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  • 1. NZEH A new type of home
  • 2. NZEH A new type of home • What is NZEH ? • NZEH = Net Zero Energy Home • Basic Requirements • Reduce the energy required to heat and cool the home • Generate on-site energy during the day to export the excess power to the utility [spin the meter backwards] or Store the energy locally [batteries or water tanks] • Import power when the sunny is not out • After a full year, review the energy bills: • Exported power needs to equal imported for: ZERO energy bill !!!
  • 3. NZEH A new type of home • Where to begin – Don’t Use It!!!! • If you don’t use the energy, you don’t need to make the energy • Super insulate the exterior shell of the home • Super seal the cracks and openings • Use low energy heating and cooling systems • Use low energy appliances and lights • Use low water usage fixtures
  • 4. NZEH A new type of home • Build it Tight – Ventilate Right!! • Make sure there is a healthy indoor environment • A Standard home [3000 sqft house, 4 bedroom] leaks about 0.15 cfm/sqft = 475 cfm • NEZH = 3000 sqft/100 cfm + [7.5cfm x(1+4 bedrooms)] = 67.5cfm • 67.5 cfm vs 475 cfm (6.5 x less) • Filter the air with large area filters
  • 5. NZEH A new type of home
  • 6. NZEH A new type of home
  • 7. NZEH A new type of home • Make the energy you need locally • Home Brewed Energy
  • 8. NZEH A new type of home • What type of energy can you make? • Solar PV • Solar Thermal • Wind • Biomass – wood, pellets, bio blocks
  • 9. NZEH A new type of home • How to Heat and Cool the home • Passive Solar Energy – Windows on South side • Solar hot water – Limited heating capacity • Biomass – May over heat the tight house • Geothermal or VRV Heat pump – uses solar PV energy to operate the systems • Summary – Geothermal and VRV use the home brewed energy and are controllable
  • 10. What is the Building Envelope?
  • 11. What is the Building Envelope? • The envelope includes walls, windows and doors between a conditioned area and an unconditioned area. • Areas of concern: – Thermal boundary • Slow the transfer of hot to cold – Air barrier • Seal the air gaps [leakage]
  • 12. Building Envelope - Guide Books
  • 13. Building Envelope – Guide Books
  • 14. Building Envelope Starts With Framing
  • 15. Building Envelope What’s Wrong With This Picture? Why waste the natural resource of wood? This Doesn’t make the frame better! Advanced Framing •Reduce wood usage 1” wood = R1 •Reduce thermal bridging so 2x6 stud = R5.5
  • 16. Advanced Framing Reduce Wood Usage OR Earn LEED points – Reduce wood waste
  • 17. Advanced Framing Reduce Wood Usage Reduce wood waste Transfer of Load
  • 18. Advanced Framing Reduce Wood Usage – Header Hangers
  • 19. Advanced Framing Reduce Wood Usage – Drywall Clips
  • 20. Advanced Framing Reduce Thermal Bridging How it all adds Up to R value • Standard Wall • R19 between studs • R5.5 at studs • Average R17.7 with one 2x6 stud • Average R 15.7 with three 2x6 stud jack • Typical stud wall has an R value of 13ish So every stud reduces the efficiency of the wall insulation
  • 21. Advanced Framing Outside Corners Notes: •Insulation is compressed/reduced with standard stud corners •Thermal transfer is increased because there is more wood •Drywall will condense water vapor because the temperatures are colder
  • 22. Advanced Framing Reduce Thermal Bridging Reduces thermal bridging and Allows for fuller depth insulation
  • 23. Advanced Framing Exterior to Interior Wall Intersection Reduces thermal bridge and Allows for full depth insulation – 2x6 is located behind 2x4
  • 24. Advanced Framing Insulated Header Used when not on a structural wall Used for a structural wall
  • 25. Advanced Framing The Double Stud Wall
  • 26. Advanced Framing The Double Stud Wall Interior Wall with limited Interior Studs[24” o.c.] and Structure Splayed Window with wood sill
  • 27. Advanced Framing The Double Stud Wall
  • 28. Building Envelope Air Barrier
  • 29. Building Envelope Air Barrier • Air Barrier leakage • Air will leak past by any dissimilar materials • Wood on masonry/concrete • Wood on wood • Wood on plastic • Air Barrier can be external or internal • Air sealing around systems • Sealing of air leaks is “fussy” work • Create an Air Boundary that is easily identified and can be installed by the contractor with limited effort
  • 30. Air Barrier Critical Path • Air Barriers are essential for a NZEH house • Air Barrier must stop air infiltration at the envelope • Barriers must last for the life of the house • Air barriers must be impermeable • OSB, Plywood, Rigid Insulation, etc. • Air barrier must be continuous, so tape all joints • Barrier must not tear apart with forces
  • 31. Building Envelope Interior Air Barrier
  • 32. Building Envelope Exterior Air Barrier
  • 33. Building Envelope Exterior Air Barrier – House Wraps Building wraps - tyvec Typar Tevek
  • 34. Air Barrier Sealing the Foundation Typical Sill Sealer Gaskets are too thin So Double them up and add caulk
  • 35. Air Barrier Sealing the Foundation, Sheathing and Decking Use Adhesive and Sealant between each material Seal out leaks by compression of Adhesive
  • 36. Air Barrier First Line of Defense Seal all joints with primer and flashing tape
  • 37. Air Barrier Sealing at the Exterior Sheathing
  • 38. Air Barrier Second Line of Defense 1” XPS, on all Exterior sheathing Dow Weathermate taped at each joint
  • 39. Air Barrier Third Line of Defense Expanding 0.5 lb Foam in Wall cavities Low Expanding Foam Around Windows and Doors Spray foam expands 100 times its Applied volume, so it seals cracks
  • 40. Building Envelope Other Leakage Seal all gaps with foam, rigid board, caulking and have patients!
  • 41. Thermal Boundary OR Summer Winter
  • 42. Building Envelope Thermal Boundary • The building Thermal Boundary includes all components of a building that enclose conditioned space
  • 43. Thermal Image of Exterior Wall Insulation has Fallen down Window frame Has more loss that glazing Un-insulated Rim Joist
  • 44. Thermal Image of Other Items Insulation has Fallen down Window frame Has more loss that glazing Un-insulated Rim Joist
  • 45. Building Envelope Insulation Zones
  • 46. Building Envelope Thermal Boundary • Types of Insulation • Fiberglass • Cellulose • Rigid board • Spray foam • Recycle Material • Straw bails
  • 47. Heat Transfer in Walls
  • 48. Double Stud Heat Transfer
  • 49. NEZH - The Wall Section
  • 50. Building Envelope Testing • Confirming objectives • Air Barriers Inspection at stages • Thermal Boundary Inspection • Blower door testing at critical stages • HERS ratings – Standard Established by Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) • REMRate Load Analysis
  • 51. Home Energy Rating • Home Energy Rating System • A standard measurement of a home’s energy efficiency • Measures • Air sealing (ACH@CFM50) • Insulation levels • Window and door efficiency • Heating and cooling system efficiency • Solar orientation • Water heating system • Appliance and Lighting efficiency
  • 52. Home Energy Rating • HERS Ratings • Energy Audit – a recognized tool in the mortgage process • HERS – provides important information about a homes performance and the economic analysis necessary to support lending decisions NZEH !!!!
  • 53. NZEH A new type of home