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A & p ch 5 skeleton student version
 

A & p ch 5 skeleton student version

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    A & p ch 5 skeleton student version A & p ch 5 skeleton student version Presentation Transcript

    • The Skeletal System• Parts of the skeletal system http://www.youtube.co • Bones (skeleton) m/watch?v=8d- • Joints RBe8JBVs • Cartilages • Ligaments• Two subdivisions of the skeleton • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Functions of Bones • Support the body • Protect soft organs • Skull and vertebrae for brain and spinal cord • Rib cage for thoracic cavity organs • Allow movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Store minerals and fats • Calcium and phosphorus • Fat in the internal marrow cavity • Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Bones of the Human Body• The adult skeleton has 206 bones• Two basic types of bone tissue 1. Compact bone 2. Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape• Bones are classified as: • Long • Short • Flat • Irregular© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Classification of Bones• Long bones • Typically longer than they are wide • Shaft with heads situated at both ends • Contain mostly compact bone • All of the bones of the limbs (except wrist, ankle, and bones) • Example: • Femur • Humerus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Classification of Bones• Short bones • Generally cube-shaped • Contain mostly spongy bone • Includes bones of the wrist and ankle • Sesamoid bones are a type of short bone which form within tendons (patella) • Example: • Carpals • Tarsals© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Classification of Bones• Flat bones • Thin, flattened, and usually curved • Two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone • Example: • Skull • Ribs • Sternum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Classification of Bones• Irregular bones • Irregular shape • Do not fit into other bone classification categories • Example: • Vertebrae • Hip bones© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Articular cartilage Anatomy of a Long Bone• Diaphysis Proximal • Shaft epiphysis Spongy bone Epiphyseal • Composed line of compact Periosteum Compact bone bone Medullary• Epiphysis cavity (lined by endosteum) Diaphysis • Ends of the bone • Composed mostly of http://www.youtube. spongy com/watch?v=owlpf bone 6zHgyw Distal epiphysis (a) Figure 5.3a© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Anatomy of a Long Bone • Periosteum • Outside covering of the diaphysis • Fibrous connective tissue membrane • Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers • Secure periosteum to underlying bone • Arteries • Supply bone cells with nutrients • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8A0rRIpjutY&feature=r elmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Endosteum Yellow bone marrow Compact bone Periosteum Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Nutrient arteries (c)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3c
    • Anatomy of a Long Bone Articular cartilage Compact bone • Articular cartilage Spongy bone • Covers the external surface of the epiphyses • Made of cartilage (b) • Decreases friction at joint surfaces© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3b
    • Anatomy of a Articular cartilage Long Bone• Epiphyseal plate Proximal epiphysis Spongy bone • Flat plate of Epiphyseal hyaline line cartilage seen Periosteum in young, Compact bone growing bone Medullary cavity (lined• Epiphyseal line by endosteum) Diaphysis • Remnant of the epiphyseal plate • Seen in adult bones Distal epiphysis (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3a
    • Anatomy of a Long Bone •Marrow (medullary) cavity •Cavity inside of the shaft •Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults •Contains red marrow for blood cell formation in infants •In adults, red marrow is situated in cavities of spongy bone and epiphyses of some long bones© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone •Osteon (Haversian system) •A unit of bone containing central canal and matrix rings •Central (Haversian) canal •Opening in the center of an osteon •Carries blood vessels and nerves •Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal •Canal perpendicular to the central canal •Carries blood vessels and nerves© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Osteon (Haversian system) Lamellae Blood vessel continues into medullary cavity containing marrow Spongy bone Perforating fibers Compact bone Periosteal blood vessel Central (Haversian) canal Periosteum Perforating (a) (Volkmann’s) canal Blood vessel© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4a
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Bone •Lacunae •Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) •Arranged in concentric rings called lamellae •Lamellae •Rings around the central canal •Sites of lacunae •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNdwwVCpl d8&feature=relmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Lamella Osteocyte Canaliculus (b) Lacuna Central (Haversian) canal© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4b
    • Osteon Lacuna (c) Central Interstitial© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. canal lamellae Figure 5.4c
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Bone •Canaliculi •Tiny canals •Radiate from the central canal to lacunae •Form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQhUINnT dZI&feature=relmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Lamella Osteocyte http://www.yo utube.com/w atch?v=ylma nEGjRuY&fe ature=relmfu Canaliculus (b) Lacuna Central (Haversian) canal© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4b
    • Formation of the Human Skeleton •In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage •During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone – called ossification •Cartilage remains in isolated areas •Bridge of the nose •Parts of ribs •Joints© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Bone Growth (Ossification) •Epiphyseal plates allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood •New cartilage is continuously formed •Older cartilage becomes ossified •Cartilage is broken down •Enclosed cartilage is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity •Bone replaces cartilage through the action of osteoblasts© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Bone Growth (Ossification) •Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops •Bones are remodeled in response to two factors •Blood calcium levels •Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton •Bones grow in width (called appositional growth)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • http://www.youtube.c Articular om/watch?v=t5_3sN cartilage LtfxQ Hyaline cartilage Spongy bone New center of bone growth New bone Epiphyseal forming plate cartilage Growth Medullary in bone cavity width Bone starting Invading to replace Growth blood cartilage in bone vessels length New bone Bone collar forming Hyaline Epiphyseal cartilage plate cartilage model In an embryo In a fetus In a child© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5
    • Types of Bone Cells •Osteocytes—mature bone cells •Osteoblasts—bone-forming cells •Osteoclasts—giant bone-destroying cells •Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone •Bone remodeling is performed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Bone Fractures •Fracture—break in a bone •Types of bone fractures •Closed (simple) fracture—break that does not penetrate the skin •Compound fracture—broken bone penetrates through the skin •Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Common Types of Fractures http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=c5Q5GPwAS4k •Comminuted—bone breaks into many fragments Setting a bone: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQVih •Compression—bone is crushed uOUQkU&feature=related •Depressed—broken bone portion is pressed inward •Impacted—broken bone ends are forced into each other •Spiral—ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone •Greenstick—bone breaks incompletely© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Comminuted fracture Compression fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Depressed fracture Impacted fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Spiral fracture Greenstick fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Logan’s leg – spiral, comminuted (he had fragments) & impacted© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Healing of bone fractures Hematoma External Bony callus callus of spongy bone New Internal blood callus vessels Healed (fibrous fracture tissue and Spongy cartilage) bone trabecula 1 Hematoma 2 Fibrocartilage 3 Bony callus 4 Bone remodeling forms. callus forms. forms. occurs.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.7
    • Joints •Articulations of bones •Functions of joints •Hold bones together •Allow for mobility •Two ways joints are classified •Functionally •Structurally© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Features of Synovial Joints •Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones •Articular capsule encloses joint surfaces and lined with synovial membrane •Joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid •Reinforcing ligaments© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Acromion of scapula Ligament Joint cavity containing Bursa synovial fluid Ligament Articular (hyaline) Tendon cartilage sheath Synovial membrane Tendon of Fibrous layer of the biceps muscle articular capsule Humerus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.31
    • Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial (a) Plane joint Flat articular surfaces, slipping or gliding movements, intercarpal joints of wrist is best (a) example© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32a
    • Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial One cylindrical surface & one trough-shaped surface, angular movement in one plane, elbow, (b) ankle, phalanges Humerus Ulna (b) Hinge joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32b
    • Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial Rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of another, pivoting movement, proximal radioulnar joint Ulna (c) Radius (c) Pivot joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32c
    • Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial Saddle like surfaces that fit together, side to side & back & forth movements, carpometacarpal joints of thumb (twiddle thumbs to see movements) Carpal Metacarpal #1 (e) (e) Saddle joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32e
    • Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial One spherical head fits into (f) round socket of other, rotational movement (multiaxial), intercarpal joints of shoulder & hip Head of humerus Scapula (f) Ball-and-socket joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32f
    • Knee Replacement • Basic knee anatomy • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xxyww3qAt0o • • Knee replacement surgery explained with diagram • • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWQTm6qAPss • • Knee replacement surgery video - graphic but wonderfully explained & only 10 minutes. Let kids who dont want to see this go to either another room or to the lab area of the room. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJGJJOA1Me0© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Skeletal System Disorders & Diseases • Osteoarthritis – disease of the aged; degeneration of articular cartilage • Bursitis – inflammation of bursae • Rickets – disease of children in which bones fail to calcify; caused by vitamin D deficiency (needed to absorb Ca from intestines into blood) • Osteoporosis - the creation of new bone doesnt keep up with the removal of old bone. Most common in post menopausal white & Asian women.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Osteoarthritis© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Bursitis© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Rickets© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Osteoporosis© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Importance of appropriate dietary Ca & strength of bones when young:• Your bones are in a constant state of renewal — new bone is made and old bone is broken down.• When youre young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and your bone mass increases.• Most people reach their peak bone mass by their early 20s. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than its created.• How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth. The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have "in the bank" and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System •At birth, the skull bones are incomplete •Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels •Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Parietal bone Frontal bone of skull Occipital bone Mandible Clavicle Scapula Radius Ulna Humerus Femur Tibia Ribs Vertebra Hip bone© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.34
    • © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.35a
    • © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.35b
    • The Axial Skeleton •Forms the longitudinal axis of the body •Divided into three parts •Skull •Vertebral column •Bony thorax© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cranium Skull Facial bones Clavicle Thoracic cage Scapula (ribs and sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
    • The Skull Cranium Facial bonesAppendicular ClavicleSkeleton Thoracic cage (ribs and Scapula sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals• Composed of 126 Phalanges bones Metacarpals Femur • Limbs Patella (appendages) Tibia • Pectoral girdle Fibula • Pelvic girdle Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
    • Cranium Bones of Clavicle pectoral girdle Scapula Upper limb Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones Ulna of pelvic Carpals girdle Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Lower limb Tibia Fibula (b) Posterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8b
    • Cranium Skull Facial bones Clavicle Thoracic cage Scapula (ribs and sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
    • The Skull Cranium Facial bonesAppendicular ClavicleSkeleton Thoracic cage (ribs and Scapula sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals• Composed of 126 Phalanges bones Metacarpals Femur • Limbs Patella (appendages) Tibia • Pectoral girdle Fibula • Pelvic girdle Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
    • The Skull •Two sets of bones •Cranium •Facial bones •Bones are joined by sutures •Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lambdoid Lacrimal bone suture Squamous suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Zygomatic process Zygomatic bone Maxilla External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Alveolar processes Styloid process Mandible (body) Mental foramen Mandibular ramus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.9
    • Frontal bone Cribriform plate Ethmoid Crista galli bone Sphenoid bone Optic canal Sella turcica Foramen ovale Temporal bone Jugular foramen Internal acoustic meatus Parietal bone Occipital bone Foramen magnum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.10
    • Maxilla Hard (palatine process) palate Palatine bone Maxilla Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone (greater wing) (zygomatic process) Foramen ovale Vomer Mandibular fossa Carotid canal Styloid process Mastoid process Jugular foramen Temporal bone Occipital condyle Parietal bone Foramen magnum Occipital bone© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.11
    • Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Nasal bone Superior orbital fissure Sphenoid bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone Temporal bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Middle nasal concha of ethmoid bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible Alveolar processes© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.12
    • Skull Links to videos & practice• Calvaria bones explained • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9I0t9N-GIRM&feature=plcp• Facial bones exlained • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0oEAyhcHqbE&feature=plc p• Interactive Practice • http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/webanatomy/skeletons_skulls/s kull_lateral_7_m.html• Interactive Practice: roll-over • http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/skull/antskul.htm© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • The Fetal Skull •The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total body length •Fetal skull is 1/4 body length compared to adult skull which is 1/8 body length •Fontanels—fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones •Allow skull compression during birth •Allow the brain to grow during later pregnancy and infancy •Convert to bone within 24 months after birth© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Anterior fontanel Frontal bone Parietal bone Posterior fontanel Occipital bone (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.15a
    • Anterior fontanel Sphenoidal Parietal bone fontanel Frontal Posterior bone fontanel Occipital bone Mastoid fontanel Temporal bone (b)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.15b
    • Craniosynostosis •Explanation video & Jack’s story http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfuT3d 63-oo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ViAV9a9Ota8© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.