to be provided for this phase. WELAR-S-458 *?-•$•Tkl. « • » • » • H M O I H h f . . « t ; a n J f a m o f N» ael|«ol dthm* at I t * Uom.M 5 u l » wlftln H H IMOHIBB of IK. EutioAOM tswi, TlttaI I , U . l . C hctiin 793 ml 7 W , Ik* H o m - o i i w wr t m W t o a «f »bi<>> •• »»r » • • » • « M on ••ouiharlwl ( m « h prohibited by law.
    • •Vr-F . : • * & • f. Re-entry Exceeding re-entry corridor lljnits, or I O B S of controlcould cause an emergency where abort would be desirable. Shouldsufficient Zi.v remain from the over-design of the lunar launch stage,and not he used during Moon-Earth transit this vould he used to attainan earth orbit where rescue could be achieved. Ho separate abortcapability is required for this phase, hut availability of pro-pellant should be considered.2.5 EXPEDITION PLAHNIHG A detailed plan must be prepared for the complete Lunar Ex-pedition operation. This plan must start from the first time manlands on the lunar surface and account for every single effort, orobjective he is to accomplish during his stay on the surface, Acrew of three nien will be sent into a new and hostile environmentwhere rescue or assistance from other human beings will be extremelydifficult, if not impossible, for the first mission. Time will be ata premium and all items of equipment must be planned, designed anddelivered in the Cargo Payloads so that they can be used in the easiestpossible manner. The procedures for first exploring the surface and then for con-structing the expedition facility must all be derived, demonstratedand proven by earth operations prior to attempting the desired opera-tion oh the moon. An environmental facility that simulates the lunarsurface with sufficient Work area to test out equipment and procedureswill be required. The actual landing operation and the first effort by men on thesurface requires detailed data about the moons surface. The follow-ing chart represents the best available data. The chart is a portionof a Lunar Sectional having a scale of 1:1,000 (l inch equals 16miles) produced by the USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center,St Louis, Missouri. Present plans call for the eventual productionof lUh charts to cover the complete lunar surface. The best photographic resolution to date is around one-halfmile on the lunar surface, which provides adequate data for chartshaving a scale of 1:1,350,000, Good astronomical telescopes can beused to Improve on the photographic data and obtain sufficient detailto prepare sectional charts like the one included. However, larger 2>li TOLAR-S-I*58TMi d n M i l csnlahH iMwnirtlMi affecting tfc. nMtwst M » n af tto Unltad Slam V M I R I t * attonlna al Hm iipioma** l o - i . TiH.I I , U.S.C.. Sxiivn 7SJ mi 79*. MM Iroitiniilian ar mvalolian • ! " " I * * I" a"* • • » » » to • » IHwMatlod panan i. prafcifattod fcr l a * . -»!- -^.:-
    • i l «a«.[H^.> ft c scale, accurate lunar charts will be required to complete detailed plane- Data can be obtained for such charts from a lunar orbiting photographic satellite which vill provide sufficient resolution and overlap to enable Btereographic compilation of contours and eleva- tions. The NASA proposed Lunar Orblter program Is a possible source of the required data. Planning for construction of the expedition facility can begin only after detailed surface information becomes available. Examin- ation of returned lunar core samples vill be necessary before plans can be completed.!-*--m 2.12 WDLAR-S-U58 ,..^-*a£9>a> ,:- , ^ . i t * r f . *• • • : • * TMi d « . » m t l n a t a t u Intomofion aH*clim tt» noliensl tWttliM «l n * Unltarf Stotai wHkla rha Moitlnj ml * • EipfenoMi l o - i , TIHa I I . U.S.C.. Saciion 7V3 and 7 W , Ita UsatMliilM sr wveJallM s i whirk In ony n o n n r M aa wwuHiwiwi pwua. i i w e t i i W r t br law. p-«.<_?d - - 1
    • uoar LUINAK LnAM SCALE 1:1,000,000•c rUWISHED 1Y IHE AE«ONAUTICAt CHA*T AND INFORMATION CENTER. UNITED 5TATES * » fOKCE ST. IOUI5 la. MO. KEPLER LAC 57 Mtrcotor Projection State 1<1,000,0M o M i * 0 0 « " 1ST EDITION DECEMBER 1960 NOTES Thii chart wat prepared with advisory owslonce from Dr. Q. P. Kulpar gnd hit coHoboralon, 0. W. G. Arthur and t". A. WhitaJier. CONTROL The position of featurei an fhft chart * a s determined Through the uie of lelenographic conlrol eitabtiihed pri- marily from the m w i u r e * of J , From and S. A. Sounder. A collated listing of thh control wo* pubfished under the auipicas of the fnternationof Agronomical Union in 1935, (Named Lunar Formation* - BJagg and Mfiller). VERTICAL DATUM Vertical datum is b a w d on on ossumed spherical figure of the moon and a lunar radius of 1738 kilometers. The datum plane wot subsequently adjusted to 2.6 kilometers below the surface described bf the 1738 kilometer rodiui to minimize the extent of tuner surface or minus eleva- tion value. Gradients of mojos1 surface undulations were established by interpolating Schrulko - Rechtenstomm computations of J. F r o m * measurements of ISO moon craters. The probable error of comparative devotion values it evaluated at 1000 meters. Vertical datum, so established, is considered interim and wilt be refined as soon as an accurate figure of the moon is determined, ELEVATIONS All elevations are shown in meters. The ntfalive heights of crater rims and other prominences above the moria and depths of craters were determined through photo- graphic measurement utilizing the 1. Kopal and G . Fielder Shadow Progression Technique. Relative heights thus established, have been referenced to the assumed vertical doluai and have been integrated with the grad- ients of the surface undulation*, The probable error of the localized relative heights is 100 meters. Inherent with measuring technique used, relative height determinations In general E-W direction are more accurate than in the N-S direct ion. Spot Elevation (referenced to datum) .1100 Crohtr Elevations Rim (referenced to Datum) 300 Depth of crater (rim to floor) (400) CONTOURS All contours arc approximate - i — i — — 1 _ Contour interval js 300 meters , ^ -r-r~^~- •*-i*T*. :
    • m u j tVW U
    • M.»7 TOBIAS MEYER
    • SECTIOK I I I MASTER ECHEDUIES LDNAR E3CPKDITION ( u ) (LUNEX) 3.1 HDLHi-s-458 --1;Tkh < n » M M M B tnfer*atl«a aftacllfta « " *atiansl M M af H M United Dotal wliMn the HWEHIHII af I t * EipieaoM tow). Til)*l | , W J , C , h t l w 7 t 3 and 774, Ma Bomaiiifen at r v n l M l n af •tilcli In an* nerniar ra as Mmflhartnd panan l l prahtMM br low.
    • •eWFUBfiH^At £. CHANGE t ICSCRIPTZON OF CHANGE HATE OF CHANG? BEF£RENC£ NO. TO BASIC PART^s*s* p{^ 3-2 WULftR-S-l*58 Thli aaciiBanl < M ( S ! B I kilarmnllsn oH*tirni the notional M W I H af Ina Unltad StaWi within Hia nacnlnt al Iha ftpianags Lawi, Tltki 18. U.S.C., $ « I : I H I 712 mi 794, rha<tm>»«>htlan ar ranlglipri af arhi.ih in ~anr nuflnar ta an nuiilhariiad panan h p t a h l U M by lav. *-» A . t - ti-n--v^» J • i-i
    • TITLE RAGE *- 3.1 RECORD CF CHANGES 3.2 INDEX 3.3 3.0 INTRODUCTION 3-5 3-1 MASTER PROGRAM PHASING CHART 3-5 3-2 LUNAR EXPEDITION PROGRAM SCHEDULE 3.6 3-3 LUNAR EXIEDITION MANAGEMENT MILESTONES JT60-FY63 3.6 3-h LUNAR EXPEDITION TEST SCHEDULE 3-7 3-5 LUNEX SPACE LAUNCHING REQUIREMENTS 3^7 3.6 PERSONNEL AND TRAINING 3.8 3-7 LUNEX CIVIL ENGINEERING FACILITIES SCHEDULE 3.8 ATTACHMENTS I I I - A LUNAR EXPEDITION MASTER PROGRAM SCHEDULE I I I - B LUNAR EXPEDITION PROGRAM SCHEDULE I I I - C LUNAR EXPEDITION MANAGEMENT MILESTONES F T 6 2 - F Y 6 3 I I I - D LUNAR EXPEDITION TEST SCHEDULE I I I - E LUNEX SPACE LAUNCHING REQUIREMENTS III - F LUNEX CIVIL ENGINEERING FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM I I I - G LUNEX TRAINING SCHEDULE VDLAR-S-U58tkli dscuMnl KMIoini (nfotnalioa ofWlng th* nntianal OOMRM of (ha United Slain wlIMn HH Mailing of lh> Eipinnaaa Lam, Tilt*II. U.S.C Sttlien 7*3 and 7M. Hw twnwiutan or nvtlatisn at which in an* mmrni ta on wanHwriarf w w it arahfbiM or low.
    • It*** 3.0 INTRODUCTION The establishment of the Lunar Expedition Program as a National objective will provide a worthy goal for the. United States industrial and governmental organizations. The lunar Expedition program has been based on extensive study, design and research writ during the past three years. A lunar Expedition program will require the use and centralized control of a major portion of the present military space capability. M e will have the effect of giving the military program a Bcheduled long-range objective, and still provide useabla military capabilities throughout the period. As an example, manned re-entry vehicles for orbital operations will be available in early 1965- This will be followed by a manned lunar re-entry vehicle in 1$6S. Propulsion and Space launching systems will be required to support the LUNEX program. This program will set orbital and escape velocity payload requirements ranging from 20 to 350 thousand pounds in a 300 mile orbit and from 2*f,000 to 13^,000 pounds at escape velocity. Shis capability will be obtained at an accelerated pace for the LUNEX program and as a result the same capabilities will be availa- ble for military use much earlier than could be achieved if the start of the development programs had to be Justified at this time entirely on the basis of military usefulness. The accomplishment of the LUNEX program will require mpy^mnm use of several presently programmed efforts and reorientation of others. Dae major programs of direct interest to the Lunex are the SAINT and BOGS programs. Therefore, these efforts have been coordinated and Integrated with the LUNEX program. *me BOGS shots will provide the necessary orbital primate test data to allow the manned life support package for the lunex Re-entry Vehicle to be designed, The SAINT unmanned and manned program will provide additional orbital infor- mation on rendezvous, docking, and personnel and fuel transfer. In the event that the direct shot approach for the Lunar expedition requires reorientation in future years to use orbital assembly techniques this capability will be available from the SAINT program. 3.1 MASTER HtOGBAM IEASISG CHART This schedule presents the Integrated military program required to accomplish the Lunar Expedition mission and to develop techniques for operating In the earth orbital and lunar areas. It was prepared to indicate the Interface between this Lunar Expedition System Package Plan and the Space Launching System. The major national objective of this integrated program Is to land men on the moon and return than In August of 1967. WDIAR-S-Jl58This document rortfsint irtffififlatioft afivcling the national t M a n f f £>t t h * United States within the manning of the Eiptonap*/ Law*, TiiU"I I . U-SC., Stifton 793 and 7W. the rranunluiwi or nuatoion fif which in any mannvr » an unaurtwriwd p a w n H proh&iftd by l#«*
    • sww CONHLtLlVllAL. 3-2 " LUNAR EXPEDITION PROCBAM SCHEDULE This schedule presents the major Items t o be accomplished as a r e s u l t o f t h e VJNBX program. She c o s t i n g a s shovn on the schedule does not include the c o s t of developing the Space Launching System since t h i s i s provided under a separate System Package plan. However, the c o s t of purchasing the f l i g h t v e h i c l e s i s included. Ihe major "prestige" milestones of the program can be summarized a s f o l l o w s : F i r s t Manned Orbital F l i g h t April 1965 (3 Man Space Vehicle) F i r s t Lunar landing (Cargo) July 1966 Manned Circuffllunar F l i g h t Sept. 1966 Manned lunar landing & Return Aug. 1^67 penaanently Manned Lunar Expedition Jan. 1968 3-3 LUNAR EXPEDITION M N G M N MILESTONES FY62 - FT63 AAE ET .This schedule I n d i c a t e s the major LUHEX program e f f o r t s required during f i s c a l years 1962 and 1963. 3be time a l l o c a t i o n f o r management and Ai orce technical evaluations have been kept t o a minimum i n order t o meet the end objective of "man on the moon" In August 1967. f Several c r i t i c a l major decisions are required and are summarized below: Program Approval & Funding July 1961 Development-Production Funding S e c . 1962 Design Concept Decision Jan. I 9 6 3 Approval f o r Hardware Go-Ahead Feb. I963 Delays i n providing the funding Indicated, o r In r e c e i v i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n of d e c i s i o n s required, w i l l have the d i r e c t e f f e c t of delaying t h e end o b j e c t i v e s . This problem could be e f f e c t i v e l y solved by a streamlined management structure having a minimum number of reviewing a u t h o r i t i e s . The present AFSC procedures are a s t e p i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n but^ more .direct channels .are, d e s i r a b l e a t the higher command l e v e l s . , t , „ - ^--. V, ^ • ^ WDLAR-S-458 Thii docwnent l e n u i m i n f o ™ * * * •Hading th* rutienal delenu of ihc United Sr*tes within tfw mewing, of ihe [ipiontge l a m , Title I t , U.S.C Seclnn 793 end 7V4, t h * Ireiumiuion or revelelron o l which hi any manner k> p i uneiflhorixed penon l l protiibiled by law.
    • > » * 3A n LUHAR EJCHKDITION TEST SCHEDULE * • This schedule p r e s e n t s t h e major t e s t Items r e q u i r e d f o r t h e LUHEX program. Upon completion of t h e program manned t r a n s p o r t and unmanned cargo v e h i c l e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o support t h e Lunar e x p e d i t i o n . . The cargo v e h i c l e v i l l be capable of t r a n s p o r t i n g approximately ^5,000 pound "cargo packages" t o t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e f o r supporting t h e e x p e d i t i o n . This same v e h i c l e would be capable of t r a n s p o r t i n g f u t u r e m i l i t a r y payloads t o t h e l u n a r surface t o support space m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s . A d e t a i l e d high-speed r e - e n t r y t e s t program and an a b o r t system t e s t program i s scheduled t o provide b a s i c r e - e n t r y d a t a and t o i n s u r e t h e safety of t h e men I n t h e Lunex R e - e n t r y V e h i c l e . P r i o r t o t h e f i r s t "manned l u n a r l a n d i n g and r e t u r n f l i g h t , a s e r i e s of t e s t and check-out f l i g h t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . These w i l l i n i t i a l l y c o n s i s t of o r b i t a l f l i g h t s , and then very h i g h a l t i t u d e (50,000 m i l e s or more) e l l i p t i c a l f l i g h t s f o r t e s t i n g t h e v e h i c l e s under r e - e n t r y c o n d i t i o n s . When t h e s e have been completed, the f i r s t f l i g h t s w i l l be made around t h e moon (circumlunar) and r e t u r n t o an e a r t h b a s e . With a completely man-rated v e h i c l e , and unmanned l u n a r l a n d i n g f l i g h t s completed, man w i l l then make t h e f i r s t l a n d i n g on t h e moon f o r t h e purpose of s e l e c t i n g a s i t e f o r the Lunar Expedition F a c i l i t y . 3.5 LUNEX SIACE IAUNCHTNG REQUIREMENTS "The purpose of t h i s schedule i s t o summarize t h e space l a u n c h i n g v e h i c l e requirements and I n d i c a t e when t h e launches w i l l be needed. The THOR-ABLE-STAR b o o s t e r s w i l l be used f o r t h e r e - e n t r y t e s t program. The Space Launching System b o o s t e r s d e s i g n a t e d a s A, AB and BC, and s o l i d s a s r e q u i r e d , w i l l be needed as i n d i c a t e d and t h e i r payload c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e e s t i m a t e d a s f o l l o w s : Booster Payload A ItlO 20,000 pounds (300 m i l e o r b i t ) AB 625 87,000 pounds (300 m i l e o r b i t ) AB 825 24,000 pounds (escape v e l o c i t y ) BC 2720 13^,000 pounds (escape v e l o c i t y ) WDIAR-S-458 X&&Thli dQcunwflf confiiru information effecting Ihe national d > f i n u of Iha Un<i«d State* within the moaning of I h * Espionage Lewi, TitleIB, U-5-C, Section 793 ond 794, (ho tranuniiiion Or revelarion of which in ony manner to on unauthorized person is prohibited by low.
    • .* 3.6 ^r PERSONNEL AND 1RAINING c The Lunar Expedition program w i l l r e q u i r e m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l and a m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g program- D e t a i l s of t h i s program a r e p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n XX and summarized on t h e Uraex T r a i n i n g Schedule i n c l u d e d in this section. The number of p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d w i l l i n c r e a s e from a l i m i t e d s t a f f i n t h e e a r l y ft-ogram Office t o a t o t a l of 6,000 personnel I n t h e a c t i v e e x p e d i t i o n y e a r . This t o t a l does n o t include "in p l a n t "• & • c o n t r a c t o r personnel -which i s e s t i m a t e d t o be on t h e o r d e r of 66 thousand. Training of m i l i t a r y personnel t o meet t h e requirements of t h e LUMEX program v i l l be done by c o n t r a c t o r and m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l . Maximum use v i l l be made of program equipment tfeen I t can be scheduled f o r t r a i n i n g purposes and i n a d d i t i o n } a l l o c a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n equipment i s n e c e s s a r y t o meet toainlng r e q u i r e m e n t s . 3-7 XUNEX CIVIL ENGINEERING FACILITIES SCHEDULE The f a c i l i t i e s development and c o n s t r u c t i o n program I s shown on t h i s s c h e d u l e . The f i r s t item t o be accomplished i s a s i t e survey t o determine t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e LUNEX program can be supported by A R and B4R. When t h i s has been accomplished i t iti.ll M be p o s s i b l e t o deteimine i f t h e e a r l y LUNEX t e s t launches can be accomplished by u s i n g p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s . F u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t i l l be given t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g t h e Lunex Lranch Complex a s an expansion of t h e AMP o r fMR. A more d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e f a c i l i t i e s program i s contained i n S e c t i o n V I I I C i v i l Engineering. 3-8 WDLAR-S-J*58 ** Thii document contain! information (Heeling th* national ( M m i : of the Uniitd S t e m within the meaning of Ihe Eipionege Uw>, Title I S , U S . C , Section 793 and 794, the IteruniitiiOn 01 revelation of which in any manner B an unauthorind pemon i> prohibited by law. •.-, --3---B---
    • MASTER PROGRAM 6CHEDUXE P R O G R A M SCHEDULE . J ~c DATE TOTAL PRIOR 1 F M A M ) CYtt i ,» |» Q N D J F M A M J CY| J i HIGH SPEED RE-ENTRY f t i b T k. * m Ig | ? X% BOSS SUPPORT iWI1 -i ABORT SYSTEM TESTS ORBITAL ,, UHMAHHED . MASHED CIPCUHLUHAR UHMAHHED HASHED • LOBAR IAHDIHG & RETURN UHMAHHED • MANNED -*^ LUHAH EXPEDITIOH e -r " tt ,• ^w • BOOSTER REQUIREMENTS RE-EHTRY TEST .-.T A - U . 0 iI I i "*? AB-825 1 BC-2720 i , • • „£ J F MAM i i A S 0 H I ] F MAM T FYB . FYK 1 9
    • • k- . *-, ^ CY IS CY* C ViONDJFMAMJJASONDj FMAMI J A S D N D J F M A M J 1 _a * ^ ^ ^ § » | ^ ; ^ia.S* ^^i^sj|^^|^^^^^^^^^^^E^^^^^^HH^^^|^^^^^^ v 1 1 1 Ill I IIJ . 1 1 M II 1 1 i 1J ^ Ife ^ 1 | M S I M MlnAi^MiiSMMWMmmM M a H f l ^ ^ msmm mm"j^^^^gg 1S & < . 1 - j k . 1 i| S 1| |i 11 f 1 ppB Mppip |JKf ft iswPMii i " • i ! •1 *[TASONDJFMAMI J A s o KD J 7 M A M T J A S " O N O J F M A M J J A S_ 0 ND| FY 15 FYK FYt7 FYW - • -*N. WDLAR-S-458 -.^ --v—•
    • CHART m - 8 LUNAR EXPEDITION PROGRAM MILESTONE SCHEDULE CALENDAR 1961 1962 1963 1964 PRELIMINARY DESIGN COMPLETE ( LUNEX PAYLOAD) - < PROGRAM APPROVAL AND FUNDING K ) ENGINEERING DESIGN AND MOCK-UP INITIATE HARDWARE PROCUREMENT < c !! <> RE-ENTRY VEHICLE ( 9 0 % ENG REL ) <> LUNAR LANDING STAGE ( 9 0 % ENG REL) < FIRST MANNED ORBITAL FLIGHT CARGO PAYLOAD ( 9 0 % ENG REL)4 LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE ( 9 0 % ENG R E D FIRST LUNAR LANDING (CARGO TEST FLIGHT) MANNED CIRCUMLUNAft FLIGHT SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM FLIGHT QUALIFIED MANNED LUNAR LANDING ANO RETURN PERMANENTLY MANNED LUNAR EXPEDITION LUNAR EXPEDITION FUNDING REOUIREMENTS(MILLIONS) 27 112 350 r-
    • pf 4 _-$» AL
    • i„* . i %JL . * :,e ROMAN KNBMU m C % CY~oT~ | LUNAR EXPEDITION. CV 60 MANAGEMENT MILESTONES FY62 - FY 6 3 jritlJ j i l t i I j r• i • J j A i 1 n 1 START PRELIMINARY DESIGN (LRV) u 1 4 COMPLETE PRELIMINARY DESIGN (LRV ::*::"3S:J 1 ft PROGRAM APPROVAL AND FUNDING - - - - - n - I I ENGJKEERING DESIGN COMPETITION 1 AND MOCK-UP M II Contractor No. 1 {Lunex Payloads) n D Contractor No. 2 (Lunex Pavloads) H H DEVELOPMENT - PRODUCTION FUNDINC U X II DESIGN CONCEPT DECISION J II J If APPROVAL FOR HARDWARE GO-AHEAD J>0- • J 11 CONTRACT AWARD "• n j n LUNAR TRANSPORT VEHICLE PROGRAM *• M B LUNAR EXPEDITION! J • PROGRAM j » J • REQUIRED FUNDING (MILLIONS) - II m . FY-62 Ixh. ~ • r- II 9 FY-63 " M FY-M » » 11 * ^ •™ 4t LRV - Lunex R e - e n t r y Vehicle J f 1 A 1 J J 4 S 1 111 J 1 • A 1 J J 4 FY 61
    • **»?. PKMIAM K H N U - 6 Years m D LUNAR EXPEDITION CV-61 CY-62 TEST SCHEDULE J HIGH SPEED RE-ENTRY TEST 25.000 - 35.000 ft/aec (Sub-Scale) 35.000 - 45,000 ft/aec" (Sub-Scale) .;£*-: LUNEX RE-ENTRY VEHICLE Static T e s t Eng., L a b . , and Gnd. T e s t Prototype Drop Test Unmanne Manned T .QiiitaL Unmanned Manned Hjfe— C i r c u m Lunar Unmanned Manned» Lunar Landing and R e t u r n lUnmanneda. M^uedTL Lunar ExpeditionM CIRCUMLUNAR PROPULSION STAGE Eng.. Lab., and Gnd. T e s t2L Orbital Check-out Circumlunar Unmanned •—a,2L MannedJLII LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE Eng.. Lab, i and Gnd. T e s tn_ E a r t h Launch T e s ta. Orbital Check-out Lunar Launch *^*sa. Unmanned MannedM_ Lunar ExpeditiontL.«_ (Continued) J f I A • J J I t I I I J]F I M J J A FY-62 k—as »liU l . « . . » » ^ •^*•W•W•TT,
    • - : ! . - . • - . - » • ; • : : - . . • . - . - • - n- *»• - * <J * •• -.-.rSrtr • ~.^x-:-----: CY-64 CY-6! CY ^r 3 JM ra33 0 n n 0 D ft64 rax « 0 0 JL4 U 0 n-^ - .-•" - : . " ; - •"-• I *&Z- ^&i*xS§£ki 09 n • ..J-—^ ilsH|i|i|i|Hi|i|i|] J« fY -63 rt-t* FY-65 JA ; *..r. . ^ V t ; >|,.::^^. - : ^ ? ^ ^ - ^ ^ : ^ - . - ^ ^ .-^ > t > ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ S : ^ 7 ? ^ ; i % - - ??=£;;-:-:- : .^ : ; r :^^u^ S : -i-J.;..-:;"::- j&;~- -r- - i t*V« ^- .-*i:->^;-U-r-?: U : -rSi •"ST-.-.-. -—.:•
    • MOOtAM SCHBUU - 6 Y e a r s TTT TJ (Cont. ) | LUNAR E X P E P I T I O N CY - 6 1 CY-62 TEST SCHEDULE J F M Jl • J J 1 S 0i • j r i « i ) i A 1 LUNAR LANDING STAGE f Eng,, L a b . , and Gnd. T e s t 1 Drop T e s t 1 Orbital I Cargo 1 Lunar Landing i 1 Cargo ~ ~ - I Unmanned t Manned iq Lunar Expedition 11 Cargo 12 Manned IS j ! CARGO PACKAGE CONFIGURATION H Eng.. L a b . , and Gnd. T e s t 11 Orbital 17 Lunar Land i n p 11 Lunar E x p e d i t i o n H n ABORT 11 Auto. S e n s i n g and Initiation S y s . Zi Eng. L a b . O v e r 5 t r e s s T e s t s n Reliability Demo. Tests 21 Captive F i r i n g T e s t s 25 Flight T e s t s 2i U n m a n n e d - O p e n Loop 27 A-410 „ . AB-825 29 BC-Z720 » U n m a n n e d - C l o s e d Loop H A-410 M AB-825 S3 BC-2720 ]l Abort V e h i c l e F l i g h t t e s t JJ Pad E s c a p e * M P o w e r e d F i t . Separation SI A-X _ 31 Recovery Ceiline Test 39 A-X M J F H k • J J A S 0|l i J f • i • i J J 1 FY-62 1 V-V/...V>.*.-«.-*!* * .*•.-.*..-: "•;- -rv-.v^- a -*- »^.w-™^ " • t S S g g - * y • V-"-^1"? ^^T5?^-^ff g TrtSS3SPi^^»a
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    • PtOOtAM SCHBUU - 6 Years in E [ LUNEX S P A C E LAUNCHING CY-61 CV-62 REQUIREMENTS raX THOR-ABLE-STARX UnmannedXXX SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEMx A UnmannedXX Man-Ratedu_1L AB UnmannedJLfl_ BC UnmannedIXIX BC Man-RatedIXU_IIJL2L1L22_n_2LH_2LV- NUMBERS REPRESENTZL LAUNCH VEHICLE NUMBER2f_M_1Laa_M,li- *ltIL1L&.«_ JF l I • J JASQIBJFiAIJ S I FY-62 l , , ! - .•-.*,. , ^ - • : ^ - ^ - ^ - - - " - . - : - - " ^ - ^ --!--- , M. "Sff".-" " - U , . , . . • - • * —
    • i i-fli- IHJI.I- 1n fi "3a. BRffBt^nRmas^-s-wrraM. 89-AJ i9~AJ 99- A*r « r • i r 11 • s i r • i•i riNO s i r IF 0S : n nn n n n n U n nIn n u n- n u n 3 n n -n a r f t ^ i i ^ i m t P i K ^ * ••• n u 2 n i ii P H I — • f r ^ ^ u t " i I . - I i n i n ; imiiLiu — » j " n b nn n n nt n n n J n 3 P 3 n n n K A _ ^ : ~ ^:^T^-^^^5=^^^"^:*^??^^";^•-;T^i;^^^^J - ; ^:-:r . ^ . ^ ^ i ^ . ^ ^ ? ; - ^ -v T **~ ^L j-:::-7--^--.*^-;*.- =fe^>-^ - ^ i - ^ ^ ^ - r - -< t i rr Z9-A3 99-A3
    • CY-62 | CY-63 CY-64 CY-65 -T* • I • 1• u - U - U u ft r u n ft ft u K LI ft " u ft U - "J ft ft u u u ft Lf ft u ft C ft, ft u ft ft; J H ft u u • n - ft ft u . u ft ft LI u ft ft U H u ft : z * • u. 2 ft ft u u ft ft u ft Lf ft u u D J F I 1 • J j I S 0 I D J F I ft 1 j J f t S O I I J f l f t l J J A I JF• A$ I I •FY-62 FY-63 FY-64 FY-65 fY-66 WDLAR-S-458
    • - 6 Years I I T - F j LUNEX CIVIL ENGINEERING CY-6I CY-62FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM J r • A « J J * I 0 11 j r • « 1 1 J i i1 LUNEX LAUNCH SITE SURVEY " „ J _ _: f 1 AWARD A and E CONTRACTS - L I — * I DESIGN INTEGR. LAUNCH COMPLEX "-;j:::::: 4 * 1 DESIGN C and SOLID INTEGR. BLDG f CONSTRUCTIONM11 DESIGN A / B and PAYLOAD INTGR. BLDG ::::::::::[!n Constr, Pavload. Intgr BideB Modif. and Constr. A and Payload Bid) .H Modif. and Constr. B and Payload Bldj . — _ _ _H DESIGN A, B and SOLID INTEGR. BLDG __ LI rIf Constr. A and Solid Bide17 Modif. and Conatr.B and Solid Bldjt"If DESIGN LAUNCH PADSp I and 2 : : : : : : : : :II Construction» 3 and 4n 5 and 6 (If Required)PC 3 - 6 Constructionii DESIGN SOLro.FACILITYM CONSTRUCTION „ -B• DESIGN PROPELLANTMFGFACIL — — ~ - r -H CONSTRUCTION . _u - - 1**11 DESIGN HARBOR, DOCK and BARGE ~ ~ ~ n11 CONSTRUCTION u»M DESIGN FACIL AGE11 MANUFACTURE AND INSTALL.11 A •—» B "59!11 C r~*41 j r i l l H M D I : I I F I I U M S I - --I FY-62 j
    • JMMW J —"Si" S ^ i ™ * CY-63 CY-64 CY-65 J F J J $ 8 ten li HdJ S fc IE 1£ -".:-:-$-- -,*ii: "-.i m« i i m w i w • • i Ill m i — ~ "^**SS3^^j*^^^S^^^=^fi^ig^^^^^^^^^^;:j D J F I 1 • j J 1 SO I I J F M I I J J i n n j F • x • JI « S 0 1 1 FY-63 FY-64 FY-65 FY & • .
    • CY-66 CY -67 CY-6CJFfllNJJlSONDJFMAIIj JASOHDJFHIMJJASOHD i o r ^: ,£ _) rz g ir i 4 ? 5"1-3.5. L^Itl < t 1 Z 3 4 5 3 ? 9 K i l l i i : M l ! M i1 Lf * - if. T ?3^- -m- 4 6*9:•: :i j J JFMIMJJASONDJFIAflJJ MOID j riiinnoii6^ FY-67 FY-68 WDUUl-S-458
    • NO0UM SOfBMU - 6 Years |LUNEX TRAINING SCHEDULE cr-6i CY-6J Chart i n - G _L ATC SPO REP APPOINTED u X X PERSONNEL SITRSYSTEM CONTRACTED u X X PROGRAM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT uXX TRAINING FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS uXX TEST DIRECTIVE COORDINATED uB_U- FIRST OQPRI REVIEW uJLB_ TEST PLAN PREPAREDM_U_ TRAINING PROGRAM CONFERENCE1L12_ TRAINING PARTS PROVISIONINGll_ML CREW SELECTIONfluIL. SPECIAL TRAINING START2La_a_ILa_a.M_ILIL_JL_MMLa.ILILIL« J f • A• J I UlUlD I I I U I FY - 6 2 - - - ^ . . . - - T ^ - . , .J..-:i-,y-
    • .1 _ ijH ,-, ssf-s-svnaA w-« £9-AJ Z9-AJ I I »r if • i i t i u r i M r i aoi n v m r i M S M ( m 2 n OJ n 30N5 ^ n u aa n SiN3W3li iH3W<* n 3aT!5ySII nI I »r »f J t i • ^9-A3 £9-A3 1! Z9A3 19-A3 aT^E „_- . , i » i , » - a - - • • w - i n -
    • SECTION IV lEVELOFMENT - TEST - ERODUCTIOU LUNAR EXPEDITION ( u ) (LUHEX) k.X WDLAR-S-lt58 winTV -«-»*/ »***»M. 4oaimwni taatglni nfmmf*lt athctina tha national rfaHjmt al flit I f a l M Statu ITHhln Hi* a m n i a f at |a» Ewianaaa Lawt, Till*11. U.S.C.. Sactran 7?3 and 794, Ik* franintHiM ar n n l t f i a n af which In • • » manner la on KaMharilad Banan H pnMnnad lijr law. J
    • .RECORD OP CHANGES T CHANGE INSCRIPTION OF CHANGE I DA3E OF CHANGE REFERENCE NO. TO BASIC *" PARI1 E * vv iT* ii.o . "*;- l ** " . " = * = WDMR-S-458Tfch d a c m M w U a l m iafafmotlwi alfaclina HM nanana) dalaain at tfct Unrtod Stat*? -Il*!« ft* Kfoiihif a) Hm EipIaMHja l a m , TulaI I , U.S.C.. faclfcm TO * * W«, KM froniarinisn * , ™ . . I O H M af wfilili i r gay •anoar ta mm U H l M M n i l rmn*l U prahtbTtad by taw.
    • DHEX TITLE PAGE 4.1 RECORD OF CHANGES 4.2 TSDE3L 4-3 4.0 INTRODUCTION 4-5 4.1 EEVELOPMEHT OBJECTIVES 4.5 4.1-1 High-Speed Re-Entry 4, 5 4.1.2 Manned lunar Fayload 4, 6 4.1.3 Cargo Bayload 4. 7 4.1.4 Abort System 4, 7 4, 8 4.1.5 Space launching System 4.2 SUBSYSTEM IEVELOPMENT 4.9 4.2-1 Re- Entry Vehicle 4-9 4.2.1.3-1 Aerodynamics 4.U 4.2.1-3.2 Materials 4.U 4.2.1.3.3 Structures 4.12 4.2.1.3-4 Dynamics 4.13 4.2.2 Propulsion 4-15 life Support 4.17 4.2-3 Flight Vehicle Power 4.19 4.2.4 Guidance and Control System 4.20 4.2-5 Inertlal Platform 4.20 4.2-5-2 Star Tracker 4.21 4.2.5-3 4.21 Long Baseline Radio Navigation 4.2.5-4 4.22 Doppler Radar 4.2-5-5 Re-Entry Guidance 22 4.2.5.6 Adaptive Autopilot 22 4.2.5.7 Computer 24 4.2.6 26 4.2-7 Communications Environmental Data 4.27 4.2.8 4.32 Materials 4.2-9 4.34 4.3 TEST PLAN 4-3 Test Categories 4, 34 4-3. Research Tests 4. 34 4.3- Design Evaluation Tests 4. 37 4.3. Flight Testing 4. 38 4.3- 4. 39 High-Speed Re-Entry Flight Test 4.3. 4. 39 lunex He-Entry Vehicle Flight Test 4. 41 4.3.3.3 lunar launch Stage Flight Test 4.4 HKXEUCTION PLAN TOLAR-s-458Tkh •eamaM r t a l r i n fafenstian affaefhtg rha M ) I M B ! M M . of Ma UnHao1 Stafet viAbi Ma — i h * af Hw I t p l m w Lain, TWaM , U.5.C., StcHea Tf3 and 7*4, itw tranunliiiaa ar taralolHH af vhlck In say mmumi ta aa aaanttwiiad panan b p r a M U M by ( • " .
    • •-**>. .J. * * * * * * * - • *"*~,****i*$& This page intentionally l e f t blank i ifr.4 WDIAR-S-lfjS .-«»»w*we»wo«* TW« d H M n l (anwini fotamstlon affocifet • * • aaflMial dafaina ef H H Unind Slain wiHiM fa* H a n i * * af Ik* f ipiwwaa l a m . Tdta IB, U.S.C., Stdim 7*3 aaa1 7*4, the homnintwi ar rmlsHan ml vhlih In any anaiHr to an a w H i w l n a r*rt** h p a f c l b M • » h M . v- - •*-:.
    • 4. DEVELOFMEHT - 2EST - PRODUCTION 4.0 IHTflODUCTIOH Implementation of the lunar Expedition v l l l require a completely Integrated program Involving t h e development, t e s t , and production of Items based on almost every known t e c h n i c a l d i s c i p l i n e . These technical d i s c i p l i n e s are presently being i n v e s t i g a t e d under a multitude of programs and organixations • The Lunar Expedition program v i l l require these t e c h n i c a l e f f o r t s t o be immediately organized and r e - o r i e n t e d where necessary. This can b e s t be accomplished by preparing a d e t a i l e d development, t e s t , and production program. Vben t h i s program i s completed each technical area can be evaluated by comparing I t s present program o b j e c t i v e s and I t s required output t o meet the Lunar Expedition program requirements. In the following paragraphs the Lunar Expedition development o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i c a l p e r - formance requirements are presented. The scope of the major e x i s t i n g t e c h n i c a l programs and the necessary r e - o r i e n t a t i o n i s discussed. 4.1 DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES 4-1.1 HIGH-SPEED RE-SNORT At the present time high-speed re-entry data In the v e l o c i t y spectrum from 25,000 f t / s e e . t o 1*5,000 f t / s e e . I s n o n - e x i s t a n t . In order t o meet the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle development schedule I t " • w i l l be necessary t o have high-speed r e - e n t r y data during the engineering design program f o r the manned re-entry v e h i c l e . Thus a compressed and coordinated teBt program f o r both ground t e s t f a c i l i t i e s and f l i g h t t e s t i n g i s necessary* Immediate a c t i o n I s necessary t o schedule and design the high-speed wind-tunnel t e s t program. This v i l l show the type of information t h a t can only be achieved by means of f l i g h t t e s t i n g . The High-Speed Re-entry f l i g h t t e s t program scheduled f o r the Lunex program i s necessary t o provide b a s i c data on r e - e n t r y as well as t o f l y s p e c i f i c shapes In t h e l a t e r period of the t e s t program. This s e l e c t e d shape program v i l l be coordinated with the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle design e f f o r t . In order t o accomplish the High-Speed Be-entry f l i g h t t e s t program i t w i l l be necessary t o design and develop a t e s t v e h i c l e . Oils v e h i c l e most use e x i s t i n g boost systems due t o time l i m i t a t i o n s , but the payload v l l l have t o be designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s program since none e x i s t s a t t h i s time. I t I s b e l i e v e d t h a t the A t l a s booster v l l l prove adequate f o r these t e s t s , but a decision must a v a l t the t e s t payload d e s i g n . 4.5 ^n>IAR-s-45BThlt 4K.WM CMWilm Infatuation vHfHr* N natJwwl ritfmw at M» UnfHd StoMi wMiln Haj aHMfiift* 1 * • Eiaioaoaa Urn, TH*> WII, IU.C, itclian 7*3 and 7W. Urn honimliilon ar imiatfM •* which In «nf maomr H m ••—Ihcriwd PHIM h anhlklM by to*. •-.-.—*-.. .•-?sr--. - i — W ; - ^ - - J - , , _ » . - ; - - -!-«*••
    • * V -9 fc.1.2 MANNED LUNAR PAYLOAD The largest single development objective for the LUTO3C program is to provide a payload capable of transporting men and equipment to the lunar surface and returning them to a selected earth base, nils payload would consist of a Lunar landing Stage, a lunar Launch Stage and a 3-man Lunex Re-entry Vehicle. A typical Manned lunar Payload is shown in a cut-away view in Figure h~. Ike characteristics and General Arrangement of the Manned Lunar Payload are shown in Figures k-2 and k-3. This payload is 52 feet U inches long, has the e.g. located 33 feet 8 inches from the nose of the re-entry vehicle and the interface diameter with the Space Launching System is 25 feet. The complete payload weighs 13^,000 pounds at escape velocity, and a 20,205 pound Manned Re-entry Vehicle is returned to the earth. The Lunex Re-entry Vehicle must be capable of entering the earths atmosphere with a velocity of approximately 37,000 ft/see. At the present time, basic re-entry information for velocities Of this magnitude does not exist. Therefore, engineering design effort for this re-entry vehicle must be accomplished concurrently with other major sub-systems developments and integrated with the High- Speed Re-entry test program and the Abort System test and development program. This requires close management control of these programs by the LUHEX Program Office. Another major problem facing the re-entry vehicle development program is the life support package. The planned schedule will require tbe manned life support package to be designed on the basis of earlier primate shots. Mercury shots and the Discoverer series. These programs lead toward a manned capability, but this re-entry vehiwie requires the first truly space life support package. . The lunar landing Stage must be capable of landing the LunarLaunching Stage and the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle on the lunar surface.At the present time this is considered a difficult design problembecause little is known about the lunar surface. Actually the bestphotographic resolution to date is approximately <§ mile. Manytheories exist on the formation of the moon and therefore, thecharacteristics of its present surface. When these two factors areconsidered the only practical design approach is to provide analighting system capable of landing on an extremely rough surface.An automatic leveling, orientation and launching system is requiredfor system check-out prior to manned flight. Therefore, anyassumption that the Manned Lunar Payload can be moved about on thelunar surface or that the payloads might initially transfer fuel onthe lunar surface, might be entirely erroneous and Jeopardize thecomplete Lunar Expedition effort. The landing stage will also, haveto be developed so that It is capable of landing the Cargo Payloadson the lunar surface. ^ , - v - . ^ * - ^IWt * K H » * M ™nofni iflfaruMtlaii nHaclIng Hi* notional d*KnM of rh* Unli* S I B I M within Ike •.•unlit* si Hw Eipioneo* Law>, TittaI I , U.S.C., iKiian J13 ava 7 M , Ik* Kowmiiitm H n n l a t l a * of mhiiti in an* • O B W J to on •nnvUnrind p n w i i i B t o t l U M by lav.
    • The Lunar launching Stage must be developed with a different philosophy than the previous sub-systems. First, It only operates in 4. vacuum of space and on the lunar surface. Secondly-/ it vlll be required to function after It has been located on the lunar surface for an extended period varying from several days to many months. Therefore, the stage must be developed to launch the re-entry vehicle after being subjected to a better vacuum then available In our best earth laboratory facilities, following possible temperature variations of hOO to 500 degrees, following possible meteorite bombardment and from a less than optimum launch angle. Specifically the stage development must consider propellent boil-off, automatic check-out, self-erection and remote (earth-moon) launching procedures. Die lunar launching Stage represents the major reliability problem of the system because an abort capability is planned for evexy phase of the L I f X mission except during launch from the lunar Ufl surface. During the early lunar flights an abort capability for this phase Is just too expensive payload-viBe for the Space Launching System. An abort capability during Lunar Launch essentially requires a duplicate lunar launching capability because the man must still be returned to the earth by either this system, or a special rescue flight. Therefore, until lunar support facilities are available a separate system for abort during lunar launch does not seem practical. This creates the requirement to develop an extremely reliable Lunar Launching Stage. IM.3 CARGO BttLOAD She successful support of the Lunar Expedition vill require a capability to deliver relatively large Cargo Packages to the lunar surface. These Cargo packages vlll be soft landed at the desired lunar sites by the Lunar Landing Stage. Each Cargo package vlll weigh approximately 45,000 pounds and vill be specifically designed to carry the items desired to support the expedition. Development of the Cargo Payload and the specific packages vill depend upon the Lunar Landing Stage design and the receipt of lunar environmental data. The actual design of the Lunar Expedition Facility vill only be possible vhen detailed Information on the lunar surface is available. Then vtth the facility design information the required materials, equipment, and procedures can be determined and a payload delivery sequence derived. The required payload delivery sequence is essential before the Individual payloads can be designed and developed, but timely development of major Items of equipment must proceed as their individual requirements become known. k.l.k ABORT SXSTEM The philosophy of abort has been presented In the Program Description section of this document. The development of the abort equipment will require an integrated effort with the re-entry vehicleTklt tonMiri o M a t u kitemMiM • K a d i n f l f c r ^ n H p K t w H * af H H United ftafa< V M I I I Ha> iitaalnt a| ( M E f p t a m * low*, THtiI I , U.S.C.. Sacfian 793 and 794. Hit I m m i u b i i ar n>*<Ionan"*Mat#cli in any • s u n n n an anaaBiarliad H I W I H p r t a l b l M ay law.
    • -«H : -( The lunar launching Stage must be developed with a d i f f e r e n t philosophy than the previous sub-systems. F i r s t , i t only operates i n a„ vacuum of space and on the lunar surface. Secondly, i t w i l l be required t o function a f t e r i t has been l o c a t e d on the lunar surface f o r an extended period varying from several days t o many months. Therefore, the stage must be developed t o launch the r e - e n t r y v e h i c l e a f t e r being subjected t o a b e t t e r vacuum then available i n our b e s t earth laboratory f a c i l i t i e s , following p o s s i b l e temperature v a r i a t i o n s of 400 t o 50Q degrees, following p o s s i b l e meteorite bombardment and from a l e s s than optimum launch angle. S p e c i f i c a l l y the stage development must consider propellent b o i l - o f f , automatic check-out, s e l f - e r e c t i o n and remote (earth-moon) launching procedures. The Lunar Launching Stage represents the major r e l i a b i l i t y problem of the system because an abort c a p a b i l i t y i s planned f o r every phase of the LUNEX mission except during launch from the lunar surface. During the e a r l y lunar f l i g h t s an abort c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h i s phase i s Just t o o expensive payload-vise f o r the Space Launching System. An abort c a p a b i l i t y during Lunar Launch e s s e n t i a l l y requires a duplicate lunar launching c a p a b i l i t y because the man must s t i l l be returned t o the earth by e i t h e r t h i s system, or a s p e c i a l rescue f l i g h t . Therefore, u n t i l lunar support f a c i l i t i e s ere a v a i l a b l e a separate system f o r abort during lunar launch does not seem p r a c t i c a l . This creates the requirement, t o develop an extremely r e l i a b l e Lunar Launching Stage. fc.1.3 C R O BftTLOAD AG The successful support of the Lunar Expedition -will require a c a p a b i l i t y t o d e l i v e r r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e Cargo packages t o the lunar surface. These Cargo packages v i l l be s o f t landed a t the desired lunar s i t e s by the Lunar Landing Stage. Each Cargo Package w i l l weigh approximately ^5,000 pounds and w i i l be s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o carry the items d e s i r e d t o support the expedition. Development of the Cargo Payload and t h e s p e c i f i c packages w i l l depend upon the Lunar Landing Stage design and the r e c e i p t of lunar environmental data. The actual design of the Lunar Expedition F a c i l i t y w i l l only be p o s s i b l e when d e t a i l e d information on the lunar surface i s a v a i l a b l e . Then with the f a c i l i t y design information the required m a t e r i a l s , equipment, and procedures can be determined and a payload delivery sequence derived. The required payload delivery sequence i s e s s e n t i a l before the individual payloads can be designed and developed, but timely development of major items of equipment must proceed as t h e i r Individual requirements become known. It.1.4 ABCfiT SYSTEM The philosophy of abort has been presented In the Program Description s e c t i o n of t h i s document. The development of the abort equipment w i l l require an i n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t with the r e - e n t r y v e h i c l e WDLAR-S-lf58 . ^ . :<> : 1M* ri»»«iil wUslu MbnmHan .ffadingT*. * 3 H M B ( l w i . * •« Hn U.IM Holn «»KlH H* aiMnrBt *f Hw Eiptwnt* L*wi, IHta I I , U.S.C.,fecttan793 ""J 7M. <*• tnm.liilM *r 1.1 • TnTi • II * I I In Mi I In any • * » • an w H w r l n d p v w i It pnliiMM my I H .
    • • ^ i & . s t f l • • : - * * • design and the test program must be conducted concurrently to provide a reliable and safe system for supporting manned operations. It is essential that the re-entry vehicle development be con- ducted so that the life support capsule csn also meet the requirements Imposed by the abort system. Additional structural and propulsion items must be developed to provide for abort during the earth ascent phase of the lunar mission. She computing and control equipment on the Manned Lunar Payload must be capable of selecting the desired abort mode of operation and initiating the desired actions at any required time throughout the lunar mission. 1**1.5 SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM The Lunar Expedition requires an extensive space launching capability- The development of this capability is a necessary part of the LUTJEJf Program. At present this development is being included under the Space launching System program. It is designed to support the lev altitude test, orbital, circumlunar, and full lunar flights. The major problems facing the design and development of the LUHEX payloads vlth reference to the Space Launching System, concerns the interface characteristics, trajectory considerations, and earth launch facilities. The present prime interface characteristics for the Manned and Cargo lunar Payloads are as follows: Interface Diameter 300 inches Escape Payload Weight 13^,000 pounds . Payload Length 6y? inches Center of Gravity kok inches (Measured from top of payload) The Space Launching System is required to provide timely launching capabilities for the Lunar Expedition as follows: Payload Weight Unmanned Manned Pounds Trajectory Flight Flight 20,000 300 mile orbit Aug 6k April 6? 87,000 300 mile orbit Dec 65 - - 2^,000 Escape Telocity Dec 65 Aug 66 . 13^,000 Escape Velocity July 66 Aug 6f r WDLAR-S-lt58thlt riocuiaanr aftioini infafinaflsn affecting Id* •attanol d*J*HM et tht Uniknf b a M i within tha n * s % ) | «f llw Eiplena** Lawn, T M iI I , U.S.C., S*tiio» 7*3 and 794, M» IHmimiiiiaii at i»>lallaii • ! wtii(l) in any vonnai M en unavttiefjinri natwn H DfokiMMd by t o * .
    • S^*P k.2 SUBSYSTEM B V L F E T E E OM H The development of a manned lunar payload and a cargo package requires the development of subsystems and applied research in many technical areas. Studies have established that the advances In performance In these technical areas can be accomplished to meet the overall program schedules and that no scientific breakthroughs are required. She Important point i s that items requiring development be identified, that necessary funds be allocated, and that effort be Initiated without delay. Die following sections discuss major subsystem requirements, present capabilities, and development required. Completed studies conducted by the Air Force and Industry have established subsystem requirements in sufficient detail to outline develop- ment programs which should be initiated Immediately. Present studies will refine these specifications further.>>-£. 4.2-1 RE-ENTRT VEHICIB«*&si lr.2.1.1 The manned re-entry vehicle i s a c r i t i c a l item in the development of the manned payload packages. This vehicle must be - capable of returning from the moon and re-entering the earths (_ atmosphere at earth escape velocity (37*000 f t / B e e . ) . I t must also have the capability of supporting three men on a 10-day round t r i p earth-moon mission. This mission would include boost from earth, coasting in earth orbit, b a l l i s t i c f l i g h t to the moon,...^ deboost and landing on the moons surface, remaining on the moon •<• for one to five days, launch from the moons surface, re-entering the earths atmosphere and landing at a pre-selected base on the ~~ earth. Structural requirements imposed by i n e r t i a ! and pressure*~*— loading during boost, abort, trajectory correction, landing, r e - entry, ground handling, and wind loading on the launch pad, have been considered in analyzing desired vehicle characteristics-. These studies have also included the heating and i t s effect on - vehicle design as v e i l as the effects of space and lunar environ- ment including particles and radiation, meteorite penetration, and hard vacuum. Present deslga studies have estimated the total re-entry vehicle weight at 20,205 pounds. The weight breakdown^"^f is as follows; £z a. Body 7500 (1) Structure 3500 (2) Heat Shield U000 b. Wing Group 2000 (1) Structure * * • -fiOa.-„v ** (2) Heat Shield * 1200 "— - • WDIAR-S-^58 TtiU * B » n » * r contain infMnatten nH.OTn* tfca notiaaol Miu* of Iha Unlltd StaJ« wMln tfca mmnlns af * • Eislwioaa l o r n . Ttthj IS, UiS.C-i Stdien 7*3 ontf 7 ° 4 , fh? trohinliiton *r nvtloflon «f Which In any M D H r to on unauHiorfead pam*n b ttfBMbltav by IvW-
    • c." ControlSystem"*** TJ5 (1) Aerodynamic 600 (2) Attitude 175 d. Environmental Control 1530 (1) Equipment Cooling 138 (2) Structure Cooling 9^0 (3) Cryogenic Storage ^52 e. Landing Gear 700 f. Instruments & Displays 200 g. Electric Pover system 600 h. Guidance & Navigation 400 1. Communi cations 250 J. Furnishing & Equipment 850 (1) SeatsfcRestraints 225 (£) Decompression Chamber 175 (3) Equipment Compartment 300 (k) Miscellaneous 150 k. life Support hoo 1. Crew (3 men) 800 m. Radiation 1200 n. Abort System 3000 4.2.1 2 Present re-entry and recovery techniques are outgrovths of the ballistic missile program utilising ballistic re-entry and parachute recovery. 3hey are not compatible vlth the velocities associated with re-entry from the moon, vlth con- trolled landing, or vith manned operation. Present engineering data associated vith high speed re-entry is not adequate for vehicle design. 4.2.1.3 A development-test program i s required to obtain generalized data on re-entry phenomena and to test scale models WDIAR-B-456TMt tacmmmM anfalM taferRBtlan oHactlnj taa notional a a h * M at * * Unitrf Slorti wiHlT* Hit naonhnj of tha Eipiannv* l o v l , TltkI I . U.&X-, ftcttm 713 and TW. •*• trmiinliiiaa ar r***Ja1IeB af vliicli )n any Mannar ta an vnaafheiiiad a w a h prohibited or l a * . " •tTT"
    • of selected vehicle configurations so that final selection and design of an optimum vehicle can be made. Concurrently with this test program the projects within the applied research program will be directed so as to carry out the following investigations to provide necessary data for the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle Design. 4.2.1.3.1 AERODYNAMICS (1) Study hypersonic-low density aerodynamics including dissociation and ionization, non-equilibrium flow phenomena.; and the influence of radiation non-equilibrium on vehicle aerodynamic and heat transfer characteristics. (2) Initiate an extensive ground based facility program directed at obtaining aerodynamic and heat transfer data up to Mach Ho- 25 (the maximum useable available capability). ttiese tests would Include the G.E. hypersonic shock tunnel in the M = 18 - 25 range; Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory hypersonic shock tunnel I = 12 - 18; Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory heated f hydrogen hypersonic shock tunnel at M - 20; AEDC tunnel "B", "C", at M = 8 - 10; AEDC E-l and E-2, M = 1-5 - 6; AEDC super- sonic and subsonic facilities. Ibis effort will be coordinated with the Lunex Engineering Design program and the High-Speed Re-entry test program- (3) Correlation of wind tunnel tests in ve-uns of prediction of free-flight vehicle performance characteristics in order to provide correlation between ground tests facilities and free-flight vehicles- (k) Complete vehicle static and dynamic stability analysis. (5) Investigate local critical heat transfer problems Including those associated witli flaps and fins. The use of re- action controls, in order to alleviate critical heating areas, for vehicle stability and control, will be investigated- 4.2.1.3-2 M&IERIALS (1) Materials Develoratent (a) Low conductivity p l a s t i c material develop- ment. (1) Uniformly distributed low conductivity. 4.11 —***»-. • Wtt AB-s-458TMi riKvnanl CMlaim tofomtfiofl offorflfta ttH utfeMt dabtu* •* Nw U-.Md Stut*. within ihm mMnlm tf fh* Eipianm Lewi, TftteIB, U.ltC, SadlBfl 793 and 7*4, lh* frvniAiMloii *f mvvlalitHi *? wfcfch H *ny *onn*r tfi «n •POufKorirta pmwtmn it #r*hlblfsd by law.
    • (£) Tailoring conductivity d i s t r i b u t i o n in material in order t o obtain high ablation performance a t - surface and l o v thermal conductivity i n structure bond l i n e . (3.) Develop materials with low ablative temperatures - [h) Investigate bonding of m a t e r i a l ! t o . hot structure. (b) Develop minimum shape change materials for aerodynamic control surface and leading edge applications. flieee materials will include pyrolytic graphite, alloys of pyrolytic graphite, and ceramics. (2) Materials Analysis (a) For selected materials above, develop analytical model to predict ablation performance and Insulation thickness. (b) Experimentally study material performance under simulated f l i g h t environments with the use of high enthalpy arc f a c i l i t i e s (b/RT0 = 700 t o 800). (c) Study the influence of space environment on selected m a t e r i a l s . This will include the influence of vacuum, u l t r a v i o l e t radiation, and high energy p a r t i c l e s . 4.2.1.3.3 STRUCTURES (1) Primary effort will be in the development of load-bearing radiating structures. For this structure, the following areas will be investigated. (a) Ihermal s t r e s s analysis and prediction. (b) Dynamic b u d d i n g (c) Strain gage applications t o high tempera- tures. (d) Experimental simulation on large scale structures of load temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n , and h i s t o r y . She Wl D Structures f a c i l i t y would be the one most appropriate t o fB these t e s t s . WDLAB-S-458 Thli dKanwit cminlin Snfernoiio* aNnUit? il» nstlnwl dafeni* «l Hit United SMn wi(*h> Iht *iMnI«I • Hw EtpiOBM* LDWI, TUln 11, U.5.C.. ttcllnn V93 aai 794, |M trammliilw or tmnWion ml whltti in any mmnmi M an unaulherind panon It pnkibHarf by * » ." • / _ - • " - • . . . . , " - - - . • . I . T , r — -ra-J -- -- •» •• ,-•••••• - - • ,
    • ^iia^djajj^fi li.2 1.3A DYNAMICS (l) Analytical studies In the following areas should be undertaken. (a) Unsteady aerodynamic forces at hypersonic speeds. (b) Aeroelastic changes In structural loading and aerodynamic stability derivatives. (c) Flutter (d) Servoelastlc coupling with guidance system. (e) Fatigue due to random loading- (f) Transient dynamic loading. 4.2.1.k Present projects -within the Air Force applied research program will be reviewed and reoriented or e f f o r t increased, as appropriate, t o provide the necessary data. Projects which can be used for t h i s purpose are l i s t e d below; 6lT3*(U) Study of Controlled Final Deceleration Stages for Recoverable Vehicles. 1315 (U) Bearings and Mechanical Control Systems for Flight Vehicles. 1366 (U) Construction Techniques and Applications of Mew >feterials. 1370 (U) Dynamic Problems i n F l i g h t Vehicles. 1395 (U) Flight Vehicle Design. 6lU6 (U) F l i g h t Vehicle Environmental Control. 1309 (U) Flight Vehicle Environmental Investigation. 6065 (u) Performance and Designed Deployable Aero- dynamic Decelerations 4.13 WJ1IAB-S-45STall docaaian) oaioini inlonnatlgn affactint Ilia nulloiwl d a f a u * ef ttia Unita4 Vp<a* wlttiia (a* m a i n s • * * • Ewieaoie l a w i , TitfeI I , U . I . C , Sadian 7*3 on* 7*4, lha haiuniiilafl er nualotian ef which In any aisnnar ta o« aaogtlwl»d Parian it sraklMlad by haw.
    • ffiBF.^-U. H v. . , * * * • 4.2.1.5 In addition to the applied research efforts referred to in Paragraph 4.2.1.1* an intensive study of re-entry vehicle characteristics required for the tunex mission is being ac- complished under project 7990 task 17532- 2fcis study will define an optimum vehicle configuration and present the most feasible technical approaches to solving the various re-entry problems. For example, the desirability of ablative and/or radiation techniques for cooling will be determined.i.^ h.lk WDLAR-S-456 •yO, . ./***S» TMt dMV»aM IMtoliM tahVBMlafl affMtfrti <•* M I M M I M a o * aF (Ka Uriiwd Italai VHBIH Ika naaalai at Hia Eiplonsaa l * « i , Ttlla I I , U.t.C-, Sactim 7*3 and 7*4. Hw bam Minion w t o t l H l H at whitti In any "wnnr ta aa unautlieriiad p a n * * it prahlbHarf by law. -• ?
    • cdia - • • * < 4f t 4.2.2 HIOFULSIOH 4.2,2.1 m e Manned Lunar Payload requires a booster capable of placing ft 134,000 pound package a t escape velocity on a s e l e c t - ed lunar trajectory. This booster development has been included in the Space Launching System package Plan and i t s development will be done for the Lunex program. 4.2.2.2 Propulsion systems for the Manned Lunar Payload which vill be developed under this plan are those required for the following operations: lunar Landing Lunar Launch Trajectory correction Attitude control Abort 4.2.2.3 The Lunar Landing Stage must be capable of soft landing a t approximately 20 f t / s e c . a 50,000 pound payload on the moon. This payload consists of the Lunar Launching Stage and Lunex He-entry Vehicle. Preliminary design data from studies completed t o date show t h a t the manned re-entry vehicle will weigh approxi- mately 20,000 pounds and a launch stage of 30*000 pounds will be required. Similar estimates for the Lunar Landing Stage indicate t h a t i t w i l l weigh 85,000 pounds- During lunar landing, i f an i n i t i a l t h r u s t to weight r a t i o of ,45 i s assumed as consistent with the deceleration desired and time of deboost, an i n i t i a l r e t r o t h r u s t of 60,000 pounds i s required. At f i n a l touchdown on the moon, with a l l & v cancelled and assuming e s s e n t i a l l y a l l deboost propellent consumed, approximately 10,000 pounds of t h r u s t i s required: Some t h r o t t l i n g or gimballing of the engine may be required a t the 10,000 pound l e v e l t o reduce the a x i a l component of t h r u s t . The requirements on the landing engine are for a 60,000 pound engine with a 6 t o 1 t h r o t t l i n g r a t i o , or a cluster of four engines of 15,000 pounds t h r u s t and a t l e a s t one with a t h r o t t l i n g range of 1.5 t o 1. Assuming a t h r u s t t o weight r a t i o of 1.5 (Moon weight) for t h e Lunar Launch gtage, a 12,000 pound t h r u s t engine i s required for lunar launch. "An engine of the 4.15 VDLAR-S-458TWi dacnnanr taaianu tafernatla* affaflinfl (ha MUanal M a a u at Ida Unitad Stahw wINilit Ida maaalni at Hw Etplwuta i w r t , TM»11. U.S-C, 5m1t»n 793 MIS 794, H » Itanimliilea or r»Mlo)!en tM which in 001 axniwr M an ••ouHwriiad M n a a h »>stlblMrf h» low. -l."l[.!,"_IJI l ^ * » "
    • •In B^JJ. . ^ — l-*-° ae e «eoee- 65 ( 90 °> - - ^ r r -**-&W 5?T" W>IAB«s -*58 ^"W^..
    • 4.2.3 I2FE SUPPORT 4.2.3-1 The l i f e support package for the Manned lunar Rtyload vLll be required t o function for a "ilplitniw of 10 days* Bile i s based on the premise that a one-nay t r i p to the noon will require 2^ days, and the stay on the lunar surface will be on the order of 5 days. Die l i f e support system must be capable of supporting three men during high acceleration boost, approxi- mately 2 i dayB of weightlessness, one t o five days of l / 6 earth weight, 2f days of Weightlessness, re-entry deceleration and return t o f u l l earth gravity- At the sane tine i t mist provide a shirtsleeve cabin environment under the space and lunar environments, including extreme temperature gradients, absence of oxygen, radiation, e t c . 4.2.3-2 Studies of the l i f e support system weight requirements indicate that the l i f e support package can be provided within the weight allocation for the 20,000 pound Lunex Be-entxy Vehicle. She l i f e support system weight analysis was based on physiological experiments under simulated space f l i g h t conditions such as confinement, special d i e t s , reduced pressure, e t c At the present time approximately 65 to 70 percent of the knowledge required to design the three man package i s available. However, to obtain the additional data experimental laboratory and f l i g h t testing i s required. Most information i s presently obtained by piggyback testing aboard experimental vehicles but t o support the lunex program and to meet the desired schedules the BOSS primate program must be i n i t i a t e d and adequately supported. 4.2.3-3 Most of the data available today consists of physiological support (nutrition, breathing oxygen, pressure s u i t s , and restraints for limited periods), but there i s a lack of knowledge on prolonged weightlessness and the biological effects of exposure t o prolonged space radiations. One BOSS program i n i t i a l l y w i l l support a chlmpan- xee for periods up to 15 days and has been programed to provide a l i f e support package of sufficient else and sophistication t o support a man. Ems, with the BOSS^xrogram the data w i l l become available so that the Lunex program can design and construct the l i f e support package as required for April ^965^ 4-17 VDLAR-S-458TOi tftc«M«i> ( M I o i H kiloiMMiwi B # « t ! n * D M • r f o a a i M M W at A t United Stain w M i a * • naaaNii at iht I i p w n K U w j , TIN*I f . U.S.C.. Sta-* 7W and 7 M , * • tromnjiilon or rayafetiM at vkicli l i any mammr M aa *aatHmttti * • » • » (• mbitotrd » i tow.
    • > atfti3 m 4.2.3.4 Shroaghout this development all life support knowledge and techniques will be fully exploited. Techniques, learned In the work with the Discoverer package were utilized in building the Mercury package. In turn, experience end knowledge gained from Mercury is being fully exploited in the development of the present BOSS package, 4.2.3-5 The l i f e support program (BOSS) i s v i t a l t o meet the ob- jections of the lunex program. However, other AFSC programs bust be considered for possible application t o Lunex and the following are nov being evaluated: 6373 (0) Aerospace l i f e Support 7930 (U) Bib-Astronautics 4,18 KDLAR-S-458 4 f*HTkh rfacniMt imttlftt informed*! •Madia* tka m t l m l M m o* rtu United Stain wJfhtfl H a nadniM • * M» Upmof ( C M , VUm• I . UJS.C. S M I W I 7*3 wirf 7 W . H a tratnmlnifm «r mftOttm af •h;<h in anr n i m i f to on vamttorimail pmnm H pr*i>iWM tar !•».•
    • 4.2.4 FLIGHT VEHICIB ? W f O Ei 4.2.4.1 Electrical pover will be required to operate the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle subsystem such as l i f e support, navigation and guidance. Instrumentation, and communications. She pover requirement for these subsystems has been analysed and de- termined t o je approximately 3 kv average during a ten-day manned t r i p to the moon and return. Jteak power requirements will be approximately 6 lev. 4.2.4.2 Solar, nuclear, and chemical powered systems were eval- uated against these requirements. Vhile all of these systems may be capable of meeting these requirements the chemically powered systems have been selected for early adaptation Into the program. Specifically, fuel cells and turbines, or posi- tive displacement engines appear to offer the most advantageous solution. The final selection will be made during the final re-entry vehicle design when a detailed analysis of the trade offs between various available systems considering relative velgit, efficiency, reliability, and growth potential la available. The optimum system may be a combination of fuel cells and chemical dynamic systems with one system specifically designed to supply peak demand. MLth this approach the system to provide peak load capacity, will also provide backup power in the case of equipment malfunction during a large part of the mission. A battery supply may be used to furnish emergency power required for crev safety during critical periods in the flight. 4.2.4.3 Present level of technology i s such that a satisfactory f l i g h t vehicle pover system w i l l be available when required for the L N X mission. Additional development effort should be UE Initiated In certain specific areas, such as a r e l i a b i l i t y evaluation program for fuel c e l l s and an Investigation of the problems of operating chemical dynamlc^systeafi la-a-zero-**0" environment. " Close coordination must also be maintained with the manager of project 3145 (U) Energy Conversion, t o Insure the availability of the required secondary power sources. 4.19 WDLAR*S-45fl1M» d f w i r t CMMIK MBTJMHH •ffittiaf tta MtlNMri datum* af •*• United IMMI vMIn M a m i ! * af NW E i a i e m a a m i n i t l a M1«, U.I.C., ttcfitn 7*3 and 7M, * • trainmitilm *r nvaloIMn at wlikJi In wit Mannar to a* wwairtaiJ pHtan h anMMtod ST law.
    • ""•H<oi*l^ ii.2-5 GOTDWCE AHD CCmKOL EISTKM fc.2.5-1 A study of the guidance and control requirements far toe lunar vehicle indicates that the mission can he accompli- shed by reasonable extensions at present state-of-the-art equipment. The complete lunar vehicle guidance package should be capable of furnishing guidance and control during the follow- ing phases of the lunar mission. Ascent and Injection Outbound Mid-course lunar Landing Lunar Ascent Inbound Mid-course Earth Be-entrjr Earth Landing present state-of-the-art equipment i s capable of handling portions of the guidance and control problem associated villi the above phases of f l i g h t . However, in order to obtain s com- plete guidance and control system, i t i s f e l t that development of the following items should be undertaken. 4.2.5,2 ITJERTIAL P A F R L TC M Guidance requirements for both the manned and unmanned vehicles can be met with the use o f guidance concepts based on the use of i n e r t i a ! and corrected i n e r t i a ! data in a combination of explicit and perturbation computations of present and pre- dicted trajectories. Consequently, an Inertia! platform con" figuration suited t o the space environment I s needed. This platform should be l i g h t In Height, hifdtfy reliable, and capable of maintaining a space-fixed reference over a long Interval of time. Rresent gyroscopic devices and accelerometers are neither accurate nor reliable enough t o accomplish the space mission. An inertlal platform which holte great jirpmise^MMise In lunar missions-is one rtGlzing^Iectrlcally suspended gyros in con- junction with advanced accelerometera capable of operating i n a space environment. Present e l e c t r i c a l l y suspended gyros are capable of operating with a d r i f t rate of .0005 deg/ar/g, and I t i s anticipated that by 1966, a drift rate cf .0001 deg/hr/g H>LAB-S-1*5Q • i S l ^ * *T»ii d M H M M taatafai ™f«aw/S« affecting Mk. notion.* * r t « M af tka Unttad Siata* wltfcin t i n n n n i n t a t ( * • Eialvaof. I m , TtH*I I , U.S.C., Sarljafl 7W andTV*. A t IraAiaJliian m mtJaHah af which in any aianaar fa an •MMtfiarfoaa p a n * . H DrahttiHatf by low. --..»-•<••V - S - > •
    • will be attainable. Also, no d i f f i c u l t i e s are foreseen In maintaining suspension of the rotating member In an acceler- ation f i e l d of 1? gs with 30 gs being possible. Developaent of a small inertial platform u t i l i z i n g e l e c t r i c a l l y suspended gyros will be required for the lunar mission. 4.2-5-3 STAR 5 A K R RCK In order to Increase the reliability- and the accuracy of the inertial platform, a compact star tractor for use vitb the platform during the outbound and Inbound mid-course phases of the lunar f l i g h t I s desired. Also, the star tracker should be capable of operating i n a lunar environment so that I t can be used for s t e l l a r alignment during the lunar launch portion of the mission. The accuracy of present s o l i d state star trackers i s approximately 10 seconds of arc and their w i g h t I s approxi- mately 15 pounds. However, these trackers are untested In a space environment and must be developed for the lunar mission and for use with the small i n e r t i a l platform. In particular, tile star tracker must be capable of furnishing accurate s t e l l a r alignment Information to the inertial platform during the lunar ascent portion of the mission- I f I t I s possible t o develop a controllable thrust engine In time t o meet the launch schedule, the boost and Injection guidance problem for the lunar ascent will be simplified as i t w i l l be possible t o time-control a predetermined velocity path, abit development could possibly reduce the accuracy requirement of the star tracker. 4.2.5-4 L N BASHJKB RADIO MAVIGATICfr, OG Since manned as v e i l as unmanned f l i g h t s are planned fox the lunar mission, i t Is necessary to have a navigation system to back-up the inertial system and t o Increase the over-all accuracy of the guidance and control techniques. Long baseline radio/radar tracking and guidance techniques offer great possi- b i l i t i e s for tracking and guiding vehicles in cislunar space. ftresent studies show that there are a number of problems yet t o be solved t o give the long baseline radio navigation technique the desired accuracy. Among these problems are l ) the accuracy with which coordinates can be determined for each tracking station, 2) the accuracy vith which corrections can be made for tropbspberic and ionospheric propagation effects on t h e ^ r s t e a _ measuremejits^_and_3D_t^-aco4ira^^ can be synenr^Szeo^at^the several stations. Reasonable extensions of the state-of-the-art should be able t o overcome these problems however, and i t i s f e l t that the development of a long baseline radio navigation system w i l l be necessary for the lunar mission. TOLAR-S-458 k.21 v<** <**mt -»!> Batumi (Minim MarmotlM afbtflna. tfc* iwlloitol M i l t al tha UniMd SWIM wirfcin Hw maanlna of Urn Etpionaat I m , Tftfa If, U.S.C.. SHfian 793 and 7*4. Hm naninUilen «• rawWiw «f which la anr Mannar ta an •nouUiarlaaa panaa li BroMMtarf kr tBw.• " — • - - - T - ^ - i f HT*--^ nw**-w
    • 4.e.5-5 DOPPUK RASAS «* Anticipation that radio beacons iti.ll be In place on the lunar surface has somewhat simplified the lunar landing phase of the mission. She use of mid-course guidance w i l l enable the vehicle to approach the noon within llne-of-sight of at least one of the radio beacons, and the beacon can be u t i l l i e d for the approach phase of the lunar landing. However, for final vertical velocity measurement, a sensing technique particularly sensitive t o snail velocity changes Is required. A small CM doppler radar I s ideally suited for t h i s requirement- Therefore: development of a small, reliable doppler radar which can operate AHa in the lunar environment i s needed. In order to decrease the power requirement for the radar i t should not be required t o operate at a range of over 300 miles. -1.2.5-6 RE-OHBT amuses Major emphasis must be placed on the guidance require- ments for the re-entry phase of the lunar mission. Position, velocity, and attitude can be measured by the inertial system, however, other measurements i n i t i a l l y required w i l l be tempera- ture, temperature rate, structural loading and air density. Extensive further study i s needed to define these measurements villi any accuracy. Early earth return equipment Bhould furnish the data necessary to develop the required re-entry guidance package for the lunar mission. *.2.5-7 ADAPTIVE AUTOPILOT The control of the re-entry vehicle will require an adaptive autopilot due to the vide variation in surface effective- ness. Adaptive autopilots such as used In the X-15 are available, but extensive development i s needed t o ready them for use in the lunar mission. 4.2.5-8 TJie following projects or specific tasks within these projects can be u t i l i z e d to provide the development required for the L N X program. UH klkk (0) Guidance and Sensing Techniques for Advanced Vehicles JfOl6"5"ttf) BataTiConversion Techniques 508^5 (U) Guidance Utilizing Stable Timing Oscillators WMAIHH58 -^.- *<***, -r- . *^r-*&%fa£!&£!jlH IWi < « I M I I >MhH« hfmMtea aHactiu Hw national M W *l tfct United *M*t wilWH Ika «M0nlm *l flw Ew>;«»sa (•«•• TDM II, U.J.C. SKIIM 7W "1* 7M. Hu hoaiaiiiafe* ar lawotofraa •> *rMA hi any «™mw la en unaiilliarliBiI ptnmn h rnfciblM Iff low.
    • 50899 (u) Molecular Amplification Techniques W27 (u) Self-Contained Electromagnetic Techniques for Space Navigation 4431 (U) I n e r t i a l System Components H169-II (U) Space Adapted Celestial bracking System W169-III (U) J t t l t l -Headed Solid S t a t e C e l e s t i a l Tracker WI69-IV (U) Solid State Celestial Body Sensors 5201 (u) I n e r t i a l Systems Technique 5215 (U) Military Lunar Vehicle Guidance 50320 (U) Military Lunar Vehicle Guidance Systems 58321 (U) Military lunar Vehicle Terminal Guidance WDLAR-S-458 •—mm-**Tktf oaciiaWtt caalaini biletrtatlaq altoclInB fb* Mtiaftot dMania af Mia United Stataa within |ha naanlna af the Eipioinoa t a n , THIaI I , U.S.C., SMiaa 7*3 and 794, M M hammiulan or nvfloiwn of which in on* noiinw tar *n unsutharlud aadan ii prohibited fay to*.
    • LUKIlkDflU 4.2.6 COMPUTER ,? 4.2.6.1 The United states has the ability to provide a suitable computer facility at the present tine to support the LUNEX mission. As the milestones in the program are realized and requirements become more complex, the computer capability will improve to meet the Be more stringent requirements. Detailed studies on the specific needs of the missions, time-phased, will be conducted to determine trade-offs among possible techniques to insure that machine sophisti- cation does not become an end unto itself. 3be following guidelines providing adequate flexibility, have been followed in arriving at -the required development recommendations: a. Manned vehicles will require extensive data re- duction to give an operator real-time display of the conditions around him and solutions to problems such as, velocity and attitude corrections, etc. b. Sensor control (aiming and sampling rate} and data processing will be accomplished on the vehicle either on ground command, or by operator direction. c. Kid-course and terminal guidance requirements will make severe demands upon vehicle-borne computational systems. d. Badlatlon hazards and effects which are unknown at present could influence the technology that will be utilised for lunar missions. e. Emergency procedures must be available in the event that the operators become incapacitated and Incapable of returning to earth at any time during the mission. 4.2.6.2 me Computer Capability can be expanded in two basic ways by improved hardware, or nev concepts. Examples of nev approaches which w i l l be reviewed prior to s e l e c t i o n of the final vehicle design are the following: a. Standardized computer functions incorporated i n t o modules so that they can be used t o "build" the capability each mission requires. Such e concept would allow a vehicle designer to fabricate a coatputational^facllity without resorting to extensive redesign and/or re-packaging. The modularized con- cept noted above I s particularly adapted t o unmanned missions. 4.24 WDIAB-S-458 .*nci w* • •/Thti •Oiinaiit uMdiu kifwmotian oKaHllig Hit n o t l m l aWaMa of riw United Slata wjttln ttw naanina *f Ik* Ewlwma* 1 M , THtat l , U.S.C., SKI1«H 7*3 mvl 794, la* haumliilaii or rvnloflaa •* vnifli In any a w to an •naHltwina • * [ « • h rrahlMM by law.
    • rrttjiMiinrirnii 1 uuui n f e m m f b. For a manned mission two fixed programs could be permanently placed in storage; these would be an overall command, or executive routine to direct the sequences of operation, and the other vould be an emergency return-to-base routine that could be actuated by the master control, thus a 5~pound tape unit vould replace a larger core memory and provide a higher degree of flexibility. 3ne principal advantage In this system is that the computer is general-purpose in design and therefore useable on a large variety of missions and unneces- sary capabilities will not be carried on a particular mission. c. An optimumlzed hybrid of analog and digital devices combined to use the better features of each, i.e., speed of problem solution from the analog and precision, flexibility, and data reduction from the digital. 4.2.6.3 Substantial Improvements in computer capability, develop- ments, reliability, volume, weight, and power consumption will be available for the LUHHC program by effort expended in toe following areas: a. Core-rope memories to be used in fixed memory appli- cations. b. Functional molecular blocks. By 1963, the date of earth orbit, it is expected that more than 80$ of all computer functions can be performed by this method. Advantages are numerous; high memory densities, extremely small size, small weight and proper consumption. c. Self-healing, or adaptive programming techniques as a means for back-up on component reliabili-ty. d. Electrolumiaescent-photoconductive memory devices should be considered for their radiation and magnetic invulner- ability. In this regard, pneumatic bl-stable elements should be considered for the same reason. e. Pbotochromic storage devices have advantages In high storage densities, 1 billion bits/cubic inch. Certain applications, such as Bend -permanent storage could benefit from this feature. 4.2.6J»_ _ The following projects In the Applied Research Area will be utilized to obtain Improvements in computer technology; 3176 (U) Space Borne Computation fc Control Techniques 4421 (U) Digital Computation Methods & techniques a>~..«-. ,.-.rfiai 4.25•CTRW6N 1 Mil titfjmBEf****** wDLffi-s-456Tkii damnum cantata failataiatiiM ctHattlnj tha aotlaMf tfrfiaia at lot Unllad StnlH wittihi Ik* • a a x l o i at * a twlwwaa l a m . TtHaI I . U.5.C. Sadlan 743 and 7 M , Hi* tremntiilsn ar rvalefim ef vhith In any.aiannar M an aaouthsiUad p v i n i b Btsklbnad a? " ™ .
    • 4.2-7 COMMtflOCATTOBS 4.2.7-1 Die manned lunar mission vill require coramuni cations channels between the vehicles and earth and on the lunar surface for telemetry, T.V., voice, and vehicle control. Specific system parameters vill depend on the characteristics of the ground tracking network and communications stations vhich vill be used to support the lunar missions. 4.2-7-2 There are no significant technical problems associated v i t h the development of equipment t o perform the required communications operations. One exception t o t h i s general statement i s t h a t during re-entry radio transmission may not be possible a t the lover frequencies u t i l i z e d elsewhere i n the mission because of the plasma shield s e t up by aerodynamic heating. One possible solution may be t o provide a separate system operating a t 10,000 mcs f o r re-entay. Overall savings i n equipment weight, and pover requirements will r e s u l t from careful analysis and identification of requirements for i n f o r - mation transfer and naxinmm u t i l i z a t i o n of system components In a dual r o l e . This v i l l be done during the vehicle design phase. While not a requirement for early missions the c a p a b i l i - t y to Txrovide a secure communications l i n k i s desirable and w i l l Cf be considered during f i n a l design of the communications systems. A secure communications l i n k will be a :-*=.uirement i n l a t e r missions, throughout a l l phases, communications l i n k s c r i t i c a l t o mission success should Incorporate a high degree of protection against natural o r man-made interference, or deliberate Jamming. 4.2.7-3 Ihe following Air Force projects vill be revleved and used to provide the necessary results required for the Iunex mission: 4335 (U) Applied Communications Research for Air Force Vehicles 4519 (17) Surface & Long Range Communications Techniques 5570 (U) Communications Security Applied Research 4.26 KDiAB-s-458 • .-«*T}»iM»-a-;a*y»«B»TWi d«u"H«l caMaim inltnmathm aHacfinR (In naiianel riafaiua af Hw IhiM SIMM wltltto IM •aanlng af id* EipianoM t<nu. Tttt*II. U.S.C„ trnttian 7*3 tad 7W, * • hMimiiifBii ar ravalallaii af whit* In nay naanar (a an BMiinWiMf a*run b arahiblMd ** •«"- »-r——r~-5-3T-—f~7_ -r-..—v-.-^f-,-.-*^-?—-—= . -r-jrmvr*,-. -—-- — — ^ - - ^ s ^ . . V - "*- .*• •I /
    • 4.2.8 EWIROHMEimL D T AA 4.2.6.1 ft-esent knowledge of the lunar environment le extremely limited end it is necessary to obtain detailed information con- cerning the lunar composition., subsurface structure, surface characteristics, meteorite flux, level of BOlar and cosmic radiation, and magnetic field. This knowledge is required to design the equipments for the lunex program so that personnel nay be protected and the mission accomplished. 4.2.8.2 The importance of lunar composition in manned exploration of the moon lies largely In the ability of the moon to provide fuel for vehicles and secondary power, as veil as to supplement life support systems vith additional water, radiation shielding material, and semi-permanent shelters. Of these lunar resources, water appears to be of major importance both as a fuel and in life support. Water vill probably be present both as ice in permanently shadowed zones and as water of hydration in certain minerals such as serpentine. 4.2.8.3 iYesent knowledge of lunar composition is almost entirely theoretical. The relatively low lunar density (3-34) indicates low metal content. By analogy with the compositions of meteor- ites it is generally assumed that the moon is composed of ehan- dritic (stony meteorite) material. That this assumption is only partially valid is demonstrated by the fact that chondritic meteorites would have to lose about 10J6 of their iron content in order to attain this lunar density. 4.2.8.4 The Air Force and NASA are presently trying to determine th lunar composition indirectly through study of tektltes, which may be fragments of the moon, and through study of micrometeoritic dust captured above the atmosphere. (Air Force efforts are funded under project 7698). 4.2.8.5 The Air Force I s trying-to-determine the lunar composition d i r e c t l y by means of spectrometric analysis of the natural X-ray fluorescence of t h e moon due t o t h e bombardment of the lunar surface by s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . The f i r s t knowledge of lunar compos* i t l o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n March of 1962. (This work i s a l s o funded under Rroject 7698). WDLAR-S-458 4.27Tklt eetuneiit (aalaiin bifoMialion affecting H i . rational defe>» t» ih* United Stat*. iritMn >*• maanine af Mn Eipiengea i a z i , trlU)IB, U.S.C., $*cfl«n TO and TV*. Ida frooimiiiien ar nvaloMM * f bhlcli In any Mannar M an wwnihwlmJ aanon it p n t i b i n d • » lev.
    • 4.2.6.6 C NASA intends to measure the lunar composition directly by means of Its Surveyor lunar probe now scheduled for Bid I963. 4.2.8.7 Neither Air Force measurements of overall lunar composition; nor N S measurements of spot compositions will satisfy the AA requirement f o r location of lunar resources. Una NASA Prospector vehicle scheduled for 1966 w i l l obtain store widespread data, but vti&t I s urgently needed i s detailed knowledge of the v a r i - ation of lunar composition over the whole surface. Ohis can only be accompli shed by & lunar orbiting vehicle with appropriate instrumentation. N S presently has t h i s planned for 1965 and AA the appropriateness of their Instrumentation remains in doubt. Also t h i s i s too late to meet the requirements of the L H X UE program. 4.2.8.8 2he Importance of lunar subsurface structure in exploration of the moon lies largely In a possible collapse hazard under vehicles and personnel, and in the possibility of utilizing - subsurface structures as shelters and storage facilities. Present knowledge of lunar subsurface structure 1 B based on a theoretical extrapolation from the presumed origin of the surface features. The majority of lunar geologists believe that lunar craters vere formed by means of the impact of large meteor- ites, and that only limited volcanlsm has occurred in the lunar highlands. 3he maria, en the other hand, are thought to be giant lava pools; although the melting is assumed to have been triggered by asteroldal impact. Based on these theories of origin for the lunar surface features, it is thought that the subsurface structure of the lunar highlands will consist largely Of overlapping layers of debris ejected from the impact craters. One collapse hazard of such material is negligible. 3he maria should be covered by no more than kO feet of vesicular (bubble filled) lava, -with "«^"i"" vesicle (bubble) size about six feet in diameter. Such terrain could present a collapse hazard, the severity of which will depend- upon-actual ^rather than maximum) vesicle size. It should be noted, however, that a rival theory for the origin of lunar craters holds that they were produced by volcanlsm as calderas. Should this theory be correct, the collapse hazard in the highlands would probably exceed that on the maria. TOLAS-S-458Thli d a » « M nMsiiu M*n.at>Mi oFhcHna I k . notional frfam *F M<* U n l M Stare wJHiTn tka «t*ontm a( * • fiBloneaa law*, TWo1 * . U-S.C., Satiion 7*3 and 7 M , lb* hBHi-liilofl a? m * M E a * af *hlch ht M > •onn#j la on nMuthoitiad patten 1 aiafcibBaa: a* law. >
    • •** tWKfltWTlAIr In order t o determine the lunar subsurface structure, I t is necessary to place instruments on the noon. 31ms, the Air Force, although contributing theoretical evaluations as described above (under Project 7698), has no program for directly determin- ing lunar subsurface structure. N S plans to place seismometers AA and a coring instrument In the Surveyor vehicle In mid-1963 to determine these parameters. Again, point measurements are not sufficient, and geophysical instrumentation adequate for de- termining subsurface structure from the lunar orbiting vehicle (1965) should be developed. k.Z.B.9 2ne importance of lunar surface characteristics lies In their critical importance in design of both rocket and surface vehicles and in lunar navigation* Critical Burface characteri- stics include gross topography, microtopography and the nature of the lunar dust. Of these characteristics, knowledge of gross topography will be Important In overall rocket design end in design and operation of rocket landing and navigational equipment. The microtopography (relief less than 20 feet) will be important in the design of rocket landing equipment and the vehicle for surface exploration. The nature Of the surface dust will be most important in design of the vehicle for surface exploration. Present knowledge of gross topography shovs that slopes are generally gentle, and topographic profile have been deter- mined over a limited amount of terrain. Present knowledge of microtopography is very limited. Radar returns, once thought reliable indicators of low microrelief, are nov considered by most space scientists to be so poorly understood that conclusions may not be drawn from them. Photometric data appears to Indicate a rather rough surface, but this data is also subject to more than one interpretation. Present knowledge of the nature of the lunar dust is entirely theoretical. The leading school of thought holds that the dust is compacted and sintered. An opposing school holds that the dust bears an electrostatic charge. Should the dust bear an electrostatic charge, it would be very loose and probably subject to migration. The hazard to surface vehicles and even personnel is apparent. Gross lunar topography on the visible~face is presently being mapped by the Aeronautical Chart and Infoxnatlon Center based on techniques developed under Project 8602. Maximum resolution is about 1/3 mile, and average resolution is about one mile. Higher resolution photography and photography of the back side of the moon will be obtained by the lunar orbiting vehicle planned by NASA for 1965. A cooperative effort by ACIC and NASA is presently envisioned to produce the necessary topo- graphic lunar c h a r t s . ^ ^ .mi^rU^l*. U | -^SW^ miAR-S-458TUi dscKiBtiM MMoilii InTsmMIsr atbtllns til* notional 4 * f * n * ef Hn United Slain wltMA H * uMantni at tka EteiMaf* l a i n , TIW1», U.S.C., SttHon 7 N md 7 M . flit (taniMitflwi ar ranlotlaa * f which in any mmumf H « unoniharfml r*nan h #™Wbit»e< ft turn.
    • • •^teiJn*^;^*,* Mlcrotopograpby 1 B being studied by the Army Corps of Engineers through radar experiments, (The Air Force work is being done on the Millstone radar equipment) The nature of the lunar dust is being studied primarily by the Air Force under Projects j6$Q and 6602 by means of radiometric studies from high altitude unmanned balloons and results are antici- pated early 1962. NASA anticipates obtaining at least partial data on the nature of the dust from Surveyor {mid 1963) by television observation ot the lunar surface and by the landing characteristics of the vehicle. k.2-8.10 The meteorite flux and level of solar and cosmic radiation near the lunar surface are important for the survival of personnel either on the lunar surface or in vehicles and shelters - Present knowledge of these parameters is fairly precise as a result of satellite and deep space probe experiments by NASA and the Air Force- Only the radiation environment within the first fev meters of the lunar surface is still speculative as a result of uncertainties in our knowledge of the interaction of solar and cosmic radiation with the lunar surface materials. It seems likely that a cloud of ions will be produced by radiation bombardment as veil as secondary X-rays. Dae density of the electron cloud is unknown, and may be critical for lunar communi- cations. The Air Force is studying the lunar and cislunar radiation environment under Projects 6687, 6688, 7601, 7&9, and 7663 hh means of satellites, deep space probes, and vertical sounding rockets. The NASA Surveyor vehicle (mid-1963) should give de- tailed knowledge of the radiation environmeiit at the lunar surface. k.2.8.n The lunar magnetic f i e l d may be important t o space and lunar surface navigation, and In i t s e f f e c t s on ionized l u n a r materials. The Russian lunik I I indicated t h a t t h e lunar magnetic f i e l d must be very small. The Russians were not c l e a r on how small, but I t i s generally thought t h a t t h e moon does not possess a magnetic f i e l d . Thus, a l l magnetic e f f e c t s should be derived from the very low i n t e n s i t y Interplanetary f i e l d and magnetic f i e l d s , "frozen" I n t o s o l a r plasmas. ^.30 WDIAH-S-458 «.. iN» awrw r * - * «• 4* : ; *i?ttsvtt£ ~*. ;*?&**Ifcii ietamtfit I B M O I M inlanaotlaa mHtaira Hw national dofonw ml I d . Uniiad Eialai wiNiin (ha mMfiltH • ( Hw Etpiomma tewi, Tltta I f , U.S.C.. Saslion 7 M on) 7 f 4 , (hi Iraninlitiaa *t MvstaKM of wkicli In any aiannSt to an aflairtkorliad paiWn i i erafciblHil by low.
    • ^!C» w 4.2.9 MATERIALS 4.2-9-1 the Lunar expedition imposes rigid requirements on materials to maintain their characteristics vfaile subject to radiation, vacuum, temperature- extremes, and meteorites. Ibis problem must be considered by the individual subsystem design. It is intended to point out here the overall material problem and programs which will contribute tt>. its solution* 4.2.9.2 The absence of an atmosphere on the moon increasesA^wt; the radiative flux (particle and electromagnetic) from the sun and as such potentially Increases the possibility of damage to man and light-weight plastic structures through the formation of free radicals and subsequent depolymerization. 5he need for light-weight shielding is apparent. The vacuum conditions of the moon would aggrevate the problems associated with moderately volatile constituents of plastics, lubricants, etc. Tor instance, the relatively volatile plastlcizers la a plastic material could evaporate and interfere with the plastic function. Finally, the results of impact of mlcrcmeteorltes on structural materials must be determined* All desirable properties must be acquired without penalty of weight. In addition to the problems encountered on the Moon, similar problems are encountered while In transit. In particular the heating encountered on re-entry into the earths atmosphere at 37.000 feet per second presents a severe material problem. 4.2.9.3 Sane of the specific material requirements that can be identified are: a. Lubricants that will function for long periods of time In a vacuum and temperature conditions such as exist In the moon. b. Jfaterials that will not sublimate In a vacuum at moon temperature. c. Light-weight shielding material against meteorites. d. light-weight, radiation shielding. e. Shock-absorbing material that will function at 3309P, , < -• a f*. 4.32 WDLAR-S-J158 Tail i n n M l i M l a l a i InfamBUaa aHactfna « • aatiaaar trtmnm 3 ^ t r f t ^ V s W w W B J T O . M n h i * f ffca E(»l*nn*a l a m , Tnla ) | , U . S . C (adieu 7V3 ana 79A, «ka hania-riilM ar matoKa* af wait* m anr • o w n * ta an vnoaHxriirt B J O M I I BreMbtM ht law. •-- % --;-• -7T-.-¥-rr r^- - •—-:
    • •**• /v.^kiri^ri!21 C(PUO»w> f. Coatings that will resist radiation, especially during periods of solar flares- g. Glues and adhesives that v i U function with lunar materials. V.2.9-^ Present projects to raise the level of technology in materials are listed below, Ihey will be supported as required to insure success of the lunar mission. 7312 (U) Finishes and Materials Preservation. 7320 (U) Air Force fltextile Materials. 73*10 (U) Non-Metallic & Composite Materials. 7351 (U) Metallic Materials. 7371 (u) Applied Research in Electrical, Electronic, and Magnetic Material. 7391 (V) Energy Transmission fluids. if.2.9-5 While work in the basic research program cannot be counted on to provide technical break through within the time schedule of the LUHEX program, materials study of this type Vill be monitored so that all technical advances can be integrated into the IWMEX program. Specific examples Of projects of this type are: 8806 (U) Research on Materials at High Temperature. 7022 (U) Surface and Interface Phenomena of Matter. 9760 (U) Research in Properties of Matter. U.33 WELAR-S-U58Thil dotaawiil nfllaiiit inhHaiBllM aKadint Hw M t l x w l datama af Ma United Snfai wHMn Ilia avaniai el In* lipiaiiaaa t o n , tlM»18. U . 5 C •actien 793 and 7 * 4 , lb* tnniiBiluian ar ravalaffan af wfcich in any mmuiar M an MmiHiariiad paftM l> acaaibiM h» law.
    • <X0t k-3 TEST PLAN The development and production of the equipments for the Lunar Expedition will require a concurrent end detailed test program. She test program vill be carried out on the basis of research tests to establish design criteria, materials, tests, component • tests and finally, a progressive series of tests as components are assembled into subsystems and major systems and structures. Inte- gration tests for flight suitability vill be conducted for all functioning systems and the complete vehicle. Fayload effects on the booster structure will be determined vlih a simulated payload. Subsequently, a flight-type payload vill be used to demonstrate booeter-payload system compatibility, reliability, crew- safety, and mission performance. Emphasis vill be placed early In the program on research tests to derive basic design criteria, define the configuration and de- termine aerodynamic parameters. Tests are to be run at progressively higher levels as the design evolves- 3hus, entire subsystems, combined subsystems and complex major structures are to be subjected to evaluation tests as necessary to investigate component end subsystem interactions, or to prove out complex structural designs. A captive-test-vehicle firing program vill be the culmination of ground development testing. 3he over-all objective of the captive- firing program is to demonstrate satisfactory integration of the propulsion system vith other vehicle systems that have an interface, direct or indirect, vith the propulsion system* Ihe early tests vill be conducted in a simulated vehicle vith the airborne vehicle systems Installed on a heavy-vall propellent tank section. She tanks vill be supported by a test stand structure vhich vill also restrain the tanks against propulsion system thrust forces- For final testing a flight-type configuration vill be used during captive tests. Flight testing of the High-Speed Re-entry Test Vehicle, ths Abort System and Orbital, Circumlunar and unmanned lunar Lending and Return Vehicles vill complete the development program. 4.3*1 TEST CATEGCRIES 4.3.1.1 RESEARCH ZESTS Tests vill be run in appropriate research laboratories to define basic designvcriterla In at least the folloving technical areas: * - - . , •* » VDUR-S-hjB "****n i l rfm—t «Mahn iar«MI«* ^Hmalnt am notional **MH *f fh* Unfile Slain wlHiln »h* nmuninf «f DM tipltnw I w i , TfttoII. U.S.C, S*ci:*i> JW ™* i**4. N» (wwniiiM ar n w W i « *r «Wrt in aAr »<""»i M « •nw>HwiHd m n a pnlilbIM fci l » . ?.*• * w — • • ---" T
    • jr..-»£:j*«*W»-M- .».- a. Propulsion b. Heat transfer c. Aerodynamic forces and pressures d. Materials e. S t a t i c s (structures) 4 . 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 Propulsion Tests—Wind and vacuum tunnel t e s t s will be conducted t o Investigate the problems of multiple r e - s t a r t In a vacuum environment, t o develop t h r o t t l e a b l e techniques, to de- termine lunar landing problems, and to determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y of using the same engines for lunar landing and lunar launching. Tests v l l l be made to evaluate the propulsion stage f o r the clrcumlunar f l i g h t s and t o determine the capability of t h e abort propulsion system t o accomplish i t s objective- 4.3.1.1.2 Heat Transfer Tests—Testing will be required on the Insulation for the liquid hydrogen tanks t o determine: a. Optimum material thicknesses and velght b. Bie amount of liquid hydrogen bolloff c- The a i r leakage through seals d- The airload effect on s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y - e. The thermal bowing of insulation panels f. Toe separation distance between panel and tank skin Scale-model or modified f u l l - s c a l e air-conditioning t e s t s v l l l be conducted on engine compartments, adapter sections and f l i g h t equipment storage areas. Heat transfer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for selected materials, structures, and surfaces will be required t o support the engineering design. 4*3*l-l-3 Aerodynamic Force and Pressure Wind-Tunnel Tests—Wind- tunnel model t e s t s of the launch vehicle and payload configuration Will be required t o accurately determine t h e aerodynamic forces and moments imposed on the vehicle during t h e boost t r a j e c t o r y . "Ht- ^-35 -.* VDLAR-S-U58IWi tmamtrl taMflM fefsrMtla* afbctl** fW mrtiaaal M M •# Urn United Halt «rf»M» tfca wofiii* *f Urn tiplena* l a m . TrtteII, U.S.C, SKtiwi W3 and 79*. th* m n a l n l i a *r tMletl M af wklrii U TO manttmitoan iMuOwrlnd p m ii pHklhlM ov low.
    • «**& 2heee t e s t s v i l l provide data f o r determination of s t r u c t u r a l design c r i t e r i a , aerodynamic s t a b i l i t y and control parameters, and the p e r - formance penally incurred by aerodynamic drag. She t e s t program w i l l include both force and pressure measurements through the f l i g h t Mach number range f o r which these e f f e c t s are s i g n i f i c a n t . Hind tunnel t e s t i n g of s e l e c t e d shapes a t v e l o c i t i e s never before studied w i l l be necessary t o determine re-entry v e h i c l e character- i s t i c s . particular emphasis w i l l be placed on control surface c a p a b i l i t y and heating problems. Maneuverability l i m i t s * g l o a d i n g s , r e - e n t r y corridor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and subsonic landing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must be determined i n support of the engineering design program. Integration and c o r r e l a t i o n of the ground vind-tunnel t e s t i n g with the high-speed re-entry f l i g h t t e s t program i s e s s e n t i a l . U - 3 - l l ^ Material Tests--A materials development t e s t program V i l l be undertaken t o determine the allowable design strength values and provide design information on the s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r a l materials over the appropriate temperature ranges f o r the b a s e m e t a l s , a b l a t i v e surfaces, and welded J o i n t s . Particular emphasis w i l l be placed on tendency toward b r i t t l e fracture under s e r v i c e conditions and i n s e l e c t i n g materials f o r re-entry a t 37.000 f t / s e c . The t e s t i n g program w i l l c o n s i s t of at l e a s t the f o l l o w i n g : a. Smooth and notched s t a t i c t e n s i l e t e a t s of the s e l e c t e d materials. b . S t a t i c t e n s i l e t e s t s of welded J o i n t s , both f u s i o n - ana resistance-welded, f o r the s e l e c t e d Joint configuration f o r each type of sheet m a t e r i a l . c . Smooth and notched s t a t i c t e n s i l e t e s t s of the s e l e c t e d extrusion end forging m a t e r i a l s . d. Notched impact t e s t s of the e x t r u s i o n and forging materiels. e . Low-cycle, high s t r e s s f a t i g u e t e s t s of welded J o i n t s made by the fusion and r e s i s t a n c e methods f o r the s e l e c t e d Joint con" figurations i n sheet m a t e r i a l s . This data v i l l be accumulated f o r the appropriate temperature ranges, i . e . , from e l e v a t e d r e - e n t r y temperatures t o the cryogenic temperatures i n the t a n k s , as d i c t a t e d by t h e projected environmental requirements. In a d d i t i o n , supporting t e s t s such as metallographic examinations and chemical composition determinations v i l l be made a s reouired- wtt»fcfc-*58 -Tkli d«.™>t wriaiH i-Iw.o*l«. aHKlini th, notlwwl M w <* ih. UniWd SIBIB *!*ln * • - m n l - l • ! *m f*l>">»>*» » * " . J ^II, U.S.C., S«ll«i 7M mi T*t. * • trmmiiiim « nvclaHoi af whit* in ony n e n w la «» •RovHisrind pmnam h pHMMtad ky low.
    • 4*3-1-1.5 Static Vests—The static-test program will include design and structural substantiation testing to demonstrate structural integrity of the Manned lunar and Cargo Fayloada. Structural substantiation testing to design loads and temperatures will be accomplished on a full-size stub tank, identi- cal (except for length) to the Lunar Landing Stage tank, this will ensure that load introduction and takeout will be representative of the flight article. One complete interstage adapter will be tested to ultimate design loads under appropriate environmental conditions, The adapter will be attached to a stub tank Identical to the Lunar Launching Stage tank section in every respect except length, to ensure realistic load introduction and takeout- A stub tank will also be used to demonstrate the integrity of the Lunar Launch Stage tank construction under design loads and environments. Methods of introducing the payload vehicle loads into the adapter section and thus the Lunar Launch Stage tanks will be determined. Tests will also be run on full-size tank bulkheads. These will be attached to a segment of typical tank structure, adequate to allov the bulkhead behavior to be representative of that of the flight article under design conditions. These bulkheads will be tested to ultimate design loads to ensure their structural reliability at all points within the fligit regime. Ground handling equipment tests will cover critical fittings and Joints for structural substantiation of these items under design conditions. 4.3-2 DESIGN EVALUATION 3ESTS Component design evaluation testing is defined here as In- formal testing conducted by the vehicle contractor, or vendor test labs, for the purpose of basic design evaluation prior to production release, and to pinpoint critical areas in prototype packages. Qualification testing is defined as those formal tests per- formed on flight-type hardware to demonstrate compliance with design specifications. A qualification test plan will be prepared approxi- mately_9Q_days-after engineering-go-ahead outlining the" qualification test conditions. The qualification tests are to be performed in strict accordance with written and approved detailed test procedures, and witnessed by the Air Force, of an approved representative. ^-37 j^^TOiAR-S-458Thlf 4tamtM ( M M l n i ftfamofiMi vffttfiM Hi* natbMt M w af I I * Untod Warn wJtaln flat «wa*I»a * f " * B t » . — f I m , WtoI I , U.S.C-, SKdan 7 W and 7*4, * • honiMluton m nmlstFm af wlifck 1» am Mannar fa aa maw!luring" aanaa h mmblMtmi k * • » • /
    • «,..*.»<— ftMHPP ^^i She vehicle contractors test laboratories will conduct these tests, or subcontract and supervise then at an Independent testing agency. Components to be tested ""111 be determined daring the engineering design effort Controlled environmental conditions will simulate conditions that airborne and ground support equipment are expected to experience during manufacturing, shipping, storage, prefllght and flight. Environmental testing conditions vill be established based on data already obtained in research and development programs on large rocket-powered vehicles and associated support equipment. Conditions for shipping, storage and handling environmental tests are established in current military and commercial specifications, Subsystem, combined subsystems, and structural evaluation tests will be run in appropriate laboratory facilities to Investigate component and subsystem interactions, and to prove out structural designs. Acceptance test procedures will also be developed for use in the factory on deliverable hardware. A test plan describing the basic conditions and test objectives of each factory system test, along with the checkout parameters and recorded evaluation data, will be prepared. A final acceptance test will be required . the time the con- t tractor delivers the vehicle to the Air Force. lest conditions will be as close to the flight conditions as is feasible and. safe. All systems will be energized and operated simultaneously. A final acceptance test evaluation document will be prepared for use by the Air Force and the contractor in determining compliance with test requirements. Systems acceptance test procedures will be based on all critical parameters required to determine proper functioning of each system in accordance with design specifications and drawings. M s will assure a coordinated effort of vehicle design,. test equipment design and factory acceptance testing. fc-3*3 FLIGHT 5ESTISG Ihe LUNEX flight test program represents a long and expensive effort leading to the first manned landing on the moon, it requires basic research flights, equipment checkout flights., capability demonstration -flights ana finally the manned and cargo Lunar Expedi- tion flints. This type of effort can only be achieved efficiently and at a minimum cost if the end objective Is always clear and the program is designed to meet this objective. fc.38 WDIAB-S-458Tfth dMitttant m r i a i u t p t r a o d * mHfma Ma raHassI d a f e n * *T H» UoHmd Sf*M> v M l n * • m m l n g of iha fiaiBnut* t a v f . Till*t l . U.S.C.. S M I I « 7*3 * M 79*, * • rtBatnifilM ar m l o l t a i i af wbiti in m y MbXhar la an B M « i W i » d panwi h praafeiiad b» low. • «•£!*«—-*• - ~ " - - . • - 3—— " i -
    • The Lunar Expedition f l i g h t t e s t program w i l l provide many side* b u t important space c a p a b i l i t i e s , f o r example; i n A p r i l 1965 t h e f i r s t o r b i t a l f l i g h t c a p a b i l i t y i n a t r u e space v e h i c l e w i l l be p o s s i b l e ; i n September 1966, man v i l l make h i e f i r s t f l i g h t around t h e moon i n a f u l l y maneuverable and r e c o v e r a b l e r e - e n t r y v e h i c l e ; and i n August 1967 the f i r s t man w i l l l a n d on t h e moon- E s s e n t i a l l y t h e s e can a l l be c a l l e d t e s t f l i g h t s , b u t i n each case t h e system i s o n l y a t t h e beginning of i t s c a p a b i l i t y I n s t e a d of being a dead-end Item. Each of t h e s e c a p a b i l i t i e s may r e a d i l y be expanded t o provide a m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t y i f n e c e s s a r y . The f l i g h t t e s t program i s summarized on t h e Lunar E x p e d i t i o n Test Schedule. The following major o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be accomplished i n t h e i n d i c a t e d . p a r t of t h e t e s t program. 1*.3*3-1 HIGH-SPEED RE-ENTRT FLIGHT TEST S i n c e p r e s e n t -wind-tunnel c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d t o approximately 18,000 f t / s e c , i t i s necessary t o perform r e - e n t r y f l i g h t t e s t i n g a t v e l o c i t i e s t h a t range from 25,000 t o ^5,000 f t / s e e . The major o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t e s t program a r e t o : a . Verify o r disprove p r e s e n t t h e o r i e s on b a s i c r e - e n t r y techniques a s e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t h e s t a t e d v e l o c i t y r a n g e . b . Determine problem a r e a s and develop nev fundamental t h e o r y , numerical procedures and t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s vhere r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s re-entry range. c. Identify the following: (1) Items t h a t can be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r on a laboratory scale- (2) Specific laboratory f a c i l i t y reauirenents. (3) A d d i t i o n a l f l i g h t t e s t s t h a t must be performed. d. Support t h e e n g i n e e r i n g design program f o r t h e LUHEX by p r o v i d i n g t h e above d a t a and s p e c i a l shape t e s t i n g i f r e q u i r e d . 4.3.3.2 LUNEX KE-EHTRT VEHICLE FLIGHT TEST The Lunex B e - e n t r y Vehicle -will be f l i g h t t e s t e d b y v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s and i n v a r y i n g environments. Each t e s t w i l l be designed t o allow t h e v e h i c l e t o proceed t o t h e n e x t more 4-39 WDIAR-S-U58>Mt d * c » M I iMHstsi infanneNu alt«tliw Mi* national detail* *f <l» UnfHd SlsMi wirtiln ffc* swenina el • * • ttpkuw** l o w , THIsI I , U.S-C. S M K M 7 M W 7 M , Ik* troaintluisa or nnlsJie* tl vhitfc in snr »nnns> Is an ••wrilwrtisa p*no» It preliibtM by lav.
    • r% difficult step. Jhe major testing steps axe presented below with the major test objectives for each step. a. Prototype Drop Test Prototype vehicles will be drop tested from a B-52, or equivalentj. In both an unmanned and a manned series of tests. Bach series will be designed to; (1) Establish landing characteristics. (2) Measure inherent subsonic, transonic, and hypersonic s t a b i l i t y and control characteristics of the vehicle. (3) Explore the flight characteristics of the re-entry vehicle in every possible portion of the Mach number spectrum. (It) Train LtfflHC Crews. b- Orbital Test: Maximum use will be made of SMBT orbital t e s t infor- mation and unmanned and manned f l i g h t s w i l l be accomplished. These t e s t s will demonstrate: (1) One capability of the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle to operate In the orbital area. (2) Re-entry capability at v e l o c i t i e s of 25,000 f t / s e c . (3) She maneuverability of the re-entry vehicle and i t s capability to land at a preselected earth base. c. Circumlunar Test This flight w i n use the Circumlunar Propulsion Stage and the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle. The major teBt objectives are: ( l ) To send an unmanned and then a manned vehicle around the moon and return far an earth landing at a selected base. (g) To check out guidance, flight-control, communis cations and l i f e support sub-systems in a true space environment prior to landing on the lunar surface- (3} R> perform manned reconnaissance of the lunar surface. »>FlUt H a n i laatahn Intemallan of*etlns • » , national aVfeua • * f t * Unfed Slafai v M I n Urn Manliai a t «aa EiptaneaV L a m . Thia I f , U,S,C„ SftNw 793 ami 7 M , tha rramiaiiiian * n » M M «f vhldi fa n r aimian to an MtaMlwbad w m It kMhlhHad ay I n . • ir - •- ~f * J * *~:-•*-*—*—jr~ • . P ^ 1 - - . " ^ * K ^ ^ . - » - • . • • • ^ •
    • d. lunar Landing -and Return The unmanned vehicle flights will check out the Manned Re-entry Vehicle and related systems to provide a completely auto- matic system before man first tries the most difficult step In the LUNEX program. Hie major test objectives for these flights will be to: (1) Check out the lunar landing and lunar launching Stages. (2) Check out the Cargo Payloads ability to deliver cargo packages to & preselected site on the lunar surface- (3) Place three men on the lunar surface so that the initial surface reconnaissance can be accomplished prior to the arrival of the lunar Expedition. fc.3-3-3 IUKAR MUNCH STAGE FLIGHT TEST The Lunar Launch Stage vill be Initially checked under orbital conditions to: a. Demonstrate space environment operation. b- Demonstrate engine restart after "soaking" in space for an extended period. c. Demonstrate automatic checkout, communications, and remote control capability. The Lunar Launch Stage vill then be flight tested with the complete Manned Lunar Payload for the unmanned and manned Lunar Landing and Return Missions. h.3.3.h LUNAR LANDING STAGE FLIGHT TEST The Lunar Landing Stage will be initially checked out by drop testing. These tests will; a. Demonstrate landing techniques and the capability of the selected landing system. b. Evaluate the effects of unexpected .terrain variation. c. Determine the effects of malfunctioning equipment during the landing maneuver. k.kl HDLAR-S-U58 •v.Tdl> toammil c«wh» inlnnaTiHi sffanina lb* >otioMl d*tai»a ef nW UnlMd Stum w«Mii « • M » I I I « •> to Euriwxv* l « , THtoIS. U.S.C.. faction 7*3 ind 794, MM ManiMbilwi «r raoilMlait *f which In any nanmr t« •" wwtlwmd frum H (raliikM br •«•.
    • a. Evaluate the effects of engine b l a s t on landing surfaces similar t o the predicted lunar surface. The lunar Landing Stage v i l l receive i t s f i r s t space evaluation in o r b i t . The major objectives a r e : a. Correlate drop-test data with o r b i t a l or space operations* b. 5b determine the effects of space environment on the stage. The f i r s t Lunar Landing v i t h the Lunar Landing Stage w i l l be accomplished vith a cargo package as t h e payload. When t h i s has been completed a Lunex Re-entry Vehicle v i l l be landed unmanned. The t e s t objectives axe t o : a. Demonstrate the f e a s i b i l i t y of landing large cargo packages on the lunar surface. b . Demonstrate the f e a s i b i l i t y of automatically landing a "manned vehicle" vhile unmanned. c. Provide a man-rated system f o r the Lunar Expedition. 4.3-3-5 C R O BACXftGB CONFIGURATION FLIGHT TEST AG Various configurations for the Cargo Package of the Lunex Cargo Payload v i l l b e t e s t e d . . The objectives are t o : a. Determine the Cargo Payload aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . b . Demonstrate t h a t the Cargo packages can be delivered vhere desired on the Lunar surface. 4.3.3.6 ABCRT SISTEM FLIGHT TKST The fact t h a t a system of t h i s magnitude must possess some measure of "unreliability" i s recognized and a "fail safe" abort system I s required t o Insure the s u r v i v a b i l i t y of the crev. The t e s t objectives for the Abort System Flight Test Program are t o : a. Demonstrate t h a t crev members in the manned Lunex Re-entry J^icle_caaJje__recoyered-safeIy in the-eveat-of—ft^alfunctjoo. b . Demonstrate t h a t the Space Launch System i s capable of shirt-dovn, or t h r u s t vector change, so t h a t crev abort i s p o s s i b l e . TTOLAH-S-458Tliti M r n l twHaiM fahfaotiM affcctfef Mm -otiml ttfen* e» Urn Ualtad Shrtw »IHit» Hw •inmini * H» Eipiona** lawa, THttI I . U.S-C, tMiai) 793 tut Tt4, tha HsTinliiin m mdaliea «f whidi in n r M W d « W M H W W ptnan 1 BfoWbW hy I D - . > /
    • ".JUJUI k.^.k CHECKOUT AMP TEST BJUHMBJT wmrnr The test equipment will be fully automatic -with quantitative readout capability for all critical functions. The Lunex checkout equipment will be the same, or compatible with the Space Launching System checkout equipment. The equipment vlll be capable of checkingmmmm out the complete booster and payload system as veil as any individual,•--..ji.;. or Isolated component, o r subsystem. I t shall b e fully capable o f checkout o f any one stage, or the re-entry vehicle, as a n isolated;:;:.;=:---- unit, and vlll mate with the stage Interface functions and furnish appropriate operational o r simulated error inputs t o the stage systems. F o r the time period of interest, it Is entirely practical t o incorporate malfunction prediction capability for preventative mainte- nance. This will entail a computer function which will accurately control and record the input and output signal values to each system~" o r component. Variations in operation will b e recorded a n d compared to predetermined failure values, o r characteristics and will forecast;>$*«, the remaining service life of the system under test. The checkout equipment shall be installed In each blockhouse and it may °e usc& In conjunction with the launch area. This same equipment shall be utilized in the vehicle manufacturing checkout ( and test functions, as veil as I n the launch complex, receiving, inspection, and maintenance facilities. The blockhouse equipment will monitor the launch control system commands and Inputs as veil as those o f the payload. Because the launch control equipment will display only go/no-go signals, the checkout and test system will furnish quantitative displays of any function under question for human appraisal and decision. When the systems are flown unmanned and on the early manned lunar flights it -will be necessary to provide automatic checkout where appropriate via a telemetry link. A s an example, prior and during lunar launch the checkout procedures will b e monitored a t the earth control station v i a the telemetry linjt. kM teDLAB-S-458 r***** Tab tffttiiMilf < M M i u Inlonnatlaii •Hntiiw t * . natt«al « • ) • • • • oT M» United Statu within Nw aiMnina •» tto [ < p l m n Loin, Tit)* IS. U.S-C, SMM.HI 7 M and 794, H » tfsrowFilled at mrakrtlM ef whldi ia mymanmt M *n • M i t t w t w a • * » • • • h arahlbHad • * taw. -—"• --;--- *--•-- -*J-j--_-_: ._-..; __ ZS .. ,m— - : * r - - — :--"r--. -•=!*-* ~r— I
    • **^4 **i k.h mODJCTim PLAff At the present time a detailed Production Elan is not available. However, the present preliminary design study.will be completed on 30 June I96I and the final report to be provided by six Independent contractors will include their proposed Production Plan. When the study results have been evaluated a Production Plan for the Lunar Esgwditlon will be prepared. Several points are apparent at this tine and they are presented for completeness In this plan. k.k>l QUANTITY Limited quantities of early equipments will be required until the test program improves and Increases the capability of each item and production quantities become possible. Thus, as development and testing proceeds the equipments will become more standardized and production techniques will become more applicable. When the Lunar landing and Return flights are initiated it will be necessary to launch vehicles at rates that vary from one to two flights per month. When the Lunar Expedition is actually underway the launch rate will remain at a rate of two per month for an extended period. Considering the size, weight, complexity and importance of these vehicles this represents production rates even when compared to past aircraft or missile production programs. K.k.S QUALITy The inherent reliability of the systems required for the Lunar Expedition program will be maximized by good design practice. Reliability testing represents a major effort of the test program, but the achieved reliability of these systems can only be maintained during production by an excellent quality control program. Ufcis means that good organization, adequate manning and early recognition of the quality control problem is essential. Close coordination is required between the quality control personnel and the reliability personnel in _the jfleBlgn^deVelopment, and test prcgr&m-lf the reliability program and the test results are to provide the proper guidance so that quality Qggi be maintained throughout the production effort. ;_..- " kM WHLAR-S-U58 r*i#*lTU. fcomM «ihb>. hfwMtia* attacHn* Ih* u l i « o l M M • ! H» UKIM *»••• wMrtn * - « • » " * •* * • ^ " j S i f E : 5""U , U.J.C., hdlMi m v r f m , « K (rammiuiwi ar nutation af vUch Hi an? monnar to an «ia«thorliad panaR it waMHM VI law. W.*--i_.K.-.-----i^-;<::;± -*%•- • •* +-.P-1-""-*- » n i - - j =
    • 4.U-3 LOCATION It is anticipated that most of the major systems and sub-systems can be manufactured at facilities, or locations presently l» existence and available to the aerospace industry. However, the possibility does exist that certain items, such as the first stage solid propellant stage, may be manufactured at the lunar launch Complex due to its size and transportation limitations. 5hese particular items have not been specified at this time, but this will be done as soon as possible. J*«, k,k5 WDMR-S-U58Milt Bacumsnt oataini iolinaiotim nMsrtlni •*• notUmal aiTim ml M* ( M M KBIH VMIII MM M—lm pt HW ttgiwrnti ttnn, THf*II, U.S.C, SKtim 7M and 794, Hi* ttaflinliifea w nmlalfan af irkkh In w>i H U M I to *• HairiharlHd panon i> RMktMhWfcVI"". -%.
    • I. . F K O H E 4-3 i GENERAL ARRANGEMENT MANNEB LUNAR PAILOAD WDLAR-S-^58
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    • FIGURE lf-1 MAHHED LUNAR FAILOAD WBMR-S-U58 : : "•- ;i.- :>-""7 * " 4 C " "-?•• :>••--
    • RE k-1JNAR PAZLOAD TOLAR-S^58 T ; 1 -"••:. —- , * r.t&i;-* •"^?r , _ T "/•-SBfBW^H" -- -—J *r —/
    • **-* S3CTIC5I V BODGST /JH) FIHAI7CIAL LUIJAB ITCP^ITIOH (u) 5-1tall rfocimwtil C M W I H I hifsnaatlaa athdhig III* nstiwial J i t w i ef Hw United S M H . H * 1 R H M M M i l * a * | «>* Eiptenaa. low., fltbI I . U.S.C. S*ctlwt 743 and 7 W , fto hanwr»[aa ar ran<aHaa a l which in any aiBaaw to an unwiHwiiaa panan (• prshlbltod br low.
    • *e*fff ?*i -iisritfSMii"" RECORD or CHANGES CSAMGE INSCRIPTION OF CHANGE BASE OF CEABGE REFERENCE HO. TO BASIC PART M ^-w^i* wDiAR-s-^58 5.2I M i d a w a i n l letlalm hrfoowttt™ aHactl*a ft* M t l m l rfatma. af Hi. U n i M H « ™ wHain ifca •wontn* at ft* furionota l o - . , THw IS. U.J.C.. S M t l « 7KJ and 7*4, Hi* franiniiilsn « ia»leti*n af «.ni«li in <p>[ mvmr la an inairthsriiad panan h arakibiM b> law. » - » - * " * * . - - • • • r.^.
    • ***•••*: ; 2 * &f?J INBEX TITLE PAGE 5.1 RECCED OF CHANGES 5.2 INDEX 5.3 5.0 INTRODUCTION 5.5 5-1 BUDGET ESTIMATE A D FINANCIAL PLAN- M 5.5 5-2 COST ESTIMMES- 5.6 5-3 FT 62, 63 FINANCIAL PLAN 5.7 5-3 WDLAB-S-*t5STki> tfacamant (aMaTiu tnfanstlan nffartina Mia nallsnal tfalaiua al It™ U n I M Slatn - t » I » M a manias at HHJ tiaianaaa Lewi. Tflta >IB, US.C. Wction 7*3 and 7 M , Iha tiamnliilan mt W r t t o l l * . af wale* in our nm.n.r te an • • a a H » r [ » d sanan 1. praalaliad ar t a * .
    • ."W.-»» -a • ^ Ihis psge intentionally l o f t blankV ^ l i M K K . *%?**• 5.4 WDIAB-S-45S Tkh aanwant m l n l n j n l « s t r » aHaclfai tto aatieaol dafana al tin Un»td StWai wHfcin Hw •aonina a l Hw Eipleaacw tawm, TBI* I I , U.S.C.. Saclian J?3 a r t 744, Mw lrt»»»iiiioii ar mnalnilan af which In any laannai ra aa •nouHwtiud partan i i ixotiibitad a t law. I
    • 5- BUDGET AND FINANCIAL 5.0 IN3BODUCTTOH The funding estimates for the Lunar Expedition Program are based on results obtained from previous concept, feasibility, and preliminary design studies. These results were published in the Lunar Observatory final Report, Volume I - Study Summary and Program flan, numbered AFBMD TR 60-hk and dated April i960. Hie**!-<• costing of this program was accomplished by the Rand Corporation and was based on a completely integrated program. One funding estimates for the Lunar Expedition represent all the costs of establishing a habitable facility on the moon except the cost of developing the Space Launching System.-- -- This funding would include s. Lunar Transport Vehicle de-"- " velopment program that would give the U.S. the capability of using the moon and space. Then if the need should develop in the^&& future, the Lunar Expedition Facility could be expanded to supportl™*"-*7 military operations. Studies have shown that the moon possesses real military potential and it could support a recallable deterrent C capability. Bie development of the Lunar transport Vehicle repre- sents a minimum program for the Air Force to obtain control of the cislunar volume and the lunar surface. 5.1 BUDGET ESTIMATE AND FINANCIAL H A H A preliminary design for the Lunar Transport Vehicle is presently being accomplished by six contractors on an active study program. This program was funded for $300,000 in FY 6l and three of the contractors are each performing the design under a $100,000 contract. The other three contractors ere participating on a voluntary basiB. * Tile final reports for this preliminary design will be submitted to the SSD on 30 June 1961. Evaluation of these reports will follow immediately and the results will be used to revise this document where necessary. The LUNEX program has an Engineering Design competition scheduled for initi- ation in January 1962. This competitive effort would be evaluated and a decision on the manufacturing approach would be possible by *«* January 1963- To accomplish this program the following funds will . be required: FY-62 F -3 S f f i W H i Y6 "26T9 112.2 ^ - - . . ,. Should the above funds not be made available, the schedule for establishing the Lunar Expedition w i l l be delayed proportionally t o the delay I n funding. 5-5 WDLAR-S-45B TM> rfacmnmr ceatnM lnfe«natlan atfadiBt ft* HMioMil 4 * t a « * of N H U n l M Stem w M I * Hw M a s i M • ! Hw E i p i w i M l m » , TIN* t l . U . I . C , b c H n 7 M and 794, M* hanmtutaa m i t l a l l e o «f wtirch in any Honnr M * i iMNtlnrliad p*ran H prahibftidtotow.
    • • * *5-2 COST ESTIMATE^. 5he funding requirements for the complete LUNEJC program are asfollows: w F.Y. COSTS (In m m ions) 1962 1963 19& 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971R £ D Ig6.9 IfA 335 660 108W 1608Launch F a c i l i t i e s 8 6k 6bExpedition Costs 1131 1053, 798; 631 j Annual Total ja6.9J US 399J 1& 108411608 1135 1Q23J 798 631 Program Total • 751*3 To accomplish the LUNEX Program, additional information about thelunar surface is required at an early date. This means lunar surfacephotographs from a lunar orbiting vehicle and the delivery of a radio-light beacon to the lunar surface by a soft landing vehicle. PresentM S A programs vill provide some information and capability. However,to meet the KMEX program schedule, the following additional fundingwill be required by either the XIASA or the Air Force: Unmanned Vehicles P.Y. COSTS (In millions) 1961 1962 1963 196k 1965 1966 1967Lunar Photographs and i i !Radio-Light Beacon 15 75 85 1 5 I I : 1 lRecovery of LunarCore Sample i 12 35 85 J »85 !265 .85 ! 2* 1 ANNUAL TOTALS ! 27 .no 175 300 .265 - 85 ! * 5.6 WDLAR-S-lt58 IWi dMiiMm (attain ififamoliM BHKIII* fta natiniil M w at Hi. Unltacl Ststai whMa Hw M H I M •> «w fiafuoaa L n i , THb. II, U-S.C. feclian TO and 794. ifca hiiiHuiiuhm ar WMIOHIW «f «ki(k in any monnar to « maattiariBtd W w i b afoMMtad by lew. *:1 -—">"
    • 5-3 FY 62, 63 FINANCIAL PLAN $ In Thousands FY-62 FY-63 MANNED LUNAR PAYLOAD Lunex Re-entry Design & Mockup 16,000 80,000 (2 contr, 8 M ea) Lunar Landing Stage 2,000 10,000 (2 contr, 1 M ea) Lunar Launching Stage 2,000 10,000 (2 cont r, 1 M ea)SECONDARY POWER Manned Vehicle power System 600 1,000 Surface Vehicle Power System (15 kw) 100 300 Nuclear Lunar Facility Power (300 kw) 1,000 1,500 (Spur Program Support)GUIDANCE Mid-course System 200 450 Lunar Terminal System 300 450 Lunar Ascent System 100 300 Earth Return System 200 500LIFE SUPPORT Crew Compartment Design too 1,000 Ecological System 1,000 1,200 Moon Suit or Capsule 500 800COMMUNICATIONS & DATA HANDLING. Manned Vehicle Video System Design too 1,000 Wide Band Moon-Earth Link Design 200 llOO Secure Narrow Band Link Study 100 300 Man-Man Lunar Surface 300 650Materials and Resources Re-entry Materials Research 1,000 1,300 Lunar Natural Resource Dev- 500 1,000 26,900 112,150 5-7 WDLAR-S-^56Tkli < « « M «Malm JotoiMotiHi nfbcMni * • notional driMit of MM United Stetoi -IDtln tk* H » I I « •! rtv Eiplono** 1 m , TtttoII, U.J.C., Stafen 7M «id T», It* tranniubn m imtotSwi of which rn an? •ornwr K in nnoultnuiwo M M it BTMIMM by tow. > I
    • CONFIDENTIAL WDLAR-S-45BDIVISION OF LUNAR EXPEDITION PROGRAM - LUNEX
    • .:,fcc<wn^-73 • *w EECTIOH VI PROGRAM MANAGEMENT LUNAR EXPEDITION (U) (LUHEX) 6.1TMi Staamia caMalu lalanaattM aHactbB Hia astianel d a f a u * af Hia UaitM Stahn wiHili Hia naanina at rfca *»plaiw»a I t w i , Tltla)>. U.S.C., Sadiwi 7 M and 794, ttn naBiatiuIan at tanlstlDn af which In any • o n w r to an nMnrtlwiInl pcnsn b pfeWbltad ay law.
    • •;42££*#». - RECCRP OP CHANGES e VHUR.S-U58 • ^ -I M i aanmMt « M S I M k W I « aHaning * , M f i m l a * f a i M af Rw United M M »BW» ika BHOint af * • EwHwaaa l a w , TMt I I , U.S.C, b c l i w m 0*4 7*4, fat fraMrtiuiM ar favalatlaii aF jrWtl ft osj m n w to an •oaurfcerind ptnan h anUaHad by l a * .
    • INDEXTITLE PAGE .- 6.1RECORD OP CHANGES 6-2INDEX 6.36-0 MANAGEMENT FOCAL POINT 6-56.1 RESPONSIBILITIES 6.56.2 PROGRAM OFFICE MANNING 6.66-3 ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS 6.76.fc AIR FORCE DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT 6-76.5 OTHER AGENCIES 6.86.6 MANAGEMENT TOOLS 6.66.7 PEP 6.8 6.3 WDLAR-S-U58Tkli dacaawnl cwUeini InlanaDHan affectlm Ma aaOanal riataua af I t * Wnitad Motat wllMa laa mnnliii at Hw Eipieiwga l o - i , Tttla11, V.S.C., f a c l h * 793 ea* 794. Hit trammfiihm ar nvalatian af w"ir» Ml «"r -annar la on BHBuHiaritad panan i i prealbJM br • " -
    • TJTWT- "»£i Intentionally Left Blank * - . * • * 6.4 WKLAR-S-1*58 TMi aoniwnt m t a i u tatafHrflw •Fhflim Ha M l i M a l M n u *f A . I M U . wWiht H» I B X H I I H af ftto batomaa Ivan, 1 M * I I , U.S.C., Stctlan f93 aal 7 W , Ifea trsntHiiilan at nvalaltoa af whlcli in aaf »i la on wiairittariiMJ aanaa h a r a M W M by law. _ _ > . .,_ f- -* - -.•-. ->f-.--r- -.I-..
    • 6. HUX3RAM MANAGEMENT 6.0 MANAGEMENT FOCAL POUTT Tie focal point for management of the Lunar Expedition program will be a Lunex program Office within the Space Systems Division, AFSC. The Director of the Program Office will coordinate, integrate. monitor and direct all activities of the Lunar Expedition Program. Subordinate to the Director vill be managers fox major parts of the program. A tentative organizational chart fox the Program Office is show in Figure 6-1. 6.1 RESPONSIBILITIES a. The Earth Launch Complex Office v i l l be responsible for the c i v i l engineering aspects of building up the earth launch base. The immediate problem of this office w i l l be a s i t e selection surrey. b. The Earth launch Vehicle Office w i l l be responsible for a l l earth launch boosters required for t h i s program. c. The Lunar Landing and Launch Vehicles Office will be responsible for a l l development and testing of the lunar Trifling Stage and lunar launch Stage. d. The Manned and Cargo Payloads Office w i l l be responsible for the development of the 3-man Lunex Be-entacy Vehicle and. the Cargo Package. This w i l l be one-of the key offices i n the entire program since i t v i l l be concerned with such major technical areas as l i f e support equipment, re-entry problems, secondary power and structures. e. The Communications and Data Handling Office v i l l be responsible for establishing the ccnmunications network and centralized, data handling organization. I t w i l l a l s o concern I t s e l f with communications problems between the earth, the moon, and the lunex Re-entry Vehicle and. point-to-point on the lunar surface. f. Guidance and Flight Control Office will be responsible for developing: ascent, mid-course, terminal, lunar ascent, and re-entry guidance equipment. g. The Lunar Expedition F a c i l i t y Office block (shown In dotted outline) indicates that that office w i l l be established, at a later time since the problems associated with the expedition f a c i l i t i e s are not of immediate concern. 6-5 W)LAR-S-fc58IWi demMM (Minim mfnimtiwi aKadtiii Ha) national aahiua •* Mw UniM b e t a wbaln nW M I I I I I af It* b p l « n | i tawi, nil*II. U.S.C.. SKfiw 7V3 and 7M, tka tnmnaSiiten ar nnlarnu af whick in any aanaar M on BMattwiiad aansa li prohibited hf low.
    • h. 5he Flans Office will be responsible far examining other potential uses of equipment developed for the lunex Program. For example, - the Bflme equipment could be used far sending sen eround Mare and Venus, or perhaps effecting a landing on Pboboe. Con- siderable planning also needs to be done regarding the exploratory phase of toe lunar Expedition. i . Programming Office will be responsible for scheduling and budgeting of the entire program. This office will have under i t s control a network of computers designated as the H3p program. J. The Technical Integration and Support Office will be responsible for insuring the technical compatibility of a l l com- ponents of the system, such as, that the vibration Is within t o l e r - able limits during the boost phase when a l l components of the system have been put together. This office w i l l also provide technical assistance to each of the main component offices. The component office such as the Manned and Cargo Payloads Office will not rely entirely on the Technical Integration and Support Office for assistance, but will be free to obtain the best technical advice available in the nation from whatever source i s necessary, such as other government laboratories or universities. This Technical Integration and Support Office will be manned by Air Farce officers *ho will be responsible for the various disciplines and for technical support from the Aerospace Corporation. k. The Reliability Office will insure that a strong r e l i a b i l i t y and safety program i s followed by a l l contractors throughout the program. Since r e l i a b i l i t y and safety i s of such extreme importance in this program every effort must be made to insure the r e l i a b i l i t y of the final equipment- Shis can only be done by giving proper recognition t o the problem at a high organi- sational level where policies and recommendations can be recognized and implemented. 6.2 H X 1 M OFFICE M H E J H 3A A NK A Program Office must be established immediately after program approval i f planned schedules are to be met. I t i s estimated that an i n i t i a l buildup to 72 officers plus 35 secretaries will be required. A requirement for 100 MIS w i l l be established with the Aerospace Corporation. In view of the magnitude of the program, which will bulla up t o more than one b i l l i o n dollars a year* a larger Program Office w i l l be required. .Planning for these I n - creased manpower requirements will be accomplished by the Program Office, after i t i s established. Suggested I n i t i a l distributionKill a x w H i caalahn intonation affecting tha aatiaBal dafaiua af Ida Unltad I t o M i wiAiit Ida M e a l M at rha E|«tana*a I s m , Till*I I . U . I . C , ftttlan 793 mi 7*4. Ik* tiaanalittaa a . maloHaa a( wtikt ia any aiannar ta aa saavHwrliad aafwn H amMWtad by I t * .
    • V"? personnel within the Rrogram Office Is as follows: a. Lunex Program Director k b. Plans k e. Programming 6 d. Technical Integration and Support 20 e. Reliability 2 f. Earth launch Complex 5 g. Garth Launch Vehicle 5 h- lunar Landing and launch Vehicle 5 i. Manned and Cargo Reloads 15 j. Communications and Data Handling 3 k. Guidance and Flight Control 36.3 CBG/iNIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS There will be a continual and energetic exchange of directionand Information between personnel of the Lunar Program Office anddevelopment contractors• Because of the complex nature and magnitudeof the program, the Program mrector will be required to deal withmany contractors from diverse technical areas. It is envisionedthat an associate contractor will be selected fotr each major portionof the program, who will, In turn* use many supporting contractingvarious technological capabilities. Technical Integration andsupport vill be accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation under theoverall guidance and control of the Program Office.6.k AIR KQRCE BEVELOBMBNT AMD SUPPCM Toe Lunex program office will work with the Technical AreaManagers within AFSC. The Technical Area Managers have projectresponsibility for development of solutions to technical problemssuch as those associated with guidancej materials, rocket enginepropulsion, life support, etc. Each Technical Area Manager willidentify and emphasize those critical technical, problems to vhlchspecific effort must be directed in order to attain a capabilityrequired by the Lunex program. 6 , 7 WDIAB-S-45Q . - M l * " * _ „ , fttMini miomoHM DHKlinf « M M t l M a l * h n * at t h . * • « • * » « « wliMn » • M n b i * •» * • f " » • * ! • • , l ? " V"* !!; I M M M 793 OIHI TV*. M M h m i » ! i i ! « i w nntotiaN rl wHiiti in art) aanMr to an •MUIborlnd pan*" « p a h i b l M fcr low-
    • ^* ^J-iUKi( 6.5 OTHER AGENCIES Specific arrangements vill be made vith other agencies as requirements arise in the development of the Lunex program. 6.6 MANAGEMENT TOOLS Die basic philosophy of developing all elements of this program on a concurrent basis Introduces rigid scheduling require- ments. Specific tasks must be defined and scheduled. However, -when development problems dictate that many factors be varied to keep abreast of advancing state-of-the-art, concurrency and even the end objectives are affected and possibly delayed. A management tool vhich uses an electronic computer vill be used to support the Program Director in planning, operating, and controlling the Lunar Expedition Program. It vill be initiated in the early stages of the Program and will continue to be used throughout the expedition phase. Ibis management tool called Program Evaluation Procedure * (PEP) vill assist the Director by providing: a. A method of handling large masses of data quickly, efficiently and economically. b. The capability to locate, identify and this correct trouble spots. c. A capability of integrating the many varied and compli- cated facets of the Lunar Expedition Program. 6-7 PEP Die PEP management tool i s made possible through the use of an electronic d i g i t a l computer. The scheduling and monitoring of many thousands of items required in the Lunar Expedition Program make the use of t h i s computer technique imperative. Hie PEP approach employs linear programming techniques with a s t a t i s t i c a l concept in conjunction vith the electronic computer. Diis procedure facilitates the analysis of interrelationships of many thousands of program elements. Uhe results axe presented as program summaries upon which the Director can base decisions. (See Pig. 6-3) 3he f i r s t step In using the PEP management tool i s t o make a detailed analysis of the overall Lunex Program. Each major event, milestone, or accomplishment that must be achieved i s l i s t e d i n chronological order. 2he events must be v e i l defined and should occur at an instant of time union can be identified. A network, or "a program plan chart, i s laid, out i n vhiclTtne events are shown as points or c i r c l e s whose positions roughly represent their chronological order. Interrelationships between the events ( c i r c l e s ) 6.8 WDLAR-S-458 TM. d « i u * t <Mhiu tahnallaA tHadiM H . MtMpl * • * • • *< «** U*iM SMI*. wMin Ha • • • • ! • • af * • fapl—— Uwi. JH» IB, U.S.C.. taction 7*3 w f TM. MH •wme.HiiM •> mlolkM •> «*«li <• " > » " M — —••Wi.rH-d B M M H • M M W * hr k » . . , * • : • - . •--~---: •". . - - ;.-=-s-.;v - - -..- .6-i-
    • c and sequence of events are B b o w by connecting lines. The line between the events represents work that must be done to proceed from one event to the next (See Figure 6-U). 5he computer then totals all of the expected activity times along every possible (in the thousands) route of the netvork from start to the end event. Die rep computer then examines the total times of the large number of paths in order to find the longest nhich ifi called the critical path. The critical path defines the sequence of events which vill require the greatest expected tine to accomplish the end event. • 3 K effects 01 a delay for any particular milestone or event an the entire program or on any other event can be quickly and efficiently determined so that corrective action can be taken if required. 6.9 HDLAR-S-1*58 Tth cammant tonMlM infotMallea sHattim th* RtfftMl oafroa af tka ItalMd Statai wlthla tH innantna of HM lipionaf. Lam, rnl* II. U.S.C, tertian 793 and 7*4, Hm HtomHtlm ar iwrietla* ef vaidi in any manna, to an •noaHiariml panan Ii Biaklbirad by law.*SJffi
    • mirv7W c LUNEX PROGRAM DIRECTOR TECHNICAL PLANS PROGRAMMING INTEGRATION RELIABILITY a SUPPORT-V- r ^ 1 LUNAR I LUNAR i EARTH EARTH EXPEDITION • LAUNCH LAUNCH LANDING I FACILITY | COMPLEX VEHICLE a LAUNCH VEHICLE fc MANNED COMMUNIS. . J N S GUIDANCE B a CARGO B DATA HANDLING FLIGHT CONTROL PAY LOADS FIGURE 6-1 LUNEX P R O G R A M O F F I C E WDLAR-S-456 Thii M t f K T cMitain i" (on-allw aH*[tina Urn HOHBHOI rfotoiiM or r M Unltad Stein wirtlit Mw Hoanlna a( I M Eipr«io»o L o w , Tilk T, SltlJon 7VI ond 7 M , rht I r a n million or mnlotioii • ( wliTdi in o«r « « w M on anrMMiarlml ptnen i i pronlbJM by I n - jj " ? ^r» ^^^^^7-^Sftr^-^s^ Tfn—TaiiT*r *v*j*»j^ii!iiu»jii"»jofcw«ii -••- " * "- - ~ - - 3 t j ^ -: L -" ""•• .^-
    • vunrraoffifiL I MATERIALS |I
    • ?*ATER1ALS l**;* FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PROPULSION CONSTRUCTION I ION MANUFACTURING GOVERNMENT AGENCY CONTRACTOR FIGURE 6 ^ PEP INFORMATION FLOW RATTERN :,,r. : [ WDLAR-S-458
    • SECTION V H MATERIEL SUPPORT IHNAR EXPEDITION (U) (LUNEX) M WDLAB-S-1J58Tkh a K u n M I i w M M Jnf««ofion aflaclina Mia notional a*t*ma *f tka U n ) M Stern within tat manning t» Hi* n s i M O t * l a m , Tttta)>, U.S.C., Sudlan 7 M and 79*. Hw trgnnlitian ar faailattan af wkick In any naniw te an •nauHisfiBd pansn l i arahiaiM » r law.
    • fjAMHffiT"" .,. A—-J-S*-*: .• RECORD OF CHANGES CHANGE : IESCRIPTIOH OF CHANGS 21AIS OF CHANGS REFERENCE NO. 1 0 BASIS PART ,-> ; * • • ; WDLAR-S-1*58 7-2 •-*•£*Tkh d « M « l (DMQIIH M H H O I I H •fbaina th. noting! v i f i w • ( t h . United R i t e viHifri Itej i M i t a *f H M E i t l m m low), Tl|teI I . U.S.C., Satfcaa 7 M *nd ni, Iha heropiu inn *r n n k t i w i af w(tTch iB_-*jjiir nonwr M an mnitliBrind p i m i H prahlbiM b» law.
    • «**.w-i * * * . - nnsx TITLE PAGE 7.1 RECORD OF CHABGES 7.2 INDEX 7- 3 7.0 INTRODUCTION • 7^5 7.1 SUPPLY 7-5 7.2 DISTRIBUTION 7-7 7.3 STORAGE 7-7 7.U REAL PROPERTY INSTALLED EQUIPMENT (RPIE) 7-8 7-5 MAINTENANCE 7-8 7.6 MAHUFACTORIN3 FACILITY CRITERIA. 7-8 •Cfl.VriDHffilk 7.3 ^WDLAR-S-^58T»d d K M M iwiMIni inferniotfon off«ti»« ttx HBttsml **f*nu Bl Id* United Statu wlHitn tt> naMlng af MM E W I M W lawi. Till*II. U.S.C. SKIIBII 793 and 7M, fln tionniuion at imtdllmi at which In any BaRMr M M atmrttiatiiad t a r n h arahibllad b* law.
    • l*J* ,.!...-."-••• •• &f>sfiiHe Intentionally left Wank.£•.•*S&- WDIAR-S-1»56 Tkli aKitWftt contain frfamatlW .ffwllnf ft* notlmal a a f m a at tha Unitoa » M « wllfcto Ma H » T a a at Ik* b r X a a * tan. JHW l i , U.S.C.. S M I I M W3 owl 7W. Ma l ™ n . i n i m i ar rmtattan af wkick In • • » M a w to • • «™itlM»r™i — i- — " M U fc- t —
    • 7- MATERIEL SUPPORT 7.0 IHTflODUCTION It is intended that this program use two significant concepts that will result in better management of the materiel support program. These are the Delayed Procurement Concept and the Responsive Production Concept. UndertiieDelayed Procurement Concept, the ordering and delivery of high-cost insurance-type spares is deferred until the final production run must be made, allowing for the accumulation of maximum operational experience with the new item before a final spares order must be placed. Under the Responsive Production Concept, a portion of the requirement for high-cost operational spares Is procured In unfabricated, unassembled form. When the spares demand can be more reliably predicted, based on actual usage experience, additional complete spare items can be produced within a very short lead-time period. When experience fails to justify a requirement for additional complete spares, the materiels and parts involved can be utilized In end article production. The policy shall be to buy minimum quantities of high-value spares and maintain close control over their transportation, storage, issuance, and repair until they finally wear out, or are no longer required. Simplification of procedures and relaxing of restrictions on low-value items will provide the means (man-power, machine time, etc.) for more precise management of high-value items. 7-1 SUPPLY Maximum utilization will be made of existing assets. Where practical, equipment and parts will be reclaimed from completed test programs, repaired, modified and overhauled to suitable condition for use in later tests and operational tasks. The procedures and paperwork Involved with procurement of spare parts must be streamlined to permit maximum flexibility in planning and responding to a continually changing configura- tion^ Immediate adjustment or inventories and reorder points must result from test program and engineering changes. Selection of spare parts should be made at the time of initial design to enable procurement of spare and production parts concurrently to eliminate reorder costs resulting from separate procurements. 7-5 -VDLAB-S-l^BTkli d a u M M (antiiai trilatntqlloii oHMtina Ma M l l a M l dafMM sf I h * Unllad JtohH niHiin Hw Menrng •» Hn Ciplonoti l a w i . Till*I I , U.S.C-, Smalm 793 sad 79a, Hw franmunicn er lavaleUen af which In any mmmr la an •nnrlharlaMl ptrtMi i> erahibiml br l a v .
    • "Stal^ Determination of quantities, reparable-cverhaulHBodiflca- tlon planning, control etc., shall be accomplished and directed by a permanently organized and active groin) composed of personnel representing the engineering, production, materiel, reliability, quality control, procurement and contract departments, and themm various affected sections within these departments such as, design, test, planners, etc., attending as required. Die A U K vlll have a member assigned to this group for surveillance ii purposes and to provide logistic guidance on problems which may__ require advice from the Air Force. Persons assigned to the group shall be veil qualified by - reason of experience and technical ability. Ihe procedures and paperwork involved shall be streamlined, taking due cognizance of the powers and capabilities of the-: ; above group to permit maximum flexibility in planning and the~^ *~ quickest possible response to changes and emergency situations.J^ Ihe group will pay particular attention to control of hi-value items and Items critical to the needs of the expedition and test program. Such items, particularly those potentially subject to imminent redesign, will be rigorously screened to assure economical Inventory and the best possible repair, overhaul and modificai v.on planning at all times. She group shall be responsible for the following: a. Immediate adjustment of inventories and reorder points resulting from changes to the delivery schedule, the test program, and for engineering changes. b. Inventory review and adjustment of initially established stock levels and/or reorder points in light of latest experience gained from the test program every time reorder or minimum stock levels are reached. c. Review of stock levels, and adjustment and/or disposition of non-moving Items on a continuing basis, but at intervals not to exceed sixty (6*0) days for any individual hi- TftlUe i t e m s and 180 d a y s f o r otft™* j **>!«, w «••*-. n t V r Intmrmla. "as agreed upon by the Contractor and the Contracting Officer. Shis i s t o Include the return t o production of axqr surplus quantities for^jework t o later design requirements. VDUR-&-k5Q Tkh tfwwM cWtohs W m m t a i aBcttim Ha nailaMl M M •* M> tMMd ftotx >HMI M* W * I < M 1 Ito ElptMM I n * . TM* I t , U.S.C., M W 7W mi 794, MM IroMHiSi.lon «r n n k b af -kltb hi anr ma*mr f m unmiHwlmi mmun y nmMblfi kr h™.
    • d. Control of repalr-overhaul-modlfication planning. 7-2 DE5THIBUTI0B The Contractors shall develop Internal working procedures vhlch encompass the following requirements; a. Inventory levels snail be programmed to vary with anticipated utilization. Shipments In advance of estimated requirements will not be made except when it is clearly In the best Interest of the program to do so. b. Stock levels shall be minimized by maximum economical reliance on repair, overhaul, and modification of reparable items. Repair, overhaul, and modification turn- around time will be a prime determinant in establishing the minimum stock-level period for each Item. c. Where feasible (vlth particular emphasis on hl-value and critical Items), inventory cost will he minimized by stockage of repair, overhaul and modification bits, pieces and components (relatively low-cost items) In conjunction with a pre-planned and flexible expedited repair, overhaul, and modification program, as opposed to stocking sub-assemblies and end items themselves "(the relatively high-cost items). d. Stock levels will be determined on basis of overall program needs and will be independent of the site location of the stock. Maximum utilization will be made of available contracted air transportation to minimize "pipe- line" time. 7.3 STORAGE Farts whether required for the test or expedition programs should not be segregated from production stock. This merely adds an unnecessary stockage cost-burden. By combining storage facilities with a co-mingling of stock, considerable cost savings can be effected. Spares and production stock serve as buffer stocks for each other. If multiple activities such as Tnanufaeturing, test, and tne expedition are supplied from a single storage facility the chance of stockout would be 7*7n i l Bacnaitt taiitalm tafafauttoa articling tiw national 4*f*ma •» H M UaHad State within Ik* •woitlni al tfca fwlaaaaa Lava, TMaI t , U.i.C, Sacttan m and W * , tha ironunjuion at t a n l e t t o i af which hi anr » » * •» aa imaaiHwIvtl aanaa t> atahlfcHad by l » -
    • minimized • 7 .k REAL PROPERTY INSTALLED EQUIPMENT (RPTE) Each contractor Is charged vith the responsibility of identifying, as veil as determining the criteria for all items required for successful mission accomplishment. When the requirements have been determined the responsibility for accomplishing the required HPIE materiel support program vill be assigned. This materiel support vill include the necessary selection of spare parts to be stored at the manufacturing facility or at the launch site. 7-5 MAINTENANCE The proposed operational mode of the ItfREX program is unique in that it retains all the features of a research and development program. In the time period designated as "expedition", it can be expected that in addition to a variety of missions the systems vill be modified and improved.,, the launch facilities and support equipment may require modifica- tion, and technical development may force program changes. Since the expedition period Is actually a continuation of the development and test program it is apparent t&at the systems and techniques developed during testing may also be continued for the Expedition. An evaluation vill be made to determine the feasibility of having contractors support the program throughout its entire life. However, in determining the total task, considera- tion must be given to the available Air force manpower, equipment and facilities that may be used to support the LUNEX program. 7 .6 MANU7ACTORING PAClLITr CRITERIA The equipment production facilities vill preferably consist of an existing large aerospace plant convertible to LUMEX production vith a minimum modification program. It nay be necessary to find a facility that is adjacent to, or easily accessable to navigable waterways. The facility should obviously be located in an area containing an abundance of skilled manpower. Manufacturing Test facilities adjacent to the manufacturing facilities would be very desirable to reduce transportation problem. TOLAR-S-lf58 Tkit tfHuimiri loMalai tolciMsiiM etfetfiiii I M nMIamt M m •>( th* ffiiiNd SMUi Wilkin fh* Motrin, • ! • * • fiptema* I o n . Tftto I I . U.S.C., Sttlian 7*3 and 7 M . Hw frnmiiiiin at m i W l M *t which in any nonMr to « unauHnriiM parion !• prahlBlted by law.: *.--.-
    • ^ _ ,(,OlW-i Certain Items, such as the large liquid and solid boosters and propellant, will probably be assembled at the Lunex launch Complex and special facilities for manufacturing these items will be required at the launch complex. Thus checkout and acceptance test facilities vill also be required at the launch complex. Many major manufacturing items, such as the Lunar Landing Stage and the Lunar launch Stage, will be produced at the manufacturers facility. This will require propellant storage, or a propellant manufacturing capability at the plant, plus various test and check out facilities to support manufacturing. As an example, the following test facilities will be required to support the manufacturing of the Lunar Landing and lunar Launching Stages: a- Configuration—Far each of the two stages a Propulsion Test Vehicle Test Stand and two Flight Acceptance Firing Stands will be required. In addition, cold flow-test facilities conslstelng of one pad and three structural towers will be required. Two separate test complexes will > ? .needed - one for each of the two stages. There will be only one centrally located blockhouse with control and instrumentation capability for operating both complexes. Each hot firing stand would be located in accordance with a 2 psi explosion overpressure criteria. An explosive force calculated on equivalent LHp caloric content to TKT, shows that the hot stands should be no closer than 2000* to any other hot or cold stand. b. Test Pad Configuration and arrangement — Each hot test pad will consist of a concrete pad containing the launcher structure. The stage is erected by a mobile eonmeVcial type crane, and personnel access for maintenance is by work stand and ladders, or a cherry picker. Ho service tower will be required. c. Thrust Level Measurement - - Thrust l e v e l s w i l l be detcrmined-by measuring the chamber pressure and applying •Hie result to the engine manufacturers calibration curve. Tanking level Is determined by the Propellant Utilization System. 7.9 WBLAfc-8-458 ml i b •Wwnanr (Main MbmKNian nftWina !*• metUmal aahaw si rlw Unft»d Stain vlikin HH mwnini of rb* Eipionasa l a w , TBI*II, U.S.C., M " < 7*3 and 7*4. Iht tramfflkilM m rmtotbM *f whkh in any monmt M an naiHiorlnd mmm i> prefcibrMd a, law. -^•^-jf-;
    • v ~ - - - *• «.**• HJIEX TITLE PAGE 8.1 RECORD OF CHANGES...*:, IKDEX 8.3 8.0 nnRonjcnoN 8.5 8.1 LUNAR LAUNCH COMPLEX 8.6 8.2 LOGISTICS 8.7 8.3 AEROSPACE GROUND EKVIBOHMEBT 8-7•*P: 8.3 WDIAR-SA58 h i . d e c n m l csMahn hfomatioit eHecHni tfe* natiaMl < • « • • • el Ifc. United Stem "H*in Hw wonlne el H H t u K n e j t t e n , 1W» 11, U.S.C,, SMtien 793 md 79*,. H H | m » " i | | t M er f w t o t i e o * f ^hi«k in eny « e n w to « I (neiHiBrtwl B*rfwi it eroMfciM k f • " .-J&3,
    • d. Altitude Simulation Unit - - A plenum chamber, containing steam jets u p stream of its exhaust bell, shall b e attached to each engine for altitude simulation. e. flame Deflector - - The design is a conventional configuration elbow shaped, shield cooled with a firex water injection system. f. Propellent Storage and Handling Equipment - - A central LOg storage and transfer facility shall b e provided for each of the two test facilities. The Lunar Landing Stage facility shall store 350,000 lbs. of LQa- Spherical, vacuum Insulated devars shall b e used. Ihe transfer unit shall b e a motor operated centrifugal pump vith 500 gpm and 1 0 0 psi discharge head capacity. Die lunar launch Stage Vest facility LCU storage shall contain 18,000 gallons in spherical devars vith a transfer pump capability of 200 gpm and 1 0 0 p s i discbarge head. Distribution lines for both complexes would be prefabri- cated, static vacuum, insulated steel pipe. An LHjj storage and transfer facility will b e provided at each hot firing test stand and the cold flow test pad. One transfer system Is an LHg gas generator system vith air being the thermal source. Pressuring level in each tank would b e 1 0 0 _ psi. The L H 2 storage capacity requirement for each lunar Launch Stage facility is. 15,000 lbs. and at each Landing Stage Site is 35#000 lbs. Again the storage facilities would b e spherical devars vith segmented, prefabricated, static vacuum insulated stainless steel pipe distribution lines. •fcrr**,* WDLAR-S-kjSTfcli rfacmnl EWHaIn lufarairtloa aHactfai Dm notlanal M M H at Ik* UaiMd ftotw within tin maafilat. at tfca fealaaaart l a m , TWaI I , U . i . C , lactiaa 7*3 and 7*4, Ifca hamtilMlm w lanlaHaa at whkli In an* « • ) • « l» «a •muHnrlMd panan l> anMbHad » r lav,
    • •*-*-r^^^f #* **»- SECTIQH V i n CIVIL EHGISEERING-£•• - JUNAR EXPEDITION (U)j£&a (UJNEX) 5*?- 8.1 WDLAH-S-^58 at Thit a s » « n ) uatalni lahnoliaii affacltna laa ntaisool dfhiwa «f laa Onitad Slorti v M S * tha a m i l i t a at Ilia ttptimiia Lav*. T M * I I , U.S.C, larilan 7*3 ana 7 M , * • tianimntUa at maloltafl af waidi la any n e n w to an aaaullinrina panaa h pfahlaftaa hy law.
    • • • • •- As --r*; •* StCRrR£•.:. This page intentionally l e f t blank 8.4 WDIAR-S-U58 (.<»* I H i aacaiaairt caalaiai infofaiotlaa aHadlnf tto •atiaaol • * * * » * af (ha Unltad Start* oHhbi Hia MoninB. af Ika Etsisnoa* Lovl, Th% I I . U-S.C. Sartian 7*3 and T M . * » tioniiaiulen v maalollan af vhkli ia anr noinw to an •noalkariwt panaa ti pcaafbMad br a n .
    • 8. CIVIL ENGHJEERIBG 8.0 nnBOKJcnoN : As part of the Lunar Transport Vehicle study, consideration vas given to the facilities required for the launch and support of the Space Launching System and the Lunar Bayloads. It vas assumed that the manufacture of all boosters and the payload vould be accomplished at existing factories, facilities and equipment required for the manufacture of large boosters may be readily Installed at factories having clearance sufficient to handle the booster. Large boosters such as required for this prograis must necessarily be transported over long distances by specially constructed barges, By selecting manufacturing facilities and launch sites adjacent to navigable waters, a minimum of overland transport vould be required. A signifi- cant savings may be effected by providing launch capabilities at selective areas where existing support facilities, personnel housing, and assured tracking capabilities are available. The logistic support for the launch rates indicated in this plan dictates that new propel! ant manufacturing facilities be constructed at the launch site and that transport barges and other vehicles be available to transport vehicle components from the manufacturing plants. A modified Integrated Transfer Launch System is envisioned for the Lunar Transport Launch System. The size and weight of the Space Launching Vehicle, designated the BC2720, precludes the transfer of the entire Lunar Transport Vehicle after assembly, but the Integrated transfer of upper stages and lower stages separately with a minimum mating and checkout on the launch pad may provide increased reliability and appreciable cost savingt In order to achieve the highest launch pad utilization possible and to make maximum use of specialized capital equipment and highly skilled manpower, the application of operations research technology will be required. To handle the test load and the complex sequencing requirements presented by the three-stage Space launching Vehicle plus the Lunar Payload, a computer controlled, integrated launch sequencing and checkout system will be needed. It 1 B desirable to accomplish the maximum amount of systems testing In a protected environment prior . t locating the vehicle on the launch pad, -o and to use the launch pad, in so far as Is possible, for its prime purpose, that of preflight servicing and launching the vehicle. 8.5 ^WDLAR-S-fcsa KGfitf-Thti rfaciimni contoiu information affadini tbt n t t a n a l satania af Iha Unltarf atofcn wtthtn tha awanint at I k . bplanaa* lawm, TMaIS, M.I.C., Mellon 793 and 794, l a * t r o n i n i i i l o n or mvalatien a ! wfcich In a n * poriMlr to * • anamfcartino pwrta* h praaiblrad ay l a v . I
    • 8.1 LUHAR LAUNCH COMPLEX The Lunar Transport Vehicle System has a requirement forlaunch and support facilities suitable for maimed lunar flightof a vehicle using a BC 2720 Space Launching System. Investi-gation of the launch pad requirements for a launch rate of twoper month indicates that from k to 6 launch pads vould benecessary depending on the launch site location and the meansavailable for handling the booster- There are no existinglaunch pads capable of handling this vehicle, nor are there, atthis time, facilities capable of conducting static testing ofthe "C" booster and the launch of the complete Lunar TransportVehicle. It is possible that by combining the capabilitiesfor both static firing and launch in two of the pads required,a significant coat saving may be gained and an acceleratedtest program may be effected. This vould provide a capabilityfor the launch of the "C" booster with or without solid boostduring R&D flight test and for early test missions of theLunex Re-entry Vehicle- The development and flight test ofthe "B" booster is planned at AMR during the development program. It was assumed in the Lunar Transport Vehicle study thatthe manufacture of all boosters and the payload vould beaccomplished at existing factories. New and added facilitiesand equipment such as large forming brakes, special weldingJigs, fixtures and machines, and large processing facilitiesvould be required. In plants of sufficient size thesefacilities and equipment could reau-ly be installed. FurtherInvestigation comparing the relative economics of manufactureat the launch site versus manufacture at existing facilities isrequired to insure an economical choice. Assemblies having a diameter exceeding 12 feet orveighing over 200,000 pounds cannot be transported overUnited States railways. A load of 78,000 pounds is consideredto be the limit over selected highway routes. In as much asboth the "B" and "C" boosters of the Space Launch Systems havediameters In excess of Ik feet, transport from manufacturingplant to the launch site must be by barge. The large quanti-ties of boosters and the special environmental protectionrequired suggest that specially designed barges be constructedto transport these assemblies. Harbors and docking facilitiesvould be required near the manufacturing facility and at thelaunch Bite. By locating the launch facilities at or near Cape Cana-veral for an easterly launch significant savings may be 8.6 WELAR-S-458 .xaamt « • * • ! • ! hlwmatlwi affactln* H » aallaHl M M al Ifca Uallad SMtai VIIMa H M n e n b w • * • » • baiwtaaa l o * , , I H i t I.C., fatttaa 7*3 am* 7W„ laa trammtuton ar » « f a t | * * *f vhfeh in a n , »Bt)Mr M on MOithorius p t n M h prakiblted hr low.
    • -S* * . c effected. The use of existing administrative capabilities, personnel housing, assured tracking facilities, and technical support areas will provide a saving In costs and in leadtime required for construction of support facilities. Similar gains Bay he made hy locating launch facilities at Point Arguello for polar launch- This does not mean that Cape Canaveral and Point Arguello are the only reasonable locations for the launch site. In fact, by extending the Atlantic Missile Range in a westerly direction across the Gulf of Mexico it is conceivable that a launch site in the vicinity of the Corpus Christ! Naval Air Complex would provide the full use of AMR Range facilities with minimum overfly of foreign land masses. Likewise, extension of the AMR Range In a northerly direction to the coast of South Carolina would provide a similar accommodation. 8.2 LOGISTICS The logistic support for the launch rates indicated in this study dictates that new propellant manufacturing plants he constructed at the launch site. Existing propellant manufacturing plants are inadequate and the launch rates mentioned would use the full capacity of a separate propellant manufacturing facility. a. Propellant use rates for a 2 per month launch rate are estimated as follows: (1) Liquid Hydrogen manufacture 50 tons per day. (2) Liquid Hydrogen storage . @ launch pad 1-5x10° pounds. (3) Liquid Oxygen/Nitrogen Manufacture 120 tons per day. {k) Liquid Oxygen storage - @ launch pad U x 10° pounds. Barges will he required for transport of boosters from the manufacturing plant to the launch complex- 8.3 AEROSPACE GRQUHD ENVIRONMENT A modified Integrated-Transfer-Launch System is envisioned for the Lunar Transport launch System. This approach would allow the complete integration and checkout of the "B" booster together with the lunar Transport Payload in a protected 8.7 TOLAR-S-lt58TWt Batumi contain iiforniiHgfl affulin* lht notional dafoiwa gf HM Unlltd tola* "Win » • "»»<"• at *•* Eipionga lowi, TulaII, U.S.C.. (action m aad 7W, IIH Kmxmli.lim M m l a l l M af atfcicli In aor •a*n«r to ao oMoUwIiad parian h amWbltad by lao.
    • environment simultaneously with the assembly and checkout of the C2720 booster combination at the launch pad. The else and weight of the BC2720 Space Launching Vehicle precludes the transfer of the completely assembled Lunar Transport Vehicle from an integration building to the launch pad. It Is feasible^ however, to mate and Integrate the "B" booster with the lunar Transport Payload Inside the protected environs of an Integration building and vhen completed transfer the "B" booster and payload assembly to the launch pad for mating with the C2720 assembly. (See Figures 8-1 and 8-2). This can best be accomplished by a ellffslde location or extending a ramp from the integration building to an elevation at the launch pad approximately equal to the height of the C2720 stage. The assembly and checkout of -the nC2720n vehicle may be accomplished in two vays depending on the specific location of the launch pad and its accessibility to navigable waters. For a launch pad having no direct access to navigable waters, the assembly and mating of the solid segmented motors to the "CM booster would be accomplished at the launch pad. The extended time necessary to accomplish this assembly and checkout accounts for the difference in the numbers of pads required. It is estimated that 6 launch pads would be needed for this plan. For a launch pad having direct access to navigable waters,- the assembly and mating of the solid segmented motors to the "C" booster could be accomplished at an interim integration building located some distance away from the launch pad. After assembly and checkout, the "C2720" combination would be trans- ported by a barge to the launch pad and mated to the "B" booster and payload assembly. By using this approach it Is estimated that k launch pads would be adequate for the 2 per month launch rate. Final confidence checks and Integration of the booster and facility interface would be accomplished at the launch pad. The TNT equivalent of vehicle propellents was estimated in the following manner. The THT equivalent of the liquid propellents was taken at 60$ of the total LOX/lSjj load for all stages. This is the figure currently used at AMR for TNT equivalence for LOX/lflg. In this case, because of "the great quantities of propellant Involved, this degree of mixing Is unlikely and the 6o# figure would be conservative. Solid prppellants are taken at 100$ of the propellant velght. It Is also considered that detonation of the solid propellants may cause the subsequent detonation of liquid propellants and vice versa; but, the simultaneous detonation of all propellants WDLAR-S-U58Tki> tenHM C W I M I M iahmMton affatllna tt> notional M i n n * f tfca United Statn wHM» Ac •MaMw ti Hw I.pltnoa* L a m . TirW I f , U.S.C., Sactlan 7f3 and 7W, Itw Ironiniuiefl *r n«alatlM a) wliidi in <nir . n l t [ ta an *r*ri<>*rm* paiun U snktMtad fcr lav.
    • e 1E not likely to occur. Skis philosophy resolves to consideration of THT equivalents of liquid propellants and solid propellants separately and they are not additive. Ihe THT equivalent of one of the four segmented solid assemblies is 680,000 pounds. The 60$ TNT equivalent of the total liquid propellant load 1B approximately 1,300,000 pounds. Using the highest TNT equivalent (1,300,000 pounds) the inhabited building distance must be approximately 2| miles from the launch pad and minimum pad separation must be approximately 1 mile. For an inhabited pad adjacent to a launch operation, pad separation would be Q§ miles. It Is obvious that the real estate problem will be extensive. For a coastal location of "C" launch pads up to 18 miles of continuous coast line would be required, for a distance of 3 miles inland. 3hese distances can be decreased by creating a buffer between the pads. Locating the launch pads in ravines or indentations In cliff side launch locations might substantially reduce the land areas required. The selective location and orientation of the Integration building and other support facilities to take best advantage of topography would do much to decrease distances and reduce costs. Hie repeated launching of similar payloads in the lunar Transport Launching System and the extended time between launches from each pad indicates that a central launch control for all pads might tt desirable• To avoid analog signal- line driving problems and to allow greater distances than normal between the pads and the common blockhouse it is possible to use digital control for launch pad checkout and launch. Analog to digital conversion would essentially be accomplished at each launch pad and transmitted to the blockhouse via digital data link. With vertical mating, assembly and detailed checkout In the vertical assembly integration buildings, only gross, survey type testing or a simulated countdown and launch would be performed at the launch pad, since test and vehicle subsystem sequencing systems could be Installed in both areas. Present day checkout methods, because of the many manual controls and long-time spans involved would not provide sufficient assurance of the high reliability of the complex Integrated systems expected In the Lunar Transport Vehicle. 8.9 WDDAR-S-U58 Till dxtmwit contain M e « * * l « efhtctln* Ma nattoMl a M m * af |h> UaUad Hat* wMatn I t * m i n i •» IW baiaiMff* lawt, TM* I I , U.S.C, SMlM 713 « d 794, Hw frwnfflulaa «r lanfetln at vhtcb In any H U H fa an amttiarltMl aarHa f» »>aklUM *T law.
    • *"- WWW WDLAR-S-458CONFIDENTIAL
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    • - ^ • • ^ • V • - * .»MHBfiimfc I-V-Iwf^,,,.,.,^... . WDLAR-S-458
    • •-"•*U^ SECTION IX• - * : . & & PERSONNEL AND ORAIRING LUTJAR EXPEDITION (U) (UWEX)a*?** •fCJ M V V0UR-S-l£8 pw • -*
    • RECORD OF CHANGES . CHANGE IESCRIPTIOH OF CHARGE DAUB OF CHANGE REFERENCE NO. TO BASIC PART ******* **m*»r<»m vDiAR-s-458 * Tnh a a o M t i t cMMim Intonation affatHni tfea aatiaonl M u x «t tfea Unltad Sfotoi wlttiia Ma mawiina • ! Hw Eipl.www l a m , TBI*. I S , U.S.C., S«tl«iW3 eirfTW, A * ftaH-ula* ar mwlallM aLvhlfli la Jay t n i m la on enauttiarliaa aaraan )t pioMbltait br lav.
    • v -li. TxnsxTITLE PAGE • * 9.1RECORD OF CHARGES 9.2INDEX , , 9.39.0 HJTROEUCTION ,,. „ 9.59-1 PERSOHHEL , , 9.59.2 TRAINING PROGRAM 9.69.3 PLANNING FACTCBS AMD GROUND RULES , $.f9.k TRAINING 9-109.5 TRAINING PERSONNEL , 9-H9.6 TRAINING EQUIPMENT PACKAGE , 9.119-7 FACILITIES , 9-1^9.8 HJDGET AND FINANCE 9-15 ATTACHMENTIX - A PROJECTED MANNING AFSCS ,,, 9-l6IX - B EUNEX/SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM , 9,20IX - C RE-ENTRY VESICLEIX - D LUNAR LANDING STAGEIX - E LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE AND CARGO PAYLOAD PACKAGEK - F INTEGRATED SYSTEMS - •*>** 9-3 WDLAR-E-U58 n i l deonum cMiralm falw«>ati*n aHaritaf tn* MUMWI * M I M I of It" United MotH wHMn tha aaanhuj el * a EiptftMa* I w i . THI* It, U.S.C, train 7W m l 79*. tfc» noniBittlxt «r nnlstlan at which in an? n u i w M an unn»lh«ri»d |—mi h nnhlblMid a» low.
    • Intentionally Blank V 9.4 WDLAR-S-458«*w **•*-«, • • * * * , • . •-•i-?• ; ^• * » • * ! : .
    • ***?& T VRRCF >*••>. * • » ! * • - ;9. PERSQHHEL AND HtAHttJB9.0 IHBTOEUCTOQH Oils section of the Lunar Expedition Program Plan (Lunex)Includes estimated personnel requirements to support the programand presents the training required to Accomplish the end objective. The personnel requirements were derived on the basis of thescope of the complete program and the personnel would be comprisedof civilian and military personnel- The training program was prepared by the Air TrainingCommand and based on the Lunar Expedition Program Plan.9.1 PERSOHHEL The accomplishment of the Lunar Expedition Program vill havea manpower Impact on the Air Force that is quite different thanprevious programs. The number of personnel actually on theexpedition will be relatively small compared to the number ofpersonnel required to support the operation. The actual contractor"in-plant" personnel required to accomplish this program are notIncluded in the following figures. However, a general estimate ofthe total contractors effort, based on the average estimatedannual expenditure for the complete Lunex program, would be theequivalent of one of our larger manufacturing companies with 60 to70 thousand personnel. It should also be stated that this effortwould undoubtedly be spread throughout the Industry and notconcentrated in one company and the previous statement is only forcomparison. The military and civilian personnel required to support thelunex program is estimated as follows: Space Personnel 1^5 Lunar Expedition 1^5 • (21 men at expedition facility, crew rates of 5) Ground Personnel 3677 lunar Squadron 100 launch Squadron 873 Instrumentation S q u a d r o n 2 9 X Assembly & Maintenance Squadron 660 Supply Squadron 562 Bane Support Units 639 Administration 350 9.5 WDLAR-S-U58 Orhhr-r U.UJUJ*» -A-.^-yi
    • **" *. ; £ * te^Ltj^r&& Personnel .. *(Space plus Ground) Overhead 1£87 Range Tracking 9I4O Logistic Support Organization 3kf Grand Total Personnel 51099-2 TRAINING PROGRAM The remaining portion of this section of the lunar Expedi-tion Program Flan (lunex) presents the Training Program. It isbased on the limited data and information available at the timeof preparation. The knowledge gained from the state-of-the artdevelopment of tbis program vlll of necessity have to be applieddirectly to the training areas to insure "concurrency" of theprograms training development. lurther, the training knowledgeand experience acquired from current research and developmentprograms must be studied for application to this program. The concepts and plans projected in this part of the PSPPwill be subject to constant revision and/or updating. Use ofvarious simulators and synthetic training devices must be a partof the training program. Identification of the required twining equipment and real property facilities to house themmust be accomplished early in the program development to Insuretraining equipment and facilities being available to meet thetraining need dates- The unique mission of the Lunex program requires a compre-hensive and timely source of personnel equipment data (FED).Tais information is required for space crew and support positionsrequired to operate and maintain the space vehicles and supportequipment. Development of such data must be initiated as partof the design effort to reduce the time element for follow-onpersonnel sub-system requirements. Ho effort is made in this section to specify requirementsfor the Space Launching System since they are delineated in theSpace Launching System Package Program. This section of the Proposed System Package Program wasdeveloped under the premise that Air Training Command would beassigned the individual aerospace crew and technical trainingresponsibilities for this program- Therefore, ATC must developtheir* capability concurrent with hardware development throughthe engineering design phases to support the expedition. 9.6 WDLAB-S-^58 »mw -*<- a m m n r i ** * J. . l ^ ^ M . . ! •> - M . I « M ! W T - " " F - - f - • " I •>-- "-^~~"-^r- » -i—^-n-T. -
    • 9.3 PUNNING FACTORS AND G O N RUI£S RUD C6KUPIUUU* a. Scope; Ibis section is conceptual In nature at thiB time and embodies the basis for the training to be accomplished in support of the lunar Expedition Program. It includes guidance for individual, field, unit and crew training. b- Definitions: (1) Aerospace Crey Personnel: Personnel performing crev duty in the lunar Transport Vehicle. (2) Cadre P e r s o n n e l : Those personnel necessary for logistic planning,AH? 80-lU Testing Programs, and ATC instruction and preparationof training materials. The requirements for participation In thetesting programs will include test instruments for categorytesting in accordance vith paragraph 5 & (l) and (2), APR GO-Xk,end Job Training Standards for the Integrated Systems TestingProgram in accordance with paragraph 8 g (3)> AIR 80-1^. (3) Main Complement Personnel: Personnel employed i n the r e c e i p t , check-out,I n s t a l l a t i o n , repair, maintenance and operation of the system. (10 Support Personnel: Air Force Logistic Command personnel required forsupport functions as v e i l as other agencies supervisors andplanners 1 (5) Types of Training: (a) Type I (Contract Special Training) • Specialtraining courses conducted by contractors a t an ATC i n s t a l l a t i o n ,contractor f a c i l i t y or any other designated s i t e . (b) Type I I . (ATC Special Training) SpecialT r a i n i n g Cffflrfiftfi flOT?ifll)EtPfl b y ATC t r a i n i n g RffTrhwrs* Ing-h-HifftwHa t an ATC i n s t a l l a t i o n , contractor f a c i l i t y , or any otherdesignated s i t e . (c) Type H I . Career t r a i n i n g . toTwnrMTIBi 9.7 . HDLAR-S-458 • • • . ; «
    • *!..,.-.. ~3-,..•... ;X*) ^ype IV. Special training provided by ATC training detachment Instructors at the Bite of the organization requiring the training. (6) TeBtlnq Programs: (a) Component - the testing of the components of a sub-system, such as the guidance package, or ecological package. (b) Subsystem - components assembled Into a sub- system as the Re-Entry Vehicle Subsystem and tested as a unit. (c) Integrated System - the Re-Entry Vehicle, lunar Launching Stage and lunar landing Stage assembled together and tested as a whole system. c. Assumptions: (1) Die man-rated lunar transport Vehicle vlll be available for use by the lunar Expedition In I968. (2) ATC personnel -will observe, participate and study the training programs developed for current research and development programs conducted under other government agencies and/or contractors. x (3) AJH 80-lU vill be used at a guide for accomplish- ing the program testing. (k) The terminology for normal levels of maintenance, i.e., organizational., field, depot, and shop, vehicle assembly and maintenance as specified in AFW (AMC) letter M M , dated 25 July i960, subject: Standard Maintenance Terms and Mainten- ance Facility nomenclature for Missile Weapon Systems frill apply. (5) The Air Force Maintenance policy of maximum maintenance at the lowest feasible level vlll prevail. (6) Sue to the time phasing of the subsystems, special consideration must be given to the training facilities require- ments funding for the Re-Entry Vehicle technical training programs^ (7) Testing Pates: - - . »>>~*^&) Start of Component Testing Dates are: >. t^2. He-Entry Vehicle - June 1963- lunar launch Stage -February 1965- 93^ *" WDLAR-Swfc58 oHId
    • 2- Lunar lending Stage - Wr.y I965. (b) Start of Subsystem Testing Dates Are: 1. Re-Entry Vehicle - November 196k. 2. Lunar launch Stage - May 1966. 3. Lunar landing Stage - July 1966. d. Peculiar Requirements and/or Limitations: (1) The unique mission of this progrom mrOtes it mbnde-tory that the following actions he accomplished concurrent viththe development of the hardware: (a) The contractors vlll develop the Personnel-Equipment Data information concurrent vith the design of thehardware. This information must be available to ATC personnelfor early planning purposes. (b) Type I training dates reflected in the timephasing chart v i U require the use of R&D and test equipment astraining equipment. (c) Production schedules for R&D and Expeditionequipment vill include the training equipment required to supportType II and. Type III training. Allocation and delivery prioritiesvill be in accordance vith AFB 67-8. (2) An identification of personnel necessary to supportthis system has been made in order to assist in defining thetraining parameters* Changes to these estimates vill be made asmore conclusive information becomes available. See Charts IXA and B. (3) Jfaximum Cross-Training vill be provided es requiredto all personnel associated Vith this program. (k) The requirement for follow-on training and "Uievalue of past experience is recognized and maximum retention ofpersonnel is mandatory. (5) Hew and peculiar training problems are envisionedfor the-tecfanical personnel. (6) -The training of the aerospace crew personnel vlllrequire the development of a program which is unique to the AirForce. 9.9 WDLAR-S-U58 {HUH .^apNOS*
    • L^^s^*f3C^^ SB6BS .*v^| e. Qualitative and Quantitative Personnel Requirements Information• (1) A QQPRI prepared in accordance with Mil Spec 26239A vlll be required to develop the training courses, course material and substantiation for the Personnel Classification changes. (2) ATC and other applicable commands vlll furnish personnel for theftQPRIintegration team and provide technical guidance to the contractor during preparation. 0.4 TRAINIIJQ a. Training Responsibilities and Concepts: (l) Engineering Design Effort (a) ATC vlll participate in the engineering design effort to insure that technical data is collated vith , the personnel sub-system for follow-on training program require- ments. (b) ATC will be responsible for training required in support, of the R&D effort under AER 50-9- (c) Selection of the initial aerospace crew personnel and ATT .erospace crew training Instructors for the lunar Transport Vehicle will commence 8 months prior to the . start of Category I Testing- (d) All lunar Transport Vehicle crews and military space launching support personnel will be phased into special training (Type i), 6 months prior to Category I Testing. (e) Environmental space training for the selected crews and instructor personnel will start 9 months prior to the start of Category II testing and will be conducted by tile Aerospace Medical Center, Brooks AFB, Texas. (f) ATC Lunar Transport Vehicle crews will be phased out of training 30 days prior to the requirement for Type XI or III aerospace crew training to provide follow-on training capability in this area. (2) flight Testing & Expedition Program: (a) ATC will be responsible for all individual training, i.e., technical, aerospace crev, AGE and additional job tasks as required..
    • ^pnF ttCDEL* * * . . « * * c (b) All requirements for Type I Special Training, APR 50-9, In Bupport of this effort will be contracted, for by ATC. (c) ATC will maintain liaison with the contractor concerning engineering changes in the program during its develop* ment to keep training information in coneonance vita the program sub-program configurations and other concepts having a direct implication, to training. (d) flight Testing & Expedition Crew proficiency will be the responsibility of the Lunex Program Director unless ATC is requested to furnish this training. 9-5 TRAINIHC PERSONNEL a- Field Training Detachment (FTD) The number of personnel required to provide training for lunar vehicle personnel will be determined during Hha training programming conference. QQFRI, TBIs, Personnel Plan, Operational Plan and Maintenance Plan will be available at this time- b. Contractor Technical Service Personnel (AFR 66-18) Contractor technical service personnel may be initially required to augment Field Training Detachment (FTD) personnel. CTSP requirements in support of this program will be phased out as blue suit capability is achieved. c. Trained Personnel Requirements (TPR) TPR will be developed by commands concerned upon approval of QQPRI, and will be tabulated as gross require- ments by command, by AFSC and by fiscal quarter. These require- ments will be phased on anticipated need dates for personnel to be in place at the testing sites, launch sites, and maintenance areas, and will be furnished Hq. ATC in sufficient time to allow proper planning for required training. 9.6 TAMHUVG EQUIPMENT PACKAGE a. General; Training equipment requirements will be developed t o support: ( l ) Check-out and ground maintenance t o be performed by the direct support personnel for the Lunar Transport Vehicle. 9.11 TOLAR-S-U58 jJEftnrf-ffiff
    • ii msr -fe*fc (2) flight test operations and maintenance to beperformed by the responsible crews. In consideration of this,present and near future systems experience gained in the aero-space area vill be applied to the Lunex program to assist in theidentification of training equipment. She training for thisprogram must be conducted in the most realistic environmentpracticable. (3) Post mission maintenance and test equipment. b. Equipment Selection: Selection of training equipment will be based on thefollowing general rules: (1) Maximum utilization will be made of trainingequipment programmed for other missile and space system train-ing programs. (2) During the initial phases, equipment programmedfor test, development, and the expedition programs will beused to the maximum extent practicable when regular trainingperiods can positively be scheduled In the use of that equipment.The lack of availability of such equipment will result indegradation of training. (3) Equipment selection will be made in considera-tion of future and/or subsequent programs to provide maximumtraining capability in similar systems with m-<"•*"•""• cost, (k) Maximum use and development of training films,training graphics, and synthetic training aids, and devices willbe made to reduce requirements for critical operational itemsduring the Initial phases of the program. (5) Training equipment will be identified in suffi-cient time to enable procurement and delivery In advance ofequipment for use in the flight test and expedition program. c. Harming lactors: Planning factors for determination of Training Equip-ment Requirements:presently available, definitive planning factors upon whichover-all equipment requirements may be based cannot be provided.However, for preliminary planning, the following factors maybe applied to subsystems of the program t o determine order of 9.12 VDLAR-S-U58 M A M M M VECnCr
    • w fXSf^wafti^^ magnitude. Provided Control Centers used for other space vehicles will be applicable to the Luna*- Transport Vehicle, category * I , **II, and ***III training equipment requirements as specified in USAF letter dated 30 January 1961. subject: Weapon System Training Equipment Support Policy will be as follows: Major Vehicle Sections Per cent of Sub-System Cost Required for Training Items (a) He-entry Vehicle 250# 1- Complete R/V - 1 ea 2. Sub-systems of R/V - 1 ea ^. Major components of each sub-system for Bench Items - 1 ea (b) Lunar launch Stage 150^ 1. Sub-systems of Launch Stage - 1 ea 2. 50# of Major Components "~ for Bench Items (c) lunwr Landing Stage 100^6 Major Components - 1 ea (d) Cargo Package 2JQ0# Complete Cargo Package (e) Aerospace Ground Equipment 200jt 1. Complete set for handling and testing vehicle sections and included equipment 2. Complete set as bench items _ _ . . for maintenance training * ** Cat IITrainers Cat I Barts/Components/End Items — — - — — ^ *#* Cat III Training Aids/accessories 9.I3 WDLAR-S-^58 L.r* •0H i . O C K M M nnielnt Inionotlan afhetint (»• H l t a m l dafana of HM UniUs » M « wiftHi Hi. WMaing ri * • bplMaa-. U w i , I K *IS, U.S.C., Saitlan 1*3 and 7*4, r*. ttommhittm or malalien of wliitli In m y • • • " » • " wevthorliail patia* a p r o M U M by lav.
    • - "-^m, e (2) Training films and transparencies requirements will be developed as soon as possible. (3) Spare parts support will be required for ell Category I and II training equipment. (k) A continuing requirement vill exist for the modification of training equipment. These modifications should be provided by review and processing of training equipment change proposals concurrent with operational equipment change proposals. (5) Funding of V-kOO money will be omitted in consonance with AFR 3X5-**, Para 12. 9-7 FACILITIES a. General: The needs for training facilities should be est= bllshed approximately three years prior to the d?,tes at which Type XI training equipment will be required. Facilities must incor- porate sufficient flexibility to accommodate future updating of training equipment resulting from program configuration changes. b. AeroBpace Crew Training Facilities: ^~ (1) Initial training for aerospace crew personnel will -require toe use of existing space training facilities. Joint-use agreements between NASA and other USA.F agencies and the Air Training Command will be required to insure maximum utilization of these facilities. Aerospace Medical Center1s facilities (Brooks AFB, Texas) -will be utilized to the fullest. Inter-service agreements with the Navy for use of specific training device facilities should be considered for crew training. (2) The establishment of a centralized space training facility would have a direct bearing on the over-all specific requirements for this type of training. The results of the System Study Directive (SSD) Hr 7990-17610, titled: "Central- ized Space TralniTy; nwr.-mty," win h » w iM-p-**. Tw^-Mug m t>>» posture of the training facilities of the future. For this reason, facilitarjeauirements for follow-on training are not WI*LAR-S-U58 TI1I1 oamMat n M a i u tnbnmfoa affnHm tfca Mlionol M n u * D) flu U I H M I lMM> -llWn Ika naaftlna at Urn faplonoa* lowt, TiH* I I , U.S.C., Sactinn 7 M m«l 794, Hw (roninrHteo « nnlaHaa af which hi any mmrmt (a an aaaatkariiad a m h ankibttad by low.l-J - n.-—:.
    • IVX.Wl-.rf e c. Other Training f a c i l i t i e s : f . I t i s anticipated t h a t technical Training Centers now inTexlstence can absorb the additional technical t r a i n i n g load lout increasing the f a c i l i t i e s . However, modification of Lsting f a c i l i t i e s t o provide t r a i n i n g laboratories v i t h jcialized pover and environmental systems t r i l l be necessary. [E requirement must be identified In sufficient time t o permit f a c i l i t y programming through normal procurement cycles. 9-fi HTOET ABB FUJAHCE i a. Training Equipment Costs Flmdlng v i l l be required for braining equipment i d e n t i - fied In Section 9.6, Training Equipment lackage. b. Training facilities Costs•iSBz* funding and costs of training facilities will be determined once the decision is made whether to build a Central- ized Space Training Facility or to continue vith decentralized procedures. Funding can then be determined for the required facilities and modifications,« £ 9-15 WDLAR~S-4?8 rey/Q" V * Thil sofuntnt tMMlni informaHwi aHactlna n * lutianol daftm* of Hit UMNd wan wftfcin lt» naaaiag af Hw EtplMiaw L a n , TIIH IB. U:S,C., S«l!vi 793 and 7 W , Hw fruminiiaiDfi e* nrwIallM mt wtrica iii any Mannar fo an HAOHlBariiad naru" It oraBtbftad ay lew- *" 1
    • I*-? 1 ^ ;: f ,i • CHART D - A C * Proposed PROJECTED MAJTNnC AJSCe «* Numbers are estimates for FORttJNAHTRAHSPORT VEHICIE P O R RG Type I Training Cp.4re 1 Major Segment Cadre * of System Requirement AFSC A M 35-1 Title B PART A * Vehicle Crev 1 (AP5C) 13XX *Aerospace n i g h t Test Pilot 1 (ATC) 13XX Aeroape.ce Pilot 1 (AFSC) 15XX *Aerospace Performance Engineer Se Bavlgator 1 CATC) 15XX 1 (AFSC) 3OXX *Aerospace Communications Electronics & Computer Specialist 1 (JOB) 3OJ0CvWtfL < • * PARTB Vehicle Support **Z (AFSC) 30551/ Electronic Digital Data 71 Processing Repairman/ Maintenance Technician 1 (ATC) 9.16 1»
    • fe >r* Major Segment Cadre of System Requirement AFSC AFM 35-I Title System Vehicle Support a (AFSC) 29373 Airbor-e Radio and Operat (Continued) Elect: .iic Counter- and r& measure Operator Technician 1 (A!K) ^ Instrument Repairman/ Vehicl a (AFSC) 12250/ 70 Technician 2 (AFSC) l»225l/ Mechntfiical Accessories Ma Inte 71 and Equipment Repair- access man/Technician 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 30151/ Aircraft Electronic Mainta 71 Ife.vigf.tlon Equipment equipm - Hepaiman/lfalntenance Technician 1 (ATC) 1 (AFSC) 30150/ Aircraft Radio Repair- SHFj U 70 man/ftolntenance Tech. 1 (AFSC) 30153/ Aircrnft Electronic Repair 73 Counterme&&ures/ Elint Maintenance Technician 1 (AFSC) U6250/ Weapons Mechrnlc/ Capsul 70 Maintenance Supervisor loadin 9.17 ^ , -
    • tfUM* Major Segment Cadre of System Requirement AFSC A M 35-1 T i t l e T System Vehicle Support 1 (AFSC) 56850/ Liquid fuel Systems Liquid Air (Continued) 70 feintenance Specialist/ systems. Technician 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 53^50/ Airframe Repsirman/ Airframe in 70 Technician 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) U2152/ Aircraft end Missile Repeirs Hyd 72 Pneudrexilic Repsir- Systems. man/Technlcien 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 1*2353/ Flight Control/Auto Checks out 73 P i l o t Systems Repe.Ir- pilot syste man/Technicir>j3 2 (AFSC) 31150/ Guidance Systems Maintains e 70 l>fechsnic/Technici>;n guidance sy detections equipment, 1 (ATC)? w*# 2 (AFSC) 31250 Control Systems Mechanic/ Maintains ? 70 Technicir-Ji control sy 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 00370 / b o r t System Vehicle r-fcdnttins Technician •;bort syst
    • 1 * •Major Segment Cadre of System Requirement AFSC AJM 35-1 ratafee;** SystVehicle Support 2 (AFSC) ^3351/ Missile Engine Propulsio(Continued) 71 Mechanic/Technician rockets. 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 42350/ Aircraft and Missile Electrica 70 Electrical Repairman/ Technician 1 (AFSC) "56650/ Refrigeration Specialist/ Maintain 70 Supervisor ventilati 1 (ASSC) 30152/ Aircraft Early Warning Radar Dop 72 Radar Maintenance Repair- Equipment man/Technician 1 (ATC) 2 (AFSC) 27250/ Air Traffic Control Operates 70 Operator/Technician precision 1 (APSC) 30551/ Electronic Digital Data Insures p 71 Processing Repairman repair of Operator/Technician • 1 (ATC)Additional Specialist 62271 Diet Supervisor Supervis 90150/ Aeromedical Specialist/ Sub-prof 70 Technician physical 58250/ Fabric, Leather and 70 Rubber Products Repair- man/Repair Supervisor 92250/ Personal Equipment 70 Specialist/Supervisor »:&
    • I. ••- t f ttr»*M*w CHABT EC - B LUHEX/SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM1. lhe estimates for the launch system ere not included in view oLaunching System (SL5) study. It can, however, be estimated thatpersonnel utilized in both the liquid/solid propellant type boostera team for support of this system.2. At such time as the S.L.S. 1B designated as the primary launchwill be made for the launch vehicle Mid support AFSCs as a part o 9.20 OEQQQt
    • MOOKAM SCMBMM RE-ENTRY VEHICLE CY 61 CY 6i Chart IX-C 1ATC Input to P S P P 9 SOR or ADO Published A 1SPO Established H 4 ATC SPO Rep Appointed .yprlme Training Center Selected I SSP Prepared. Finalized j I Contractor Selected n j 1 I PSS Data Contracted u f PEP Effort Starts M Training Facilities Requirements II OQPRI Effort Starts (Components) g TEPI Effort Starts (Components) n Test Directive CoordinatedH OQPRI Integration Team (Component) B uII OQPRI Review (Component)M Draft QQPRI Received (Components)» P r e l i m OQPRI Approved fComponents) "iII Draft TEPI Received (Components)If Test Plan Prepared NM Training Parts Pre-provisioning HII Tyaitdtij P^gi-fTTi ConferenceII Training Program Requirementsa Training Parts ProvisioningH Crew Selectiong Mock-Up and DEIM Tech.Spec! Tng (50-9) for Component T e s tp Test of ComponentsM Type II Tng Effort Starts» Subsystem QQPRI IntegratedM Subsystem TEPI IntegratedII Subsystem QQPRI ApprovedB Subsystem TEPI ReceivedM Subsystem Testing Begins14 Evaluation of Tng Startsfi-at. i.-i?XL JfllMJ iASOHPIFMAslJ i XS FY-62 •- : - ; r - - . H--.3- T „ - -- J .-
    • mmjmmmMumammmt 67 FY 68 CY 67 CY 68 _L J.s k - . - ^ ^ : - / : ^ ; :-S" : ^:- %:. *&--^-.%=.j^$^;L??:::$i^- }:•••*• J. J.?•*&*&• ^ " • ^ • - > : ^ 9 ^ - : - * < - i - ! S ; - j 5 . « ^ w s ^ - s - ? ^ ; -^-^iL 1L II 12 11 Jl -=r ---. -.*•• •**,- 15. li II n 1L u It 2L C: H_ 22. u a a. ZL• «v^>.W • 1 - - J - V I » I I I I "*fal i-fi-i-H i V i , J_JL*-- L -.••tt-l -~-T-~*A ifr.fr jH u. ZL 2L 2L --^--. - - * t - ai n a. a. 31 ZL 31 21 I J WDLAft-S-458
    • - T CV 63 CV 64 J S 0^ i . . - - ^ - ^ =*&- _• s :Ti: : :;y •-?•-.; *=.;.. ^ J i - i v . -.-s:.: ._&?$•*- -!:..;?=->^ ;: . ; - " H ^ •*=.•••- W - - "". -" " " • - - - - - . . • • : . ; _ * -- fi--i- •-- *- ^ • • ^ I D B I I H F I . " ^ T T 1 11 " " • * " " " " • — - •••• •"-•—••-•- —..»-• - . - . - - - ^ H u u u u 5 •--: -i iti u ••• :--->• • ^ J - ^ - V V : - = : • • : . - -: - * > - " • : : - : 3 :B: JASOIBJFNIIJ i AS0 I • FY - 6 3 FV -64 "FY WDJ :, v;~ • - j ^ • • • • = •
    • /.; -.
    • c LUNAR LANDING STAGE CY 61 CV 62 Chart I X - D J J J J S •n- I A T C Input to P S P P - u .• P - JL SOR o r ADO P u b l i s h e d -H- 1 SPO Established -M- 4 S P O R e p Appointed -H- 5 P r i m e Training Center S e l e c t e d -U- 4 SPP Prepared, Finalized u- 7 Contractor S e l e c t e d "" PSS D a t a Contracted - f fl. E D Effort Starts H QQPRI Effort Starts (Componenta) • u, II TEP1 Effort Starta (Componenta) H T e s t D i r e c t i v e Coordinated <- . u a -n - - u- O UUPR1 Integration T e a m (ComponentsT M QQPRI R e v i e w (Componenta) H Crew Selection » Draft QQPRI R e c e i v e d (Componenta) If Draft T E P I R e c e i v e d (Components) II Teat P l a n P r e p a r e d If Training P a r t e P r e - P r o v i a i o n i n g ^ P r e l i m QQPRI Approved (Componenta) n Training P r o g r a m R e q u i r e m e n t a M Training P r o g r a m C o n f e r e n c e M Training P a r t s P r o v i s i o n i n g H M o c k - U p and DEJ H T e c h S p e c ! Tng ( 5 0 - 9 ) Component Teat p Teat of Componenta a ^raining F a c i l i t i e s R e q u i r e m e n t s » o u b a y a t e m QQPRI Integrated SubayBtem TEPI Integrated II S u b a v s t e m QQPRI Approved P Subavatem TEPI R e c e i v e d H Type II Training Effort Starts H Sub By B tern T e s t i n g B e g i n s M E v a l of Tng Starts It. «_ J F • A II iJ A S O I I J F I H i ] J J A S FY 62 C?H^ifW^Bt-k
    • i ssvs-innaM S9 AJ * 9 AJ £9 Ad r r• • J r I I $ 1 fr • v * j r ¥f rimr ninr i • r • i rl l 3 n n n 2 yi -P • s J n i H n 3n n n M r^*3&£ $•- n M u t:^^ I V I I Sf 99 A3 S9 O >9 A3 €9 A3
    • ^ Chart DC-El LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE AND CY 61 CY 62 CARGO PAYLGAD PACKAGE J J S J J lATC Input to PflPP 1 SOR or ADO Published n:- H -« • 1 SPO Established I SPO Rep Appointed -H- i Prime Training Center Selected - u- i SPP Prepared. Finalized u- y Contractor Selected n- LI.- *J | PSS Data Contracted -u 9 PEP Effort Starts u M QQPRI Effort Starts (Components) f - M TEPI Effort Starts (Components) P Crew Selection :S: O Test Directive Coordinated M QQPRI Integration Team (Comp) It QQPRI Review (Components) li Draft QQFRI Received (Components) if Draft TEPI Received (Components) H F r c l i m QQPRI Approved (Comp) ft Test Plan Prepared p Training Parts Fre-Provisioning J Training Program Requirements n Training Facilities Requirements ll Training Program Conference a H Training Parts Provisioning B Mock-Up and DEI M Tech Spec! Training (50-9) Component T e s t V Teat Component Starts M Subsystem QQPRI Integrated W Subsystem TEPI Integrated y Subsystem QQPRI Approved 31 Subsystem T E P | Received M Typg n Trig Effort Starts II Subsystem Testing Starts M Eval of Tng 1L—It F • A• J A i o i i f i k i J JA FY 6 2
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    • I PKOGRAM SCHEDUU INTEGRATED SYSTEM Chart DC-F Syatem QQPRI Integrated J_ J . System TEPI Integrated .1. Syatem QQPRI Reviewed _ _ SyHtem QQPRI Approved Z J_ J_ System TEPI Received 11. II TPR Pr< Katrihuted J2_ JL Training Program Conference ii- li_ Lunar Ijaunch and Return (Syatem Teat) 14_ 1I_ Training Support Conference 1L Jl_ Training Equipment In Place H_ TraJwtng M a t w - t a l a R e a d y a._ a_ Type lH Training Starta M._ IL. Expedition 2L ZZ_ 2L 2L W _ 11_ 9i_ H_ 3L 3S_ 3* U u a ilLC
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    • PROTO. TEST VE1 MANUFACTURE, 6RE-ENTRY VEHICLE DESIGN EVALUATION PROTO. DESIGN FR£l L U N A R L A U N C H STAGE LUNAR L A N D I N G S T A G E DESIGN EVALUATION, . PROTOTYPE DESIGN F R E E Z E PARTS & SUB-ASSY, PROTO. TEST VHCI O PROTO. TOOL 6 TOOL 8 FIXTURE FIXTURE DESIGN MANUE FABRICATION MANUR GROUP] «**& J *&1 1u* O COMPONENT RECEIVING PROCUREMENT INSPECTION ^ ^ N ^ N PERSOWJl^C >—^5!eNNEL_TRAINlNfi IP tFCTRY. PROOF? 4 STAT. TEST ^5^te TESt e!9?5^^f A D ftfW M CONTINUING RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT RELIABll ASSESSN ; . • *
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    • n SECTION X" :SS=7- INT2TIJGENCE ESTIMATE<&.* LUHAS EXPEDITION (U) (LUNSX)SSSi* 10.1 TOWR-S^S* ,c Tali AuuiMtit (anistni infernal! M aflatting | | * nHianal dafanu al A * Unilwl Stotat within H M massing at Ma Eipianata Lawt, TlMa I I , U.S.C. Sadlon 783 and 794. * • hamnriiiisn ar nnlotlan af vhldi In any mnnnar la an unaaiketind pmnmK h erekibHad by • « • -
    • RECORD OP CHANGSS CHANGE DESCRIPTION OF CHANCE DA1E OF CHAHOE REFERENCE NO. TO BASIC PARI . VDLAR-S-U58 i t. * * V,Tkii BBCaawm (ealaim lahnaatla* offadlaa H M iatianal A n n * * af Iha UfiHad » a h » wHtita Hw nwrniiii af H M Eiplaaata law!, TUIaI I , U.J.C.. WrKw 7*3 and 7 M . laa rnaimlulen *r lavaletiaa af wkkh la ajfy,.i«ninar M an aaaaHiarivd panan ii oranlbltad a» lew.
    • •J*. - INDEX 1 0 , 1 TITIE PAGE. 10 RECORD OP CHANGES * *2 10 INDEX -3 10 10-0 ijmiODUCTIOK *5 10 10.1 FOREWORD *5 10.2 PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY . . . . . • • • 10-5 10 10-3 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6 10.3 VtIM> dvcBHant « M o t m lafanaNan aHactlng ttm H K I H I o a f m * • ln» UnlMd S m u wMiln th» • . o n i n t •* the Eielsneta U w i , Till*I I . U.S-C. Section 7V3 and TV4, the hsnmiuioa •> wraletHHi »F which In an<r monnni to AD HMMhsiIuri OWIM i l pralilUM by <••>•
    • •TZ • c This page intentionally l e f t blankSite1- WDLAS-S-^56 » h I K I I I I M nfttatm tabrimHaa offxtlnt «W H t i w n l d a l m * st Hw I h i l M Stolw W M I B Ifc* Manias <f t t * Elpfenaaa 1 m , THto I I , U.S.C., SadlM 7*3 and 79*. Ifct hanuaiiilM ar mvataHaa af «kidi in any * m < i i r* an • u w f l M t i n ^ nanail h sraklblM W low.
    • 10. INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATES lo.o" INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section of toe program plan is to estimate the foreign threat in terms of technical capabilities and probable programs which may affect the establishment of a lunar expedition. The threat vill he defined in terms of major performance capability and dates of operational availability. 10.1 FCREWCRD The f o l l o v i n g d a t a was o b t a i n e d from D C S / I n t e l l i g e n c e , Hq AKDC and published I n t e l l i g e n c e e s t i m a t e s . 10.2 PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY The Soviets have flown geophysical and componentequipment payloads on t h e i r v e r t i c a l rockets for the development, modifi- cation, and acceptance t e s t i n g of instrumentation f o r use on t h e i r s a t e l l i t e and lunar a i r c r a f t . They developed and used complex s c i e n t i f i c instrumentation on Sputnik I I I , and s t a b i l i - zation, orientation and control equipment on Lunik H I and Sputnik IV. Presently, by using t h e i r v e r t i c a l rockets, the Soviets are t e s t i n g infrared equipment, i n addition t o c o l l e c t i n g data on the background noise level of the e a r t h s surface. I t i s believed t h a t a development program e x i s t s -uhich eventually could lead t oc detection and reconnaissance s a t e l l i t e s . The development program •which led t o the photographic system used in Lunik I I I i s e;q«cted to continue, vith an eventual application in photographic reconnais- sance and weather s a t e l l i t e s . The Soviet space launch capability i s shown i n the following table of Sputnik end Lunik booster t h r u s t l e v e l s : Sputnik I 300,000 pounds Sputnik I I 300,000 pounds Sputnik I I I • 432*000 pounds Lunik I , I I , and I I I 456>000 pounds Lunik IV, V, and VI 466,600 pounds There i s also evidence of a c l u s t e r of f i v e 140,000 pound units. The Soviets are developing engines of 1 t o 2 j m i l l i o n 10.5 WKLAR-s-458c Tkh aocnwat cMHahn k i h n M l H i a f t e t W t t * H t t n o l M « K of H » UniMd SMIn wMIn Urn M a i l s * at * a E i » : « m * U w i . T M * l i , U.S.C., Sartlon 793 and T M , I t * •nmniuion m m a t a t M af tnMia In any • • • • • ta • » ••aalfcialjaJ * » ! • • b •MftlbBrt fcr • * .
    • pound t h r u s t . The e s t i m a t e d t i n e f o r a b o o s t e r t o mctch t h i s I engine i s a s f o l l o w s : S i n g l e engine b o o s t e r - 1963 C l u s t e r e d engine b o o s t e r - 1965 In g e n e r a l , i t t a k e s approximately h a l f t h e time f o r development required in the U.S. The rn^yiimm S o v i e t o r b i t c a p a b i l i t y , v i t h p r e s e n t ICBM b o o s t e r s u s i n g f i v e ( l 4 o , 0 0 0 pound t h r u s t ) engines and f o u r (6,600 pound t h r u s t ) engines i s 10,000 pounds i n low a l t i t u d e o r b i t . A l l Lunik and Sputnik v e h i c l e s u t i l i z e d a t h i r d s t a g e having 12,500 pound t h r u s t engine b u r n i n g f o r approximately 420 seconds. By u s i n g h i g h e r energy chemical p r o p e l l e n t s i n modified Upper s t a g e s , t h e payload can be i n c r e a s e d up t o 15,000 or £0,OCO pounds during 1 9 6 1 . However, approximately 50,000 pounds of payload may be a t t a i n e d by 1962 i f ICBM launch v e h i c l e t h r u s t i s Increased. I n t h e 1965-1970 p e r i o d , a new c l u s t e r e d c h e a i c a l b o o s t e r should allow t h e S o v i e t s t o p l a c e 5° to 100 tons i n o r b i t j n i n d i v i d u a l l a u n c h e s . This u i l l permit l e n d i n g a rsan on t h e upon. _ 10.3 S M A Y ADD CONCLUSIONS U MR Very e a r l y t h e S o v i e t s r e a l i z e d t h e propaganda v a l u e o b t a i n - a b l e from space adventures and, a c c o r d i n g l y , b-p.ve s t r i v e n con- t i n u o u s l y f o r " f i r s t s " . This h a s a p p a r e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e t a i l e d p a t t e r n f o r t h e i r space p l a n n i n g . Even though t h e Soviets have achieved " f i r s t s " i n : 1) Establishment of an a r t i f i c i a l e a r t h s a t e l l i t e 2 ) Rocketing p a s t t h e moon and p l a c i n g a v e h i c l e i n t o a solar orbit 3) Hard impact on t h e moon k) Photographing t h e s i d e of t h e moon n o t v i s i b l e from the earth _____ 5) S a f e l y r e t u r n i n g mammals and men from o r b i t i t seems obvious t h a t t h e S o v i e t a t t e m p t s t o score " f i r s t s " w i l l continue. • # • * ; " 10-6 * WDLAR-S-^56Thii dotsmmf coM.au WibniuribA iffeclina the u i i o n i l detenu of * « Unilcd Staiei within the meaning of Ihe Etpienege Lewi. Till*IB. U.S.C., Section 793 Hid 744. the ujntmiuion or iival.iion of which in iny mennei to en i*i*uthorintt perion is prohibited by law.
    • ^*^ Although large orbiting spacecraft appear to be the prime Soviet technical objective during the period of this estimate, it is believed they will continue to uBe and Improve their current lunar probe capability since there are many "firsts" yet to be accomplished in the exploration of the moon. These include lunar satellites, lunar soft landings, lunar soft landings and return •with actual samples of the lunar surface, and, finally, a tankette for a true lunar exploration. It is expected that the Soviets will continue to launchiss:-;:s- unmanned lunar rocket probes for the purpose of reconnoitering^ the moon and near moon environment for the application of this knowledge to the development of manned lunar exploration systems. Since soft landings are essential for obtaining data on the lunar surface, it is believed that the Soviets definitely will have to develop techniques for achieving lunar soft landings, especially soft landings and return to earth, to establish the procedures to"/*,_ be employed in accomplishing the main objective of establishing a manned lunar station. The first of these test vehicles could be•IS;-* very similar to their Arctic automatic weather stations that presently are Jettisoned from aircraft. This vehicle would be able to record temperature, micro-meteorite impact, various types of radiation, particle concentration, seismic disturbances, solid c resistivity, and depth of probe penetration. As landing techniques are improved, larger payloads with increased instrumentation for terminal control and lunar re-startft-".dlaunch capabilities will undoubtedly be developed. Circumlunar flights by manned space vehicles, and eventually"7" lunar landings, will be required in order to know more precisely the environmental situation preliminary to the eventual establish- •< ment of a lunar base and the complete conquest of this body. Thisj_.-_ is considered to be a more distant objective of the Soviet program and its attainment w i n appear, if at all during this decade, toward the end of the period. Although the landing of a "tankette" on the moon falls under the category of a soft landing, the size and weight of such a vehi- cle mates it a sufficiently worthy subject for special consideration.—- The Soviets have published extensively on such a vehicle, and=*a Yu D. Kbelbtsvieh, Chairman of the Science Technical Committee for Hadio Remote Control of Cosmic Rockets, has published his preliminary design of a lankette laboratory for lunar exploration. Graduate students of Moscow High Technical School now are experimenting with models of a tankette in layers of powdered cement to simulate powdered soil conditions which might be expected on the moon. c WDLAR-S-^58 t h i i dDcim>ent conta in* information jflecling Ihe najtonal tfefemj of (ha United 5 l * t « within tht meaning of *he Eicnonagc Law*. Till* IS, LL5X*, Section 793 and 794, the trantmiHtan of revelation of which in any manner to en unautharfcied partem h prohibited by lew,
    • V Actual accomplishment of the project will have to await the availability and flight testing of the new booster with thrust in the millions of pounds category in the 1965 time period. The Soviets do not differentiate between military and non- military space systems. They have talked of a peaceful Intent of their space program but there are many pounds of payload in their eatellites ufaich cannot be accounted for on the basis of data given out. It should be presumed that this could be military payloads. With this in mind, it can be stated that during the early 1970B it is possible that space weapon systems will be developed as a supplement to earth-based delivery systems- It is also possible that military facilities may have been established on or in orbit around the moon. Atmospheric and climatic conditions will demand an air conditioned environment for moon-based delivery systems. For increased survival security and decreased requirements for "imported" construction material, it seems reasonable to assume that these would be constructed under rather than above the moons surface. IDETifTiAL 10-8 WDIAR-S-U58-ftvlt document cenraint Hifomation aflecting Hie national defend of Hie United Mam wilhin Hie meaning af the Espionage Law!. Title 18, U.5.C., Section 793 and 7*4, Hw lnmmi»lon or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthoiiied pcnon i i prohibited by law.
    • nFKTfJil LUNAR RE-ENTRY VEHICLE ( 3 MEN )MANNED LUNARPAYLOAD CARGO PACKAGE r~s (•) LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE CARGO PAYLOAD LUNAR LANDING STAGE (t)> — SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM- (BOOSTER COMBINATION) VEHICLE M VEHICLE C FIGURE A-l LUNAR TRANSPORT VEHICLE iTOHiiramH WDLAR -S-4S6
    • cam LUNAR RE-ENTRY VEHICLE ( 3 MEN) MANNED LUNAR PAYLOAD CARGO PACKAGE LUNAR LAUNCH STAGE CARGO PAYLOAD LUNAR LANDING STAGEc SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM (BOOSTER COMBINATION) FIGURE 2 - 2 LUNAR TRANSPORT VEHICLE WDLAR-S-4S8
    • *• * FIGURE k-2 MANNED VEHICLE SYSTEM CENTER OF GRAVITY, AXIS SYSTEM AND STATION DIAGRAM ENTRY VEHICLE AT LANDING VEHICLE PRIOR TO ENTRY VEHICLE AT BEGINNING OF LUNAR LAUNCH VEHICLE AT BEGINNING OF LUNAR LANDING MANNED VEHICLE AT EXIT SW. itOii HDIAR-S-^58 r TS K ^ - ^ i S B l * ! - - 1 — .•-a|jg"*y~»"ir"--- - T- .- - r l i i - *.-*:
    • ; - = * f t- •*TTF «... s.. , -• Cargo Factoge The Lunar Cargo Package (See Figure A-l, item e) i s t h a t p w t of the Cargo Payload vhich represents a package consisting of supplies, equipment, e t c . , needed on the lunar surface. Preliminary design data indicates t h a t an amount i n excess of 40,000 pounds must and can be delivered to the lunar surface. Cargo payload n » Cargo Payload i s th=,t psxt of the Lunar Tr°-nspprt Vehicle vhich i s placed on a selected lunar trajectory 8 * ,d i s bonsted to earth escape velocity, i t consists of tvo sajor p a r t s . These a r e : Lunar Landing Stage Caxgo Package This division i s schematically represented in Figure A-l by the parts labelled b end e . The cargo payload does not in* elude a Lunar Launch Stage since the cargo pacfc&ge regains on the lunar surface. The -weight Of the Cargo package i s equivalent t o t h e combined veight of the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle (3 men) and the Doner Launch Stage, The Cargo Payload weighs 13^,000 pounds a t earth escape- Circumlunax- A highly e l l i p t i c a l t r a j e c t o r y t h a t goes around the moon anddt " returns to the e a r t h . Circualunar proTMlsion stage A stage attached to the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle t o provide a, suitable propulsion and control capability for maintaining the Re-entry Vehicle on a circumlunar t r a j e c t o r y . Delayed Procurement Conceptk^s,s- Concept of deferring the f i n a l ordering and production of high-cost insurance type spares u n t i l mariimrn f l i g h t-***i- experience i s available^ High-Speed Re-entry Test A t e s t program using a special Re-entry Test Vehicle designed p.- -fti-nw "**""**fcQJSpbtaln fundamental re-entry data and specific configuration data i t re-entry v e l o c i t i e s of 25 t o k5 thousand_feet per second. fth aViimtM ( M t a l M infermaHan eHatliiw Mn natianl riafana of tbt Unirad Stafai wHhln Iha uteulm ^ «h« Eiptanat* low., lilla I I , U.&.C., 5.ctl.B 7*3 and 794, ttm traaamiitlofi sr rawttaiian afwhith la any Mannar to an unaaHiarlkan bartaa H praliibhad bv law-
    • •JW"S V. Lunar Expedition F a c i l i t y A f a c i l i t y designed t o be constructed under the lunar surface and t o support the Lunar Expedition. I b i s f a c i l i t y w i l l be designed BO that i t can be r e a d i l y expanded t o support future m i l i t a r y requirements lunar Landing Stage The Lunar Landing Stage 1 B t h a t part of the Manned Lunar Payload that v l l l land the Manned Lunar Payload at a s e l e c t e d s i t e on ther.K-*r-. surface of the moon. The expended portion of t h i s stage i s l e f t—-— on the lunar surface when the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle i s launched for the return t r i p t o earth (See Figure A - l , item b . ) . Lunar landing Stage - Cargo The Lunar Landing Stage of the Cargo Payload (See Figure A - l , item b ) i s i d e n t i c a l t o the landing stage of the manned Lunar"_,;: Payload. i t provide the c a p a b i l i t y of s o f t landing the Cargo package a t a p r e s e l e c t e d s i t e . The Cargo Payload i s unmanned andjg^;,. the landing operation i s automatic. The Lunar Landing Stage r e - ;_ mains on the lunar surface v i t h the Cargo rayload- Lunar Launch Complex ^ The Lunar Launch Complex c o n s i s t s of the base f a c i l i t i e s , i n t e - gration bn J dings, check-out b u i l d i n g s , launch pads, propellant manufacturing p l a n t s , t h e complex control center and a l l of the equipment required t o earth launch and support the Lunar Expedition. Lunar Launching Stage The Lunar Launch Stage (See Figure A - l , item c ) i s t h a t part of the Manned Lunar Payload that w i l l boost the lunex Re-entry Vehicle t o lunar escape v e l o c i t y on a moon-to-earth t r a j e c t o r y - I t w i l l be e j e c t e d prior t o earth r e - e n t r y . Lunar Te*mi The Lunar Team consists of Air Force technical personnel from- various Air Force System Command organizations and the various&&& Air Force Command organizations. This team was formed to assist"" ,, the BSD in establishing a sound Lunar Expedition program. The . membership during the past two years has varied from 30 to 50 personnel; Lunar Transport Vehicle **--•-•flheXunazh.Xranspjprt Vehicle i s required to transport men and materials f o r the L^ihar/Expedition. The Iimar^QaMaaafaVehicle C ***&*- WBUR-S-458 Tfcii dwaiaant tanfeiai kifariMllaa affactlng nW Mttonol (tetania af Nia United StaJti within l*a w » i " » erf rh* Eipionna* Lewi, T»ia I I , U.5.C.. Saclim 793 and 7 W . tto tianiinhtiea at n n k i H a n of ohldi In any •aannai ta on unoirtheritad parian •> pfahibitad br low,
    • _ _ ***** (JUBMFU u . i -* ^ ^ **if **• _ * consists of 8 Hpace Launching Vehicle end one of two pay loads. ^" One pay load 1 B the Manned Lunar Payload and the other is the Cargo rayload (r«e Figure A-l) __?_. LUNEX I s s short t i t l e f o r the Lunar Expedition Program Tunex Rrogrem Director-•-• --v- The Lunex Program Director is the individual responsible for t_. directing and controlling a l l facets of the Lunar Expedition4 " ^" Program. Lunex Re-entry Vehicle The Lunex Re-entry Vehicle (gee Figure A - l , item d) i s the only part of the Manned Lunar Fsyload t h a t returns t o the e a r t h . - I t carries three men and a l l the necessary l i f e support, guidance, and common!cation equipment that i s required. I t r e - e n t e r s the••••- e a r t h s atmosphere and uses aerodynamic braking t o slow down and land l i k e a conventional airplane- The preliminary design^ ^ of the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle calls for a vehicle 52 f t . long"**••" with a return weight of 20,000 pounds. i Han-rated £ A vehicle, or system is considered to be "man-rated" when sufficient ground and flight test data has been accumulated to determine that the reliability objectives for the item have been achieved and that the abort system satisfactorily compensates for the inherent unreliability of the system. Manned Lunar Fayload The Manned Lunar rsyload is that part of the Lunar Transport vehicle which is placed on a selected lunar trajectory and Is boosted to an earth escape velocity of approximately 37,000 feet per second. It consists of three major parts. These are: - Lunar Landing Stage Lunar Launch Stage. „ * * lunex Re-entry Vhlele (3 men) This division Is schematically represented in Figure A-l by t i e parts labelled b , e, and d. The complete Manned Lunar Payload reigns 13^000 pounds at earth escape. .--*-; _m_P<lPRrTI_>£Jis * l TW. tfocsmwit C M M D lab—alitt afbcHng Mv avHcuBl d t f t t M af Hw. Unitod Stain wnkln K M Marina al Ik* Eiptonnaa l a w ) , Till* I I . U.S.C., I H I I M 7*3 and 7W, flit MniMlulan m moalaHaa a l wliick ia any m a m r a> an M H a H _ r _ d panan b piabiblM by law.
    • Responsive Production Concept A concept iftuereby long lead portions of high-cost operational spares are purchased. unassembled to reduce costs until final decision is made on spares procurement. Space launching System•MM The complete system, including ground facilities, propellent manufacturing facilities, etc., as required to launch the boosters required for space operations.—- siaiTOARp TERMINOLOGY AGE A term used to describe the Aerospace Ground Environment required for a specified system. Abort. System** ** The Abort System includes all the equipment required to remove, or return the crew members of the Lunex Re-entry Vehicle to a position of safety in the event of a malfunction of the Lunar PEP Transport Vehicle. * P-E-P. are the initials for "Program Evaluation Procedure". It is a management tool tfiich uses an electronic digital computer.i^-L It has the capacity to handle large masses of data quickly. The PEP system provides information that will enable the lunex Program Director to quickly identify, locate, and consequently, correct program trouble spots- 9am. A term used to describe Qualitative and Quantitative Personnel Requirements Information that is required to properly plan for personnel training.* • * * A term meaning Real Property Installed Equipment that 1B-.r 3 ^ synonymous with Technical f a c i l i t i e s . Technical Facilities are those structural and related items vhich are built and/or in- stalled by the Corps of Engineers and then turnedcwerto the Air Force or an Air .Force contractor. WXMR-S-Jf58 Tab dKHBanl ceMaln hforaialJan •ffatlin* (ha natiaMl aafam. af tha Uniwd Stain wHWa Urn amntna •> I h * Eiplsaaa* l a m , tttla t l , U.S.C, S*c«ifn 7*3 9*4 79*, Hw traf»"ii»iM * mrtlBtion af vMrti in m r monmi to M Mautkorliwl p a n * * h p n h l b t M br tov. {l.lifllL
    • "*.9)- • . , ;•• - » tf TTAT Lunar Chart A chart prepared to a scale of 1:1.000,000 and covering the , lunar Burface. Present plans call for the preparation of lkk individual charts to cover the complete lunar surface. HiOGRVM TITLES BOSS BOSS i s the designation for "Biomedical Orbiting f-atellite System" - The BO.T5 program uses primates to provide l i f e science data for designing manned space systems. SftlHT The rAIHT program vill develop and demonstrate orbital rendezvous and satellite inspection techniques. It vill further demonstrate the capability of closing, duelling, and refueling. /*SS- 2M£H>. v ^rv* -"^y?*1*!7 <•>•*.. A1.6 WDLAR-S-458 Tkh rfaumnt w i t s i a i SntanMfwn aftattfna I k . aatianal M H H at f * . UnHao1 Storm within tfta naming al rba EieiSfMtt Lowi, Tttb I I , U,S:C, Saitlon 793 and 794, i*t tiBtu>iiii»iwt ar Mialatiaa a l w k i d ia anr nariiwr fa an *n«(harli*d parts. a aroklbrted by taw.