Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
[Military] [article] [armada international] land based air defence
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

[Military] [article] [armada international] land based air defence


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Complete GuideRoy BraybrookFor the purposes of the followingdiscussion, it is understood thatShorads (short-range air defencesystems, discussed in Armada 2/2002)typically engage incoming aircraft andmissiles at around ten kilometres,although some may stretch to 20 km. Itis also given that long-range air defencesystems are capable of more than 75km, and that medium-range systems fillthe gap, intercepting at 20 to 75 km.HawkThe classic Western medium-rangeSam is the Raytheon MIM-23B Hawk(Homing All-the-Way Killer), which isbelieved to have a maximum range inthe region of 40 km.The Hawk is wide-ly used, serving with the US Army andMarine Corps and the services of 20other nations,including seven membersof Nato. The Hawk is a semi-activeradar homing missile launched from awheeled trailer. The standard USMarine Corps battery or US Army pla-toon has four three-round launchers.Either unit can fire its missiles at anaverage interval of less than five sec-onds, but in its initial form can engageonly two targets simultaneously.The basic Hawk system employsfour different radars.Search is conduct-ed by a pulse acquisition radar (Par) inthe case of medium or high altitude tar-gets,and a continuous-wave acquisitionradar (Cwar) for low-flying targets. Ifeither of these is subjected to jammingthat denies target range information, itcan be supported by a range-only radar.The designated targets are tracked andilluminated by a high-power illumina-tor (HPI) radar.The Hawk entered service in 1960,and has been used operationally in the1967 and 1973 Arab-Israeli wars, andthe Iran-Iraq war. The US MarineCorps deployed two Hawk battalionsin the 1991 Persian Gulf War. TheHawk has gone through a series ofmajor upgrades. The Phase I upgradethat began in 1977 brought improve-ments to the Par and Cwar. The PhaseII of 1983 introduced a series of R&M(reliability and maintainability)improvements, with special referenceto the HPI.The current Phase III is described asproviding increased firepower, furtherenhanced R&M and integrated airdefence capability through the use ofdigital computers. The associatedchanges include the removal of therange-only radar. Developed for the USArmy and Marine Corps, the Phase IIIcan provide some defence capabilityagainst short-range ballistic missiles, if45armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002The effective defence of both fixed and mobile ground targets against thethreats posed by missiles and aircraft favours a multi-layered approach.The need for improvements in medium- and long-range interception capa-bility is emphasised by the growing use of stand-off radar platforms andjamming aircraft, stealth bombers, and by the abandoning of direct attacksby manned aircraft in favour of stand-off, cruise and ballistic missiles.Launch, Intercept,Destroy –Land-based Air Defence
  • 2. Complete Guidelinked to a long-range 3D radar such asthe Raytheon MPQ-64, and if theweapon used is the Hawk ILM(improved lethality modification) withlarger (35 gram) warhead fragments.The Phase III treatment is also beingapplied to the Hawk systems of someexisting international customers, suchas France and Greece. The Phase IIICwar provides single-scan target detec-tion, reducing the time required to findthe target by over 50 per cent. Theupgrade kit for the HPI radar(Raytheon MPQ-61) includes a newLow Altitude Simultaneous HawkEngagement (Lashe) antenna, whichallows the system to engage twelve tar-gets at the same time.US Marine CorpsHawk batteries have an improvedLockheed Martin TPS-59(V)3 3D sur-veillance radar that can track tacticalballistic missiles at 750 km. EgyptianHawk radars have also been upgradedto -59(V)3 standard.In the case of the Greek Phase IIIupgrade,Raytheon is teamed with Nor-way’s Kongsberg, which is responsiblefor the new fire direction centre (FDC)that replaces the current Hawk com-mand post. This improves interoper-ability with the Raytheon Patriot long-range air defence system,which Greecehas also selected. Denmark is introduc-ing the Danish Enhanced Hawk(Dehawk), developed by Terma, as aninterim system, pending a switch toeither the Raytheon AIM-120 orMBDA Aster 30 missile.US Marine Corps Hawks have anupgraded video tracker based on a CCD(charge-coupled device) that can lock onto aircraft at over 100 km. German andDutch Hawk batteries have been sup-plied with an Atlas electro-opticalday/night acquisition and tracking sys-tem to overcome radar jamming andincrease effectiveness against multipletargets. In a joint mobility-enhancementprogramme by the US and the Nether-lands (later adopted by Sweden), thelauncher has been modified to allow it tobe towed with missiles in place, the tow-ing vehicle is a new transporter/loaderbased on a five-tonne truck carryingthree further missiles and a crane.AmraamFuture plans for the Hawk centre oncombining it with Raytheon’s AIM-120,as in the case of the Raytheon/Kongs-berg Hawk-Amraam air defence sys-tem, which has been offered to theRoyal NetherlandsAir Force andArmy.This retains the Hawk on some three-round launchers, while other launchersin the same battery are modified tomount eight AIM-120s. The AIM-120sare employed to intercept multiplehigh-speed low-level targets, and pro-vide a minimum firing interval of lessthan two seconds and a range of around20 km. This combination of missilesretains the longer range and higher alti-tude capabilities of the Hawk, as well asthe superior terminal effectiveness ofthe Hawk ILM round against targets oflow radar cross-section. The Hawk-Amraam system employs the RaytheonMPQ-64 3D pencil-beam radar and theMPQ-61 HPI.46 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk medium-range surface-to-air missile is still widelyused. It is represented here by a German Air Force firing unit at ILA-2002.(Armada/RB)Test firing of aHawk missile,using target datasupplied by theRaytheon TPQ-36A Low AltitudeSurveillanceRadar (right), firstadopted by theRoyal NorwegianAir Force.(Raytheon)
  • 3. Complete Guide48 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete GuideIn the case of Nasams (Norwegianadvanced surface-to-air missile sys-tem), the AIM-120 is employed insix-round canisters without the Hawkbut with the Kongsberg FDC referredto earlier (also used in the Hawk-Amraam system). It employs theRaytheon MPQ-64 surveillance radarand the TPQ-36A acquisition andtracking radar, together with the vehi-cle-mounted Norwegian TrackingAdjunct System using infrared cam-eras.The system is operated by both theRoyal Norwegian Air Force (Nasams-I) and the Army (Nasams-II). In 2000,Kongsberg was contracted to supplyfour similar fire units for the SpanishAir Force.Mounted on the M1097 Hummer,the Raytheon AIM-120 is also to beused in the US Marine Corps Comple-mentary Low Altitude Weapon System(Claws), which will be employed inconjunction with the Raytheon Stinger-armed Boeing Avenger Vshorads. InApril 2001, Raytheon (having previ-ously demonstrated a five-missile vehi-cle prototype) was awarded the Clawsdevelopment and pre-production con-tract by the US Marine Corps SystemsCommand. This 24-month programmeis to produce two production-represen-tative launchers to validate perform-ance and integration requirements.Thelaunch vehicle is equipped with a GPSreceiver, and in the US Marine Corpscase will take target data from theRaytheon Multi-Role Radar System,which is also Hummer-mounted. TheUS Marine corps website refers to thelauncher having “a minimum of four”Amraams. The Claws is intended toprovide beyond-visual range defenceagainst cruise missiles, UAVs and otheradvanced threats.Kub/KvadratThe closest Russian equivalent ofHawk is the 9K12 Kub (SA-6) systemand its descendants, although the Kub(Cube) family is based on tracked vehi-cles, rather than trailers. The Kub wasdeveloped by NIIP at Zhukovsky, butwas produced by the UlyanovskMechanical Plant. The first unitsappeared in 1967 and entered servicearound 1970. The missile is boosted tosupersonic speed by a rocket motor andthen switches to ramjet propulsion. It isdirected toward the target by commandguidance, with semi-active radar hom-ing for the terminal phase. In the 1973Yom Kippur War,The Kub was respon-sible for the destruction of many Israeliaircraft, that is, until the Israelis discov-ered that the four 2P25 Tel (trans-porter-erector-launcher) vehicles, eachcarrying three ready-to-fire rounds,could be put out of action by destroyingthe battery’s 1S91 (Straight Flush)radar vehicle. Syrian forces alsoemployed the Kub during the Israeliinvasion of Lebanon in 1982, but itsradars are believed to have beenjammed successfully.The Kub was exported to at least 23countries as the Kvadrat. The Sovietsappear to have allocated to this initialversion of the series a low security clas-sification, as several countries (includ-ing Israel, the United Kingdom andUnited States) are believed to haveacquired examples for testing. Britain,for example,reportedly test-fired elevenSA-6s in the late 1980s.Although the Kub is being replacedby the Buk-1M (described below),many examples remain in service andUlyanovsk is marketing upgrades forthese older systems. Upgrade optionsinclude a 9Sh38 electro-optical trackermounted on the 1S91M1/M2 controlsystem vehicle, allowing targets to beengaged at up to 25 km without radarsurveillance and tracking. The controlsystem is upgraded from analogue todigital data processing, and automati-cally classifies targets as air breathing(AB), ballistic missile (BM) or helicop-ters (H). Ulyanovsk also offers theimproved 3M9M3 missile, which pro-vides 20 to 25 per cent more range anddoubles the maximum intercept alti-tude to 46,000 ft. Demonstrating thatthe SA-6 is still a viable system, an F-16was shot down by a Kub unit (inBosnia) as recently as 1995.BukIn 1979, production at Ulyanovskswitched to the 9K37M Buk (SA-11),which was designed to replace both theKub and the longer range (70 km) 9M8Krug (Circle) or SA-4, which also orig-inated in the early 1960s. The Buk(Beech) entered service in the mid-The 9A310M1 firing unit of the Ulyanovsk-built 9K37M1 Buk-M1 (SA-11) airdefence system in road configuration is illustrated by this scale-model.(Armada/RB)The Buk-M1 firingunit in operationalconfiguration,with turret rotatedto face the threat,and the four9M38M1 missilesraised to the firingposition.(Armada/EHB)
  • 4. Complete Guide50 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/20021980s and overcame the fundamentalvulnerability of its predecessor byequipping each firing unit with its owntracking and illumination radar.The missile for the 9K37M1 Buk-M1system is the rocket-powered 9M38M1,designed by the Dolgoprudny ResearchProduction Enterprise (DNPP). Itboasts a top speed of Mach 3.5, an outerlimit range of 32 km and a maximumaltitude of 72,000 ft. The system has alaunch weight of 690 kg and carries a70 kg warhead.The Buk system is based on the use ofthe MT-S tracked chassis.A Buk batterynormally consists of a 9S470M1 com-mand post, a 9S18M1 target acquisitionradar, six 9A310M1 firing units withfour ready-to-fire missiles and three9A39M1 reloader/launcher vehicles,each carrying eight missiles. The9A39M1 can be used as a supplemen-tary fire unit, but has no radar, and thusrelies for missile guidance on a nearby9A310M1.A battery is equipped with 72rounds, the remainder being carried onKrAZ-255B 6 ϫ 6 trucks,which can eachsupply up to eight missiles. Four batter-ies form a regiment, which normally hasa long-range surveillance radar such asthe Nitel Nebo-SV (1L13-3).The 9K37M1-2 or Buk-M1-2 (SA-17),which was recently exhibited at AsianAerospace 2002, represents a majoradvance, combining the new DNPP-designed 9M317 missile with a new firecontrol system developed by Tikho-mirov NIIP, and including a laser rangerfor passive operation. The new com-mand post is designated 9S470M1-2.Thiscombination allows the Buk-M1-2 toalso defend against tactical ballisticmissiles with a range up to 150 km andanti-radiation missiles such as the Harm.The 9M317 is a 715 kg missile with a70 kg warhead. It has a maximum alti-tude of 82,000 ft and an outside range of45 km against airborne targets and20 km against ballistic missiles. Com-pared to the 9M38M1 missile, it alsoprovides improvements in manoeuvra-bility and ECM resistance.referred to as the Land Saam AD.Eurosam was established in 1989 as ajoint venture by Aerospatiale, AleniaMarconi Systems and Thomson-CSF,and is thus now owned by MBDA andThales.The Samp-T (Sol-Air MoyennePortée – Terrestre) is a member of theFuture Surface-to-Air Family (FSAF)of ADS that is being developed for theFrench and Italian governments. It is atruck-mounted, air-transportable sys-tem based on MBDA Aster 30 missilesfired from vertical launchers,theThalesArabel radar and the Alenia Zebramonopulse low-frequency high-angleradar. The command module controlsup to six launchers, located up to tenkilometres distant and each with eightmissiles.The trucks used are the FrenchRenault TRM and the ItalianAstra/Iveco.The Aster 30 has a weight of 445 kg,most of which is associated with a larg-er tandem boost motor.This launches a100 kg‘dart’ carrying a 15 kg blast-frag-mentation warhead. It has a maximumrange of 70 km against surveillance air-craft, up to 100 km against a jammerand 15 to 25 km against a supersonicmanoeuvring aircraft. The Samp-Temploys Sagem inertial mid-courseguidance with target updates providedby datalink, and active radar terminalhoming. The dart’s Pif/Paf (pilotage enforce/pilotage aérodynamique fort) oflateral jets acting around the centre ofTest firing of theMBDA Aster 30missile, which armsthe truck-mounted,air-transportableEurosam Samp-T,a member of theFranco-ItalianFuture Surface-to-Air Family. (DGA-CEL)The massive S-300 PMU1 air defence system uses the equally massive 64N6Elong-range surveillance and acquisition radar seen here. (Armada/EHB)The Buk M1-2 was fielded by theRussian Army in 1998 and is marketedinternationally both as a completelynew system and as firing units that canbe integrated with the older Kvadrat.Options include the Orion passiveradar system. The 9K40 Ural system(also produced by Ulyanovsk) isreported to be an upgraded Buk, butthis may simply be a new designationfor the 9K37M1-2.Samp-TThe systems so far discussed arealready in service. The next ground-based medium-range ADS is expectedto be the Eurosam Samp-T, sometimes
  • 5. Complete Guide51armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002gravity provides a load factor of up to62 G. The battery can engage up to tentargets simultaneously.The Samp-T can provide an anti-tactical ballistic missile capabilityagainst weapons such as the MITT 9K52Luna-M (Frog-7) and KBM 9K79Tochka (SS-21a Scarab), i.e., missiles ofless than 100 km range. The Block 1 isbeing developed to deal with ballisticmissiles of 500 to 600 km range, i.e., theMakeyev 9K72 (SS-1 Scud). Serviceentry is scheduled for 2005.The Block 2is being studied to counter ballistic mis-siles in the 1000 to 2000 km range.The initial Samp-T productionorders are expected to cover 15 unitsfor the French Army, 15 for the ItalianArmy (likewise replacing the Hawk)and 14 for the French Air Force, replac-ing the Crotale in airfield defence.MeadsDespite the Italian Army’s apparentcommitment to the Franco-ItalianSamp-T, the Italian Air Force supportsthe Meads (pronounced Me-Ads) pro-gramme, which formally began in 1996with an agreement between the US,Germany and Italy to collaborate onthe development of this easilydeployed Medium Extended AirDefence System, sharing the costs on a60-28-17 basis. In US Army service, theMeads is to replace the Patriot.The tri-lateral agreement marked the start of a27-month project definition and valida-tion phase in which two teams wereawarded $ 80 million contracts.For the second (risk-reduction)phase, in May 1999 the Meads Interna-tional team led by Lockheed Martinwas awarded a $ 216 million 32.5-month contract by the Nato MeadsManagement Agency (Nameadsma).Meads International is owned on a50:50 basis by Lockheed Martin andEuroMeads, which is a joint venturecomprised of Italy’s MBDA-I and Ger-many’s Eads/LFK.The award of the risk-reduction con-tract followed the political decision toreduce the cost of the Meads pro-gramme by adopting the Pac-3 missile(developed by Lockheed Martin Mis-siles and Fire Control – Dallas for theRaytheon Patriot system) in combina-tion with an improved mobility launch-er. The Raytheon Patriot programmewas discussed in some detail inArmada5/99.The Pac-2 was introduced in early1991 and was used to intercept IraqiScud ballistic missiles during DesertStorm.The Pac-3 is a much smaller hit-to-kill missile, allowing a launcher tocarry 16 weapons in place of four Pac-2s.This body-to-body kill is achieved bya battery of 180 small attitude-controlrockets in the front fuselage, used inMeads is a joint development by the US, Germany and Italy, aimed atproducing a Medium Extended Air Defence System that can be deployed bythe C-130 and C.160. (Eads/LFK)The Inertial Heart That Beats ( 800) 227-1625Concord, CaliforniaNot much escapes its capabilities. Using ourstate-of-the-art Quartz MEMS technology, thissmall MEMS inertial cluster serves as the heart ofour C-MIGITSTMand DQI-NP Navigation systems.Our MEMS GPS/INS provides high accuracy,tactical grade performance and is ruggedized tohandle missile environments.As the first to provide production capabilities,BEI Systron Donner can provide unprecedentedsystem navigation, even with loss of GPS, to giveyou robust, affordable navigation and guidancesolutions. Visit our website for complete details andapplications information.MEMS GPS/INS6 DoF Quartz TechnologyQualifiedMatureHigh ReliabilityC-MIGITSTM(C/A Code - MiniatureIntegrated GPS/INSInertial TacticalSystem)Light Weight(1.1 kilograms/2.4 Lbs.)DQI-NP(Digital Quartz IMUwith NavigationalProcessor)Light Weight(1.2 kilograms / 2.65 Lbs.)
  • 6. Complete Guide52 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002conjunction with the fixed tail surfacesthat give a three-Hertz roll-rate.Development testing of the Pac-3 wascompleted in October 2001. It enteredlow-rate initial production (Lrip) for theUS Army in late 1999. Some 154 missileshave been contracted for in this phaseand the first unit was equipped in Sep-tember 2001. A decision for full-rateproduction is expected in September2002. The US Army plans to equip eachPatriot fire unit with six Pac-2 and twoPac-3 launchers. Earlier Patriot systemshave been sold to Egypt, Germany,Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, theNetherlands, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan.It may be added that Taiwan is reportedto have developed and placed in servicea silo-housed Patriot derivative knownasTien Kung (Sky Bow).At time of writ-ing, Raytheon is working to conclude aPatriot sale to South Korea based on theimproved Pac-3, the stumbling-blockbeing funding shortfalls resulting fromthat country’s F-15K purchase.During the testing of the new Pac-3there have been eleven consecutivesuccessful firings,five of which involvedbody-to-body intercepts of tactical bal-listic missiles, three represented cruisemissile kills and one destroyed a targetrepresenting an attack aircraft.Following statements of intent topurchase by Germany and the Nether-lands (for 200 and 128 PAC-3s respec-tively), Lockheed Martin placed offsetwork in those countries, and the firstGerman components were shipped tothe United States during Lrip-1. Tomanage the offset programme and sup-port the Pac-3 in German Air Forceservice, Lockheed Martin and Eads/LFK have formed a joint company,Gesellschaft für Luftverteidigungs Sys-teme (GLVS). German work on thePac-3 includes Thomson travellingwave tubes,Diehl thermal batteries anda joint effort by LFK and TDW on the‘lethality enhancer’, which expands the255 mm diameter of the missile as ahedge against last-minute manoeuvresby air-breathing threats.A German Parliamentary decisiontaken in June 2001 to support the Meadsrisk-reduction effort has delayed thatnation’s procurement of the Pac-3(which was to have covered 200 roundsand 13 launch station modification kitsin Calendar 2002),perhaps by two years.The Dutch decision to purchase has yetto be confirmed.The goals of the second phase are todemonstrate the validity of the chosenconcept,investigate whether the conceptis achievable on a realistic timescale,investigate critical areas of technologyand establish reliable cost data for devel-opment and procurement, providing thebasis for a decision on whether or not tocontinue the project.The US Army has requested $ 150.8million for Meads R&D in FY2003, but(as the programme is currently envis-aged) the seven-year engineering andmanufacturing development phase willnot start until early 2004, leading toproduction beginning around 2012.Although Germany probably wel-comes the delay in funding demand,this timescale does not meet the needsof the Italian Army, which plans toacquire at least six Meads batteries toreplace the elderly Nike Hercules andis considering leasing the Patriot fromthe German Air Force or US Army asan interim system, or acquiring theSamp-T Block 1.Lockheed Martin has proposed thatthe Meads programme should be com-pressed to bring service entry forwardby several years, with four battalionsdelivered to the US Army between2012 and 2014 and the remaining sevenin the following four years. Raytheon,which failed to be selected for Meads,has proposed an alternative PatriotLight system designed to allow deploy-ment in the C-130 rather than the C-5.As part of this redesign, the commandand radar modules would be movedfrom five-tonne trucks to the HMMWV,and the antenna would be redesigned tofit inside the C-130. The Patriot Lightcould be fielded relatively quickly butdepends on the US Army funding itsdevelopment.Assuming the Meads programmegoes forth,the standard battery will con-sist of six launch trucks (each withtwelve vertically-launched missiles),two tactical operations centres, a UHFsurveillance radar and two X-band firecontrol radars. Both types of radar haverotatable active phased-array antennas,whereas the Patriot radars are fixed andscan only a 90-degree azimuth sector.As a cost-saving measure, it has been agreed that the Meads will employ thePac-3 missile (shown being test-fired) developed to upgrade the Patriot system.(Lockheed Martin)Full-scale mock-up of the Lockheed Martin Pac-3 missile, as shown at ILA-2002. A smaller model underneath illustrates firing from a Patriot launcher.(Armada/RB)
  • 7. Complete Guide54 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Deployment will require 38 C.160, 20C-130 or 5 C-17 sorties.The Meads is intended to deal with awide range of targets, many of which donot justify the relatively high cost of thePac-3 missile. Based on a productionrate of 20 missiles per month, LockheedMartin is aiming to reduce unit costbelow $ two million, but it would still bean expensive way to deal with (forexample) a UAV or decoy drone. Sever-al companies (including Meads Interna-tional) are considering less expensivecomplements for the Pac-3, using thesame fire control system as the Patriotthe Meads. These projects include thesurface-launched Amraam (Slamraam),a ground-launched MBDA Meteor anda vertically launched BGT Iris-T with anenlarged rocket motor.Despite the on-going Samp-T andMeads programmes, Nato is consideringa means to field a layered theatre missiledefence system for its deployed forcesby 2010, forming part of the alliance’sExtended Air Defence/Theatre Air andMissile Defence (Ead/Tamd) Concept.Feasibility study contracts have beenawarded for 18-month investigations bytwo transatlantic industry teams, whichbegan work in July 2001. Team Janus isled by Lockheed Martin, the othermembers being Astrium, BAE Systems,Eads-LFK, MBDA and TRW. The sec-ond team, led by Science ApplicationsInternational Corp (SAIC), includesBoeing, Diehl, Eads, Britain’s QinetiQand the Dutch company TNO. It isplanned to produce one (or more) NatoStaff Requirement(s) by 2004 with aview to achieving initial operationalcapability (IOC) by 2010.Older Russian SystemsMost of the systems so far discussed havebeen relatively modern developments.However, it should be noted that thereare still some old medium- and long-range Russian Sams in service, whichprovide a market for upgrades and main-tain a degree of effectiveness.For example, the Almaz S-75MVolkhov (SA-2F) is a relatively heavysystem, based on a 2400 kg Fakel-designed radio command-guided missilewith a solid propellant tandem booster,a liquid fuel sustainer motor and with arange of 30 km. The S-75, exportedunder the name Dvina, attained IOCwith Soviet forces in 1958 and was firstemployed operationally over NorthVietnam in 1966. Iraqi SA-2 systems arebelieved to have introduced a longerrange missile in the late 1990s, andrecent reports indicate that Chineseassistance has been provided to upgradethe Iraqi ADS with fibre-optic links,improved radars and boost motors andinfrared terminal guidance seekers.The Almaz S-125 Neva-M (SA-3B) isa much lighter system, using a 950 kgFakel radio command-guided missilewith a solid fuel booster and sustainer.Two rounds (increased to three or fourin later systems) are carried by the sametype of truck that acts as a tractor for thesingle-round SA-1 or SA-2 trailer.Some400 S-125 systems were exported underthe name Pechora to 35 countries,including Cuba, Egypt, India, Iraq,Libya, Peru, Syria and Vietnam.Almaz was part of an industrial con-sortium designated IFIG-OS (InterstateFinancial and Industrial Group – Defen-sive Systems/Oboronitelnye Sistemy),until 23 April 2002, but is now integrat-ed in the Almaz-Antey Defence group.IFIG-OS will from now on be responsi-ble for the joint Russian-Belarus devel-opment of, inter alia, an upgradedPechora-2. The missiles used are theimproved 5V24 (V-600) and the 5V27(V-601),with a redesigned booster usinga new type of propellant that increasesrange to 27 km, a new warhead thatNews of a recent development involving Rheinmetall’s Oer-likon Contraves and Lockheed Martin reached ArmadaInternational too late for inclusion in our last supplementon ‘Land-based Vshorad and Shorad Systems’. The Swiss andAmerican companies have decided to join forces in view of pro-ducing and marketing the Millennium gun. As part of this agree-ment, the revolver cannon-based Millennium turret seen herebeing assembled at Oerlikon Contraves’ last May,will be demonstrated during the US Navy’s ‘Fleet Battle Experi-ment-Juliet’ in July and August. For the purpose of the demon-stration the MillenniumTurret will be fitted to Lockheed Martin’sSea Slice advanced technology high-speed vessel.Besides demon-strating the abilities of the 35 mm, 1000 round-per-minuterevolver cannon and the lethality of the programmable Aheadrounds it can fire, the exercise should also highlight the relativelysimple installation of the turret on an existing ship. Primarily intended as an air defence system, the combination of the air-bursting Ahead munition and the high rate of fire revolver cannon also provides a useful means of defence against sea-skimming anti-ship missiles, fast patrol boats and shore based targets. Each Ahead round violently disperses 152 sharp-edgedtungsten carbide particles. Recent demonstrations have proved that a properly concentrated cloud of such pellets emanatingfrom a burst of eight rounds made it an insurmountable obstacle for an incoming missile. (Armada/EHB)Shorad Late NewsGuidance of the Lockheed Martin Pac-3 is effected by a battery of 180attitude-control rockets in the front fuselage, which work to produce a body-to-body kill. (Armada/RB)
  • 8. Complete Guide55armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guidetriples lethality and an improved radarproximity fuze with greater ECM resist-ance and improved effectiveness againstlow-flying targets. The analogue avion-ics of the original Pechora are replacedby solid-state hardware from theS-300PMU-1 system (discussed later),providing improved reliability and areduction in maintenance. The additionof a thermal imager makes possible pas-sive night engagements.The new systemincludes a 5P73-2M self-propelledlauncher, which is based on the MZKT-8021 chassis. The upgraded UNK-2Mcommand post vehicle can accept targetdata from the basic or modernised P-12(1RL14), P-15 (1RL13), P-18 (1RL131)or P-19 (1RL134) radars.The Pechora-2upgrade programme has been launchedby an Egyptian order worth up to $ 200million and involving 27 companies inRussia and Belarus.An indigenous upgrade has beendeveloped for Poland’s S-125s by theWarsaw Military Academy of Technol-ogy, with emphasis on increased mobil-ity.In this improved system (designatedNewa-SC), a quadruple SA-3 launcheris mounted on a modified T-55 chassis,and the SNR-125M tracking radar,equipped with a licence-producedThales IFF interrogator, is mounted ona Maz-543 truck, formerly used as anR-300 (Scud) launcher.In June 2001, it was announced thatthere would be a series of joint exercis-es by the United Air Defence System(UADS) of the Commonwealth ofIndependent States (a service formedin 1995), represented by units fromArmenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russiaand Tajikistan. The exercises were toinclude live firings of the GrushinS-200V (SA-5) and Almaz S-300P (SA-10). On 4 October 2001, a Tu-154 ofSibir Airlines, while en route from TelAviv to its base at Novosibirsk, crashedinto the Black Sea with the loss of 78lives, evidently having been shot downby a stray Ukrainian S-200 fired fromOpuk in the Crimea.Although generally credited toGrushin, the S-200 Angara (SA-5) wasdeveloped by Almaz. It is believed thatit was deployed as a long-range airdefence system for Leningrad andTallinn (Estonia) in the early 1960s,andthat the version delivered to Syria afterthe 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanonwas an anti-radiation missile, devel-oped to destroy AEW&C aircraft suchas the E-2C.A similar system deployedin Eastern Europe in 1985 is thought tohave been intended as a counter to theNato E-3 Awacs, deliveries of whichbegan in 1982. The S-200 is a massiveweapon, weighing around 7000 kg withfour wrap-around boost motors andproviding a firing range in the region of250 km. It has command guidance forthe mid-course phase, and active orpassive radar for terminal homing.S-300PIn their late-1960s planning for next-generation long-range air defences, theSoviets decided to develop threesystems to suit fixed, battlefront anmaritime applications.The system devel-opped for the Air Defence Forces toprotect fixed targets was the wheeledvehicle Almaz S-300P (SA-10).The initial production system wasbuilt as both the trailer-mounted towedS-300PT and the self-propelled S-300PS.Deliveries began in 1978, and IOC wasattained in 1980.Around 100 S-300P airdefence sites were constructed in theSoviet Union, primarily to protect com-mand and control centres and industrialcomplexes. The S-300P employed thevertically launched, 1450 kg command-guided Fakel 5V55K, a single-stagesolid propellant missile that providedan outward range of approximately50 km. The missile’s standard warheadwas a 100 kg fragmentation device, buta low-yield tactical nuclear warheadwas also available.A major advancement was providedby the introduction in the mid-1980s ofthe Fakel 5V55R missile with semi-active radar guidance and a maximumrange of 75 km. The modified systemwas accordingly redesignated S-300PM(SA-10B). In 1994, at least oneS-300PM system was obtained by theUS Army for testing.As a result of the US Army’s use ofthe Raytheon Patriot to intercept IraqiScud ballistic missiles during the 1991Gulf War, Russia evaluated theS-300PM against theatre ballistic mis-siles. Some improvements were subse-quently introduced and it was claimedthat the upgraded S-300PMU (SA-10C)is superior to Patriot in the ATBM con-text.The principal change was the devel-opment of the Fakel 5V55U missile, inwhich the normal concept of semi-activeradar guidance is replaced by a track-via-missile system, as pioneered byPatriot. In essence, the target radarreflections received by the missile aredata-linked to the ground for processingby a more sophisticated computer.Max-Test firing of the earlier (and stillcurrent) Patriot Pac-2 missile, asused by the US Army during theGulf War to intercept Iraqi Scudballistic missiles. (Raytheon)A German Air Force Patriot launch unit jacked up on outriggers. Germany hasstated an intention to buy 200 Pac-3 rounds and 13 launcher modificationkits. (Armada/RB)
  • 9. Complete Guide56 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guideimum effective range was simultaneous-ly increased to 90 km.The S-300PMU1 (SA-10D, report-edly now redesignated SA-20) is theprincipal version currently offered forinternational sales by Rosoboronex-port. Based on the new Fakel 48N6Emissile with a 143 kg warhead, it pro-vides a maximum firing range of 150km. The S-300PMU1 may well havebeen the model ordered by China in1994 and redesignated HQ-9. It isbelieved that at least 100 missiles weredelivered and deployed around Beijing.Reports indicate that there have beendiscussions of licence-production inChina of a later model under the desig-nation HQ-10 or HQ-15.The S-300PMU1 was demonstratedsuccessfully at Idex ‘93, and was thesubject of a $ 437 million Greek Cypriotcontract that was signed in January1996. Following threats from Turkey todestroy the missiles by air strikes at theport of delivery, and intense diplomaticpressure from the United States, theCypriot missiles were installed 600 kmaway in Crete, where they pose a threatto no one. In 1995, India began negoti-ating to buy the S-300PMU1. Somesources indicate that this led to a $ onebillion purchase of six batteries with 48missiles each, deliveries beginning inJune 1996. Iran has been discussing thepurchase of the S-300PMU1 since 2001.Other potential customers includeLibya and Syria, although the USwould certainly oppose such sales.In mid-2001 there was a report thatIsrael, fearing that neighbouring Arabcountries would acquire theS-300PMU1 system, had assisted Croat-ia financially in acquiring what eventu-ated as an incomplete system for use inits struggle for independence from theFederal Republic of Yugoslavia. Someradar elements of the system were deliv-ered to Croatia by air in late 1994, andIsrael obtained key components thatallowed Rafael and IMI to developcountermeasures, including theImproved Tactical Air-LaunchedDecoy. The US Air Force director ofrequirements, Major General ‘Dan’Leaf, is reported as having said that theservice may face “an adversary with SA-20-class capabilities before 2010”.In Russian service, an S-300PMU1regiment consists of three batteries andan 83M6E control centre, linked to a64N6E three-dimensional long-rangesearch radar, which can track up to 100targets at up to 300 km range. The64N6E was developed by the MeasuringInstruments Research Institute (NIIIP)at Novosibirsk. The control centre mayalso be linked to a 36D6 surveillanceradar. A typical battery has a 30N6E1illumination and guidance radar andeight (although some batteries havetwelve) 5P85ME/SE launchers, eachwith four ready-to-fire 48N6E missiles.The battery can simultaneously engageup to six aircraft targets, guiding up totwelve missiles. It can also engage air-borne targets as high as 88,600 ft and aslow as 33 ft.It can defend against theatreballistic missiles with a speed of up to2800 metres/sec, providing intercepts atup to an altitude of 82,000 ft and out toa range of 40 km. Another system men-tioned in the context of the S-300PMUseries is the Lianozovo Electromechan-ical Plant (Lemz) 96L6E low-altitudesearch and track radar and commandpost. Mounted on a Maz-7930 chassis,the phased array antenna operates byrotating mechanically in azimuth, whilethree beams scan 60 degrees in eleva-tion. The 96L6E radar has a range of300 km and can automatically track upto 100 targets.The S-300PMU2 (SA-20 Follow-On) was first tested in 1995 and wasunveiled at Maks ‘97. It introduced anew 3D radar (Lira 96L6E) and theimproved Fakel 48N6E2 Favorit mis-sile. This new weapon weighs 1800 kgand carries a 145 kg warhead that isoptimised for destroying ballistic mis-siles. It has a range of 200 km and amaximum altitude of 88,600 ft. In early2001, it was stated that air defences inthe Moscow district would be shortlyupgraded by means of the Favorit-Smissile system.There have been references to anS-300PMU3, which may be theS-300PMU2 upgraded with the missilesfrom the S-400 Triumph system. Thelatter was test-fired at the KapustinYarrange in early 1999. It appears to usemuch smaller missiles: the 300 kg9M96E with a range of 40 km, and the400 kg 9M96E2 with a range of 120 km.The launcher can accommodate 16 mis-siles. This new weapon series has side-acting jets for increased manoeuvrabil-ity and a directional fragmentationwarhead. The lighter version is report-The current USArmy Patriotfire unit, witheight launchingstations, eachwith fourmissiles. Thesystem’sdeploymentrequires specialtransports suchas the C-5 orthe C-17.(Raytheon)The Almaz S-300PMU1 (SA-20) with Fakel 48N6E missiles is the principalexport version of the series originally developed for the Soviet Union’s AirDefence Force. (Armada/YL)
  • 10. Complete Guide57armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guideed to use active radar guidance whilethe longer-range model can use eitheractive or passive radar homing. Therehave been suggestions that the 9M96series will later be replaced by a newmissile with a range of up to 400 km. Inearly 2001, when the S-400 was stillgoing through field trials, it wasannounced that one of the Moscow dis-trict air defence units was to beequipped with the Triumph system, butthat large-scale deliveries would beginonly after 2007.There have also been some reportsof an S-500 project as an upgradedS-400,capable of engaging ballistic mis-siles with a range of up to 3500 km.However, the high development cost ofthe S-500 is said to be beyond Russia’smeans, leading to a proposal that itshould proceed as a joint programmewith America.S-300VWhereas the Almaz/IFIG-OS S-300Pseries was developed for the AirDefence Forces to protect fixed installa-tions, the S-300V system was developedby Niemi (later Antey) for the Army toprovide defence over the battle area. Itwas therefore based on tracked (ratherthan wheeled) vehicles, and – unlike theS-300P – it was required from the outsetto have some capability against theatreballistic missiles.The S-300V was designed to employtwo types of missile, both designed byNovator. The Type I or 9M82 (SA-12B)was developed for use against theatreballistic missiles with speeds up to 3000metres/sec and docile aircraft targets atranges up to 100 km, while the muchlighter and shorter Type II or 9M83(SA-12A), which entered service in1986, was intended to deal withmanoeuvring (8.0 G) targets at up to 75km. Both designs are two-stage missileswith a largely common second stage,butdifferent tandem boost motors.The war-head weight is approximately 150 kg inboth cases,but theType I has larger frag-ments for enhanced effectivenessagainst ballistic missiles.Both have iner-tial mid-course guidance with data-linked target updates and semi-activeradar terminal homing.The two types ofTEL are basically similar, but the 9A82carries two 9M82 missiles, while the9A83 carries four of the smaller 9M83s.In the case of the 9A82, the commandguidance radar is mounted over the cab,providing 90-degree cover on either sidein azimuth and 100 degrees in elevation.For the 9A83, the antenna is mountedon a folding mast, providing full hemi-spherical cover.At the heart of an S-300V regimentis a 9S457M command station, whichcan simultaneously engage 24 aircrafttargets out of 200 detected and 70tracked, guiding up to 48 missilesagainst them. It can control up to fourbatteries, located ten kilometres dis-tant.The command post is fed with tar-get data from a 9S15MTZ surveillanceradar (developed by NIIIP), which candetect aircraft out to 320 km. Its anten-na sweeps through 360 degrees inazimuth in less than nine seconds, cov-ering 55 degrees in elevation. Its inputsare augmented by those from a 9S19MEsector-scan radar, with a phased-arrayantenna producing a beam that movesthrough 75 degrees in elevation and 60degrees in azimuth, illuminating anytarget once per second. It can track 20targets out to 175 km and can identifythree jammers.Each battery has a 9S32-1 phased-array missile guidance radar, which cantrack up to twelve aircraft and serve upto six Tels (typically two 9A82s and four9A83s) and six 9A84/9A85 launcher/loader vehicles, which have cranes totransfer their missiles, and lack theradars of the Tels. Rosoboronexportgives a single-shot kill probability of 70These vehicles of the Antey S-300V system carry the 9S32-1 guidance radar(left), two 9M82 (Type I) missiles (centre), and four 9M83 (Type II) missiles(right). (Armada/YL)The Israel Aircraft Industries Arrow II anti-ballistic missile system, as presentedat the Paris Air Show of 2001, showing one of the two-stage missiles out of itscanister. (Armada/RB)
  • 11. Complete Guide58 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guideto 90 per cent against airborne targetsand 40 to 70 per cent against ballisticmissiles.Efforts to sell the S-300V system toKuwait,South Korea and the UAE havebeen unsuccessful, but reports suggestthat India is now negotiating the pur-chase or lease of a small number ofS-300V systems. It is believed that Rus-sia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and theUkraine all have the system, but thatonly Russia has the Type I missile.Therehave been unconfirmed reports of anHQ-18 Chinese copy of the S-300V.After the 1991 Gulf War the Type I wastested successfully against modifiedMakeyev 9K72 (SS-1C Scud-Bs) with arange of 600 km, to simulate Iraq’s AlHussein missile.Antey’s general design-er has stated that two S-300V batterieswere sold to a small US company in late1994, but that only a few missiles and intercept airborne early warning andstand-off jamming aircraft. Someobservers are of the belief that China isplanning to produce the S-300PMU1under licence, retaining the HQ-9 des-ignation of missiles delivered directlyfrom Russia.Going BallisticSome of the systems so far describedhave an anti-ballistic missile (ABM)capability in addition to their originalobjective of defending against airbornethreats. However, other missile systemshave been designed from the outsetspecifically for the ABM role.The 1972 ABM Treaty betweenAmerica and the Soviet Union restrict-ed each side to a single 100-weaponpoint defence system. America brieflyinstalled the Safeguard system withSpartan and Sprint nuclear-tipped mis-siles to defend an ICBM site near GrandForks, North Dakota. The unit wasdecommissioned in 1976, partly due toconcern over the effects of the warheadsexploding over US territory.In 1968, the Soviet Union hadinstalled the 64-silo ABM-1 system atfour sites around Moscow, using SH-01Galosh missiles.This was replaced in the1980s by the ABM-3 or A-135 MoscowIndustrial Area ABM Defense Systemat seven sites, using 36 exo-atmosphericthree-stage Vympel 51T6/SH-11 Gor-gon (Russian name Baton) and 64quick-reaction two-stage Vympel53T6/SH-08 Gazelle endo-atmosphericmissiles in combination with newphased-array radars. Both missile typesare silo-fired and equipped with solidfuel motors. They initially had nuclearwarheads (550 and ten kilotons respec-tively), but in 1997-98 the A-135 systemwas stood down briefly, reportedly sothe nuclear devices could be replaced byconventional warheads.ArrowThe third nation to field an ABM sys-tem was Israel, whose first IAI ArrowII battery was declared operational inOctober 2000. A second battery wasformed hastily in September 2001, inThe EL/M-2080 ‘Green Pine’ fire control radar for Israel’s Arrow WeaponSystem was developed by the Elta division of IAI. The system becameoperational in October 2000. (IAI/Elta)Both Eads/LFK (shown here) and BGT are involved in studies of HFK(Hyperschall-Flugkörper) projectiles, which may form the basis for futuremedium-range Sams. (Armada/RB)“The 1972 ABM Treatybetween America and theSoviet Union restrictedeach side to a single100-weapon pointdefence system.”launchers were delivered, not thephased-array sector-scan radar.In marketing the S-300V in competi-tion with the Patriot with Pac-3missiles, it is claimed that the Russiansystem defends a larger area (2000 vs.1200 square kilometres) and isdeployed more quickly (5 vs. 30 min-utes).Conversely,it is admitted that thePac-3 missile has a longer range againstaircraft (150 vs. 100 km).The S-300VM represents a majorupgrade, with 9M82M and 9M83M mis-siles and the improved 9S15M2 surveil-lance and 9S19M sector-scan radar. Themissiles have larger boosters, givingincreased peak speeds and manoeuvra-bility (up from 20 to 30 G).The range ofthe 9M82M is 200 km, and the defendedarea is increased to 2500 square kilome-tres.The export version of the S-300VMis designated Antey-2500.ChinaChina’s only long-range air defencemissile is thought to be the FT-2000,with a range of 100 km and a launchweight of 1300 kg. Marketed by theChina National Precision MachineryImport & Export Company(CNPMIEC), the FT-2000 is a passiveradar homing weapon, developed to
  • 12. Complete Guide59armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guidethe light of the possibility of US strikesagainst certain Arab countries. A thirdbattery is to be fielded before 2010.Israeli work on the Arrow WeaponSystem (AWS) to defend against TBMsbegan in 1986 and was accelerated afterthe 1991 Gulf War, with America payingroughly half the cost of what is estimat-ed to be a $ 2.2 billion programme. Thebasic elements of the AWS are the two-stage Arrow II missile, produced by theProgramme), which is intended to dealwith manoeuvring warheads, decoysand specifically Iran’s Shahab-4. Thelatter, having a range of 2000 km, is amuch faster target than the 1000 kmShahab-3,which the presentArrow II isintended to defend against.Asip devel-opment began in 2000 and should becompleted around 2007.In an effort to reduce missile costand increase production rate, IAIbegan discussions on possible co-pro-duction with US contractors in early2000. Boeing is the favoured partner;although in January 2001 that companyannounced that discussions had beenput on hold pending the resolution oftechnology transfer issues. In Marchthis year,Turkey began fresh talks withIsrael about the possible procurementof the AWS. India and South Korea arealso reported to be interested.Son of Star WarsAmerica’s efforts to develop a systemfor defence against ballistic missilesbegan in 1983 with President Reagan’sStrategic Defense Initiative (SDI).Thisrelied on space-based sensors andweapons, hence SDI was informallydubbed ‘Star Wars’. However, theconcept of Global Protection AgainstLimited Strikes (Gpals) proved over-This artist’s impression illustrates a ballistic missile defence scenario underconsideration by Eads, with satellite-based sensors guiding a kill vehicle.(Eads – Launch Vehicles)«America’s efforts todevelop a system fordefence against ballisticmissiles began in 1983 withPresident Reagan’s StrategicDefense Initiative (SDI).»Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the US Army/LockheedMartin Theater High Altitude Area Defense (Thaad) system is due to begin in2003. (Lockheed Martin)MLM Division of IAI, the Elta EL/M-2080 Green Pine L-band fire controlradar (FCR), and the IAI/MLM Hazel-nut Tree launch control centre (LCC).IAI is responsible for the Tel, a towedwheeled vehicle with six vertically-launched missiles, housed in a cluster ofsealed canisters.Unlike the Pac-3, the Arrow II is atwo-stage,high endo-atmospheric area-coverage missile with a limited shoot-look-shoot capability. It has thrust-vec-tor control and a gimbal-mountedfragmentation warhead.The next stage of development is theAsip (Arrow Systems Improvement
  • 13. Complete Guide60 armada INTERNATIONAL 4/2002Complete Guideambitious, and the Ballistic MissileDefense Organisation (BMDO, recent-ly renamed the Missile Defense Agencyor MDA) switched its attention totheatre BMD and focused its efforts ondeveloping the technology for a Nation-al Missile Defense (NMD) system thatrequires no space-based missiles.Effective defence relies on a multi-phase approach, combining systems todestroy attacking missiles in the boost,mid-course and terminal phases.Amer-ica’s next ground-based BMD systemto enter service may well be the USArmy’s Theater High Altitude AreaDefense (Thaad), for which LockheedMartin Missiles and Fire Control isprime contractor. The project defini-tion and risk-reduction phase began in1995, and the engineering and manu-facturing development (EMD) phase isdue to begin in 2003, followed by theresumption of flight tests in 2004, low-rate initial production of up to 40 mis-siles per year around 2006 and full-rateproduction of up to 320 missiles peryear from 2008. A test firing in August1999 provided the first successful exo-atmospheric intercept, the target beingdestroyed at over 100 km altitude.Thaad, described as the world’s firstendo/exo-atmospheric system,will pro-vide much higher intercepts and willcover a far larger area than the Patriotpoint defence system.A truck-mountedsystem, Thaad is designed to be easilydeployed, only the launcher requiringthe outsize hold of a C-141, C-17 orC-5, while all other modules will fit in aC-130. The US Army is particularlyinterested in high endo-atmospheric(40 to 100 km) intercepts, where the airis so thin that the target cannotmanoeuvre effectively, but thickenough for an infrared sensor to dis-criminate the warhead from associateddecoys.The baseline C-1 Thaad is to befielded in FY2007,and is expected to besuperseded by the improved C-2 with amore powerful Raytheon radar fromFY2012.The US Army plans to acquirearound 1250 Thaad missiles.President Clinton’s National MissileDefense (NMD) Act of 1995 paved theway for the US to withdraw from the1972 ABM Treaty in June 2002 and todevelop a ground-based interceptor(GBI), which, in combination withadvanced ground- and space-basedsensors, may at some stage provide mid-course protection for America, its alliesand deployed forces against a limitednumber of ballistic missiles (but not thethousands available to Russia). Boeingis the prime contractor in the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) pro-gramme, which is expected to costaround $ 64 billion by 2015. Raytheon isresponsible for its exo-atmospheric KillVehicle (EKV), and TRW supplies thecommand and control system.The EKV is launched by a two-stagebooster adapted from a decommissionedMinuteman ICBM. It is guided initiallyby a ground-based X-band radar, but forthe terminal phase employs on-boardvisual and dual infrared sensors. Lock-heed Martin and Orbital Sciences aredesigning alternative boosters,and a sur-rogate EKV design is under considera-tion. Other options include a MultipleMiniature Kill Vehicle (MMKV), forwhich Schafer was awarded a develop-ment and demonstration contract in Jan-uary 2002.In the first deployment phase (Cap I)of the GBI programme, ten missiles areto be installed at Fort Greely, Alaska,which may later become the opera-tional command centre. In a worst-casescenario (presumably meaning thatNorth Korea posed a serious threat tothe US), Fort Greely could go opera-tional as soon as 2004.Cap II is plannedto deploy 100 missiles by 2007, leadingto an eventual Cap III total of 250 mis-siles at multiple US sites.The first successful GBI test firingtook place in October 1999, and thefourth success (in six attempts)occurred in March 2002, when an EKVlaunched from Kwajalein Atoll in theMarshall Islands destroyed the simulat-ed warhead of a Minuteman fired fromVandenbergAFB in California,7700 kmaway. The intercept took place at analtitude of over 220 km. aVolume 26, No. 4, August/September 2002ARMADA INTERNATIONALis published bimonthly in Zurich, Switzerland.Copyright 2002 by Internationale Armada Aktien-gesellschaft,Aeulestrasse 5, FL-9490 Vaduz,Principality of LiechtensteinHead Office: ARMADA INTERNATIONALThurgauerstrasse 39, CH-8050 Zurich/SwitzerlandPhone: (+41 1) 308 50 50, Fax: (+41 1) 308 50 55e-mail: mail@armada.chWeb Site: www.armada.chPublisher: Caroline SchweglerPublishing Director: Peter StierlinEditor-in-Chief: Eric H. BiassEditor: Johnny KegglerArt Work: Johnny KegglerRegular Contributors: RoyBraybrook, Doug Richardson,Brian WaltersAdministration: Thomas Schneider, Pia KraftAdvertising offices:Austria,Finland,Germany,Scandinavia,Switzerland,SpainHans-Ruedi Fröhlich, Franz-Rittmeyer-Weg 5,CH-6300 Zug/SwitzerlandPhone:(+4141)760 72 78, Fax:(+4141)760 72 79e-mail: fairspace@topweb.chFrance, Belgium,The Netherlands, LuxemburgPeter Stierlin,Thurgauerstrasse 39, CH-8050 ZurichContact Head OfficeIsrael Commercial News Distribution, David Kreizelman,PO Box 51, Kfar Bin Nun 99780;Phone/Fax: (08) 9 797 008, e-mail: Kingdom Aerospace Media, Michael Elmes,Flatford Lane, East Bergholt, Colchester CO7 6UJ, EnglandPhone: +44 (0) 1206 299211, Fax: +44 (0) 1206 299212e-mail: of Independent States (CIS)LAGUK Co. Ltd.,Yuri Laskin, Novoriazanskaya Street 31/7,App. 96, RF-107060 Moscow, Russian Federation; Phone:(+7 095) 912 1346, Fax: (+7 095) 912 1260e-mail: ylarm-lml@mtu-net.ruWestern USA – West of the Mississippi RiverDiane Stevenson,810 Val Sereno DriveOlivenhain, CA 92024,Phone:(858) 759 3557,Fax:(858) 759 3552e-mail: dianestevenson@cox.netEastern USA – East of the Mississippi RiverMargie Brown & Associates, Margie Brown,4775 Mallard Court,Warrenton,Virginia 20187-2500Phone: (540) 341 7581, Fax: (540) 341 7582,e-mail: margiespub@erols.comAll other countries: contact the Head Office.Annual subscription rates: Europe: SFr. 132 + 24 (post)Overseas: US$ 132 + 24 (post)Controlled circulation: 21 449,certified by ABC/WEMF, valid from13 June 2001Printed by Karl Schwegler AG, CH-8050 ZurichISO 9002 certifiedISSN: 0252-9793 USPS 574450The centrepiece of America’s Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)programme is the Raytheon exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV), guided byvisual and dual infrared sensors. (Raytheon)ABC