The Human Body: An Orientation Ch1Learning Goals:• An overview of A & P 1. Define anatomy & physiology. 2. Explain how anatomy & physiology are related.• Levels of structure & organization 3. Name the levels of structural organization that make up the human body and explain how they are related. 4. Name the organ systems of the body and briefly state the major functions of each system. 5. Classify by organ system all organs discussed. 6. Identify the organs shown on a diagram or a dissectible torso.• Maintaining life 7. Define homeostasis and explain its importance. 8. Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining homeostasis and normal body function.• The language of anatomy 9. Describe the anatomical position verbally or demonstrate it. 10. Use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, surfaces, and body planes. 11. Locate the major body cavities and list the chief organs in each cavity.
An Overview of Anatomy & PhysiologyAnatomy – study of structure; identification of body partsPhysiology – the study of function; how the body parts workStructure is related to function. Things work the way they work because of their structure.
Digestive System• Breaks down food & deliver the small food molecules to the blood for dispersal to the body.• Consists of oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines.
Urinary System• Aka Excretory System• Removes nitrogen - containing wastes (urea & uric acid)• Consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra• Maintains water, salt & pH balance of blood
Reproductive System• Produce offspring• Consists of scrotum, penis & duct system in males• Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina in females
Maintaining LifeNecessary Life Functions• Maintain boundaries• Move• Respond to environmental changes (responsiveness or irritability)• Take in & digest nutrients• Carry out metabolism (chemical rx)• Dispose of wastes• Reproduce• GrowAll the organ systems work together to enable these to occur.How can you remember these? Picture yourself walking to McDonalds, eating a Big Mac…
Survival Needs• Nutrients – used for energy & cell building• Oxygen – enables us to release energy from our food• Water – provides fluid base for body• Body temperature – must be maintained @ 37 degrees C (98 F)• Atmospheric pressure (force exerted on surface of body by the weight of air) – breathing depends on appropriate pressureAll of these must be present in appropriate amounts for survival.
Homeostasis• The bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions, regardless of outside conditions.• Homeo = unchanging• Stasis = standing still• Internal conditions aren’t still, but they vary within very narrow limits
The thermostat in your house maintains a set temperature.
Now… apply this the human body & how it maintains a steady level (amount) of glucose in the blood.• Negative feedback – a stimulus causes a response in the opposite direction of the stimulus.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oBquWer8R8• Above link to Mr. Ford’s Body Position video• The correct anatomical position is standing up (erect) with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body. Body Landmarks• To precisely point out the chief complaint of a patient, the nurse or physician uses anatomical terms representing a certain body part. For example, a patient walks in the emergency room with a hacking wound on the posterior portion of the left lower leg. To clearly state the area of injury the nurse uses the term “sural” which means the posterior surface of the lower leg rather than writing “back area of the lower leg”. Knowing these terms not only give the nurse a more accurate formulation of chief complaints but it also saves time of a good deal of description.
Orientation & Directional TermsUsed to clearly explain the relation of one body structure to another• Superior – above• Inferior – below• Anterior – in front of• Posterior – behind• Medial – middle• Lateral – away from the middle; at outer the sides• Intermediate – between a more medial and a more a lateral surface• Proximal – close to the body part• Distal – away from a body part• Superficial – external; at the surface• Deep – internal; away from the surface
Anterior Body Landmarks• Abdominal – anterior body trunk inferior to ribs• Acromial – point of shoulder• Antecubital – anterior surface of elbow• Axillary – armpit• Brachial – arm• Buccal – cheek area• Carpal – wrist• Cervical – neck region• Coxal – hip• Crural – leg• Digital – fingers, toes• Femoral – thigh• Fibular – lateral part of the leg• Inguinal – area where thigh meets body part• Nasal – nose area• Oral – mouth• Orbital – eye area• Patellar – anterior knee• Pelvic – area overlying the pelvis anteriorly• Pubic – genital region• Sternal – breastbone area• Tarsal – ankle region• Thoracic – chest• Umbilical – navel
Posterior Body Landmark• Calcaneal – heel of foot• Cephalic – head• Deltoid – curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle• Femoral – thigh• Gluteal – buttock• Lumbar – area of back between ribs and hips• Occipital – posterior surface of head• Olecranal – posterior surface of elbow• Popliteal – sacral• Scapular – shoulder blade region• Sural – posterior surface of the lower leg• Vertebral – area of spine• Plantar – sole of the foot
Body Planes & Sections Median Frontal or Coronal Transverse
Adominopelvic Cavity QuadrantsView without skeleton
Interactive Region Body Parts Site• http://www.wisc- online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP14904• http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dropdrag/regions1 .htmFlash Cards of Body Regionshttp://quizlet.com/11406/anatomy-regional-terms-flash-cards/
Body Organization Quiz / Games• http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/webanatomy/ timed/01.htm