A single task can be used by many users in the system for example a Time sheet Entry.By selecting roles , Users can be grouped by the interactions they have in the system, managers, employees, contractors.
Involve all possible stake holders together to develop user rolesUse Index Cards to write down roles.Identify usage by the roles to categorize. For example mobile searcher, geographic searcher, keyword searcher belong to same category whereas advertiser is not.
Come a group and discuss your choices.
Incomplete requirements makes you think If I could encourage people to “think out of the box”, then there is a chance of getting beyond essential requirements.When teams work with User stories they learn pretty quickly to identify the obvious requirements, however building for current market needs will leave the product vulnerable for low-cost, disruptive attacks.
Six MinutesWhat were the User Stories Like?How did this experience compare to previous experiences ?Was this a creative experience ?How can we improve Out of the box thinking in writing User Stories ?
The product may be static but our relationship to it changes based on how we use it.Interaction context switching happens based on lots of factors including when, where, age, experience etc.One of the most used change in context is when, aka time of the day.
user action system response insert card in ATM read card request PIN enter PIN verify PIN display option menu select option display account menu select account prompt for amount enter amount display amount confirm amount return card take card dispense cash if available
Most teams try to split stories by architectural boundaries such as one for UI, one for DB, one for Backend, even though these stories are small they fail the Independent and Valuable step
Constituents & ContextBusiness Goals Drive Constituencies and Context. Business Goals: • Improve Click Rate. • Motivate Sale of Digital Products. • Accelerate Mobile Search Capability. • Establish A/B Testing in Design. User Constituencies: • Advertiser. • Housewife. • Mobile User. • ….. Usage Contexts: • Desktop. • Laptop on Airplane. • iPad. • ….. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 2
Understand UseTo design a product we need to Understand Use. User Type Actor User Role Persona User Goal What am I trying to accomplish with the product ? What will make me happy when using the product ? User Context When will I use the product ? Where will I be at that time ? What other thing I may be doing when I Use the product ? R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 3
User Roles User Roles are a best choice for aggregating individual users of a system. A User Role reflects the common interactions of a set of users have in the system. User Roles allow stories to be written with multiple perspectives. Map Searcher, Keyword Searcher, Walk-In User, Mobile User, Category Searcher, Google User, Advertiser, monitor. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 4
Build User Roles Brainstorm Roles. Categorize them on broad system boundaries. Find overlap between roles within a category and consolidate. Identify individual attributes for the roles and record them. Map Searcher, Keyword Searcher, Mobile User, Category Searcher, , Advertiser,. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 5
Long , Long, Ago …there was a swamp in central valley and adiverse group of people had different ideason how to use the land. One Afternoon agroup of interested folks came together totalk about their ideas about what to do withthe land, but… • Who are these people ? • Why do they care about this swamp ? Your Job in Next 10 minutes is to find those people and write them down. Also write what is their motivation to come together ? R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 6
PersonasAlan Cooper, The Inmates are Running the Asylum. Deep Dive into User Roles. Idea is, if you want effective products then design it for specific user. Paint a persona with real names, personalities, motivations and even a face. „Mary Saver‟ works in AT&T as a sales manager. She is 35 years old married with two kids, her husband is a small business owner. She is a savvy technology user and loves her iPhone. She is big on finding deals and uses social networking to find deals and also shares deals with her network. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 7
Long , Long, Ago ……2now that you know who came together todiscuss the land use, develop personasthat match the roles and motivation youidentified in the first step. (10 mins) Paint a vivid picture of the user roles you have identified, make them as personalized as possible. Avoid detailing how they will use the land, instead focus on their intentions, motivations and general behavior. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 8
Avoiding Tunnel Vision Take a look at the requirements of Dex Learning Center (2 mins). You know they are incomplete , but the problem is not knowing how they are incomplete. Need to go beyond obviousness to create resilient products. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 9
Extreme Personas Look at the requirements of DLC (2 mins). Take Five Index Cards and write down names of five personas that are popular. Select a mix of Extreme Personalities (60 seconds). When Complete Pass the Index Cards to the person on your right. Write down the feature this Persona will want from the system. (4 mins). Pass the cards to the person on your right. Now write why this feature would be valuable to this persona. (6 mins) Discuss Results (6 mins) R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 10
Interaction Context Interaction Context is a an abstract place in your system that supports number of User tasks (Jeff Patton, Design Thinking) Normally when the goal of the user changes then an interaction context switching happens. Starting Point: give the user a clear starting point for starting a search for businesses in the site. Search Return: Evaluation: help the user decide if the searched for items were the items she was looking for or an easy way to reinitiate the search if not. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 11
Time of the Day Imagine you are the Users of DLC. In pairs walk over to the Wall Board with Time Frames written down. At each time frame in the wall board, take an index card and write down a DLC persona, Write, what do you imagine this persona needs from the DLC system on that time, Write, what activities they might be doing on that time frame and stick it to the wall. Go to each time frame in the wall board and repeat the exercise. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 12
Acceptance Criteria Be explicit “The system will display the date.” … In what format? Is “2006, April 1st” acceptable? Provide examples for clarity “The system date will be displayed in the format 1/4/06” List any assumptions you made. Specify your expectations of what should be done loudly. “The category selection should have a default.” Also be clear about what the system is not expected to do “User Registration is not expected at this time.” R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 13
Essential Use Case (Constantine & Lockwood)An Essential Use Case is a good method to map AcceptanceCriteria.A use case focusing on the interactionbetween user and systemAvoid describing what the userspecifically does by focusing on theuser‟s intentionDetermine the system responsibilitiesbased on user goals R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 14
Essential Use Case (Constantine & Lockwood)An Essential Use Case is a good method to map AcceptanceCriteria. As a casual browser I want to find the most reviewed restaurant for a particular category so that I can get more information to make a reservation. Write an Essential Use Case for this User Story. (10 minutes) Exchange your Essential Use Case within your group and write Acceptance Criteria from the Use Case. (10 mins) R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 15
Splitting StoriesA story that is difficult to estimate is a good candidate for splitting.1. Try to find splits that produce value.2.. Try for symmetrical splits that gives stories that are equal and small.3.. Splitting stories is a skill that is developed through experience.4.Identifying patterns is a key skill for splitting stories. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 16
Splitting StoriesA story that is difficult to estimate is a good candidate for splitting.1. Most teams try to split stories by architectural boundaries such as one for UI, one for DB, one for Backend, even though these stories are small they fail the Independent and Valuable step. 1 2 3 UI UI UI APP APP APP DB DB DB R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 17
Splitting StoriesA story that is difficult to estimate is a good candidate for splitting. Split on Work flow stepsAs a content manager, I can publish a news story to the corporate website. …I can publish a news story directly to the corporate website. …I can publish a news story with editor review. …I can publish a news story with legal review. …I can view a news story on a staging site. …I can publish a news story from the staging site to production. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 18
Splitting StoriesA story that is difficult to estimate is a good candidate for splitting. Split on CRUD boundaries As a user, I can manage my account. …I can sign up for an account. …I can edit my account settings. …I can cancel my account. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 19
Splitting StoriesA story that is difficult to estimate is a good candidate for splitting. Split on Architectural Spikes aka not knowing the implementation. In the “investigate” story, the acceptance criteria should be questions you need answered. Do just enough investigation to answer the questions and stop.. As a user, I can pay by credit card. Investigate credit card processing. Implement credit card processing. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 20
Splitting Stories - PitfallsSome times small stories have their own problems. 1. Small Stories stop making sense individually and kill conversations. 2. The „so that…‟ part becomes meaningless. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 21
Find the Patterns Match the Stories to the Patterns (10 mins) I want to search for jobs I am interested in. I want to manage my business profile. I can search for a business based on geo-location. I want to register using my social profile. I can search for businesses in categories. Workflow Data Simple/ CRUD Spike Steps Entry Complex1. Take five Index Cards and write the stories in them2. Now match the Stories to Work flow patterns and write them in the Index Card.3. Walk to the Wall Board and Stick your Stories to the Patterns that you have chosen R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 22
SEE YOU Q&A Thank You @tekzenpdm tekzenpdm.blogspot.comCredits:User Stories Applied for Agile Product Development, Mike CohnDesign Thinking, Jeff PattonLook Forward Consulting, Carlton Nettleton.. R. Anantha Narayanan, CSPO, CSP 23