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Ch 35 Behavioral BiologyGoals• Define behavioral ecology.• Explain & give examples of the following kinds of animal behavior:• Instinct• Fixed action patterns (FAP)• Imprinting• Associative learning & classical conditioning• Trial & error learning (operant conditioning)• Habituation• Observational learning• Insight• Explain the reason for migration and list the 3 ways organisms know where to go.• Social behavior:• Discuss how each of the following competitive social behaviors helps organisms survive & give examples:• Agonsitic• Dominance hierarchies• Territoriality• Explain the purpose of courtship behaviors & why females are so picky about the mates they chose.• Describe altruistic behavior & give an example.• Communication:• List 3 modes of communication among organisms & 2 reasons why organisms communicate.
Ch 35 Behavioral Biology• Behavior – what an animal does & how it does it• Behavioral ecology – research approach based on expectation that animals increase their Darwinian fitness by optimal behavior.• Darwinian fitness – the relative contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation.
Innate Behavior• Instinct; determined by genes – Developmentally fixed – same behavior despite env differences inside & outside their bodies – Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) – a sequence of behaviors, unchangable & carried to completion • Triggered by sign stimulus • Ex: moths fold wings in response to ultrasonic signals of bats• Ex: bird with egg rolling out of nest • How do these work to enhance fitness?
Learning• Experience based modification of behavior – Most innate behaviors improve w/ experience (flying / developmental…) – Habituation – simple type of learning – loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no info • Ex: hydra stop contracting tentacles when touched repeatedly w/ out any danger • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kfu0FAAu-10&feature=related – Imprinting – learning limited to a critical time • Ex: zebras, geese, language, mate recognition • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGBqQyZid04
Learning• Associative Learning – animals learn to associate 1 stimulus w/ another – 2 types: • Classical conditioning – irrelevant stim associated w/ a physiological response (ex: bell/salivate) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM • Operant conditioning – trial & error learning / associate behavior w/ a reward or punishment (ex: quills of porcupine…) (skinner) – Play – practices survival behavior, establishes social rules, gives exercise
Insight• Correct behavior on 1st attempt – “wow – that’s big! I better stay away even though I don’t know what it is!”
Movement from place to place often depends on internal coding of spatial relationships• Cognitive maps – mental maps of spatial relationships. Ex: bees – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7ijI-g4jHg• 2 types of movement w/ out cognitive maps: – Kinesis – random movement & then change in activity rate in response to a stimulus if present – Taxis – automatic movement toward or away from a stimulus (phototaxis – move away from light)
Migration Behavior• Regular movement over long distances – usually in response to decrease in food supply• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYM6LqDJLiM – 3 mechanisms used to find way • Piloting • Orientation • navigation
Social BehaviorWorking together helps the entire species survive• Competitive social behaviors: – Agonistic – involves threatening & submissive behaviors to determine who gets resources (Ex: wolves putting chin under others) • Benefits of this? Winner established w/ out fighting or death – Dominance Hierarches – rank • Ex: chickens – determines who gets resources w/ out hurt • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yg1RPCfcGZs&feature=related – Territory – an area defended usually excluding other members of own species. • Benefits? Cuts down on competition, keeps population stable, benefits outweigh E costs of defending
Mating Behavior• Relates directly to animals fitness• Courtship – sequence of actions that confirms: – Same species but opposite sex – In appropriate physiological condition – Not a threat – Moonwalking bird below http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=072A5xbhO3I&feature=related Mating dance… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dx2CUMtZ-0&feature=related• Parental Investment – time & resources an individual must expend to produce offspring – Choose wisely to make it worth it / genetic quality – Females mammals picky b/c they have high investment / males usually have pronounced 2ndary sex characteristics due to this• Mating systems…
Modes of Communication• Pheromones – chemicals used to communicate• Inclusive fitness – total effect an individual has on passing its genes by having offspring & helping close relatives to have offspring – Kin selection – the more closely related the more strongly you’ll defend them• Altruistic behavior – behaviors that reduce individual fitness but increase others fitness – Ex: alarm calls, sterile bees, stinging worker bees die after stinging