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  • Vygotsky was a Russian developmentalists in the 1920’s and 30’s when Piaget was formulating his theory. Vygotsky dies at 38 never completing his work. He stated that 1) cognitive growth occurs in a sociocultural context that influences the form that it takes, and 2) many of a child’s most noteworthy skills evolve from social interactions with parents, teachers, and other skilled elders.
  • In many cultures, children do not learn by going to school with other children, nor do their parents formally teach such lessons as weaving and hunting, instead they learn through guided participation. This is a kind of “apprenticeship in thinking.” Context-independent learning is asking children question that adults already know the answers to, learning and discussing things that have no immediate relevance-knowledge for knowledge’s sake. The idea of an apprenticeship or guided participation may seem reasonable in cultures where children are integrated early into the daily activities of adult life, such as the agrarian Mayans of Guatemala and Mexico, or the !Kung of Africa whose hunting-and-gathering lifestyle has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years.
  • Vygotsky agreed with Piaget that the child’s earliest thinking is prelinguistic and that early language often reflects what the child already knows. However, he argued that thought and language eventually merge and that many of the nonsocial utterances that Piaget called “egocentric” actually illustrate the transition from prelinguistic to verbal reasoning. He termed it private speech.
  • Example:Young children’s early memory capabilities are limited by biological constraints to the images and impressions they can produce. However, each culture provides its children with tools of intellectual adaptation, which is Vygotsky’s term for methods of thinking and problem-solving strategies that children internalize from their interactions with more competent members of society.
  • Vygotsky agreed with Piaget that young children are curious explorers who are actively involved in learning and discovering new principles. However, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that many of the truly important discoveries that children make are the result of dialogues that occur between a skillful tutor who models the activity and transmits verbal instruction and a novice learner who seeks to understand the tutors instruction.
  • Vygotsky

    1. 1. 1-TRUE (pg 218) 2-TRUE (219) 3- FALSE (220) 4- FALSE (222) 5- FALSE (223) 6- FALSE (224) 7-TRUE (225) 8- TRUE (226) 9- FALSE (228) 10- FALSE (232)
    2. 2. How Young Children Think: Piaget and Vygotsky • Piaget—Swiss developmentalist – believed young children were limited by their egocentric perspective • egocentrism—Piaget’s term for type of centration in which child sees world solely from his/her personal perspective • Vygotsky—Russian developmentalist – recognized how child’s social/cultural context helps shape his/her cognitive development Piaget—biological development establishes readiness for qualitative change; disequilibrium sets up the need for adaptation Vygotsky—social interaction establishes the basis for learning; social and cultural tools and signs serve as mediators for learning
    3. 3. Vygotsky’s View on Preschool Cognitive Development Lev Vygotsky proposed that the focus on cognitive development should be on a child’s social and cultural world, as opposed to the Piagetian approach, which concentrates on individual performance. • Born in Russia to Jewish parents. • 1924 started working on developmental psychology, education and psychopathology. • In his work, drew on many concepts in the work of anthropologists, psychologists and sociologists. • His work remained unknown in the west for decades, until the Cold War ended. Lev Vygotsky developed the sociocultural theory of cognitive development.
    4. 4. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective • Sociocultural theory states that: – Cognitive development occurs in a sociocultural context that influences the form it takes – Most of a child’s cognitive skills evolve from social interactions with parents, teachers, and other more competent associates
    5. 5. An Overview of Vygotsky’sTheory • Implications for Education: Vygotsky – Lev Vygotsky was a Russian developmental psychologist who thought that education needed to meet children at their own level. • He believed that the use of the symbolic system of language allowed humans to influence others and control our own behavior. • Education needs to utilize this feature of language and take into account the child’s level of cognitive maturity. • He proposed the existence of a zone of proximal development, which is the distance between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance from others.
    6. 6. Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices • One Theory – theory-theory—Gopnik’s term for the idea that children attempt to construct a theory to explain everything they see and hear His theory has its roots in the Marxist theory of dialectical materialism (i. e., historical changes in society and material life produce changes in human nature.)
    7. 7. 1. Social Cognition • The social cognition model claims that culture is the most important determinant of individual development. Humans are the only species with a culture and every human child grows in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child’s learning development is affected by the culture in which he/she is raised. • Vygotsky believed that the lifelong process of development was dependent on social interaction and that social learning leads to cognitive development.
    8. 8. 2. Sociocultural nature of development • Children's psychological development happens within social interactions. • Culture makes 2 contributions to a child's intellectual development: – through culture children acquire much of the content of their thinking and their knowledge. – the surrounding culture provides children with the processes or means of their thinking, the tools of intellectual adaptation. • According to this model, culture teaches children both what to think and how to think.
    9. 9. • Children do not strive alone; their efforts are embedded in social context – parents guide young children’s cognitive growth in many ways • present new challenges for learning • offer assistance and instruction • encourage interest and motivation Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices, cont.
    10. 10. • Apprentice in thinking—child whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society • Guided participation—process by which young children, with the help of mentors, learn to think by having social experiences and by exploring their universe Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices, cont.
    11. 11. Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation: – guided participation, adult-child interactions in which children’s cognitions and modes of thinking are shaped as they participate with or observe adults engaged in culturally relevant activities. – Our culture is one that uses what Vygotsky termed context-independent learning
    12. 12. How to Solve a Puzzle • Guidance and motivation – structure task to make solution more attainable – provide motivation • Guided participation – partners (tutor and child) interact – tutor sensitive and responsive to needs of child – eventually, because of such mutuality, child able to succeed independently ABA Scaffolding: changing level of support by adjusting amount of guidance given
    13. 13. Scaffolding • Scaffolding—sensitive structuring of child’s participation in learning encounters • Zone of proximal development (ZPD)— skills too difficult for child to perform alone but that can be performed with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children – lower limit of ZPD can be reached independently – upper limit of ZPD can be reached with assistance – ZPD is a measure of learning potential The ZPD bridges theThe ZPD bridges the gap betweengap between what iswhat is knownknown andand what canwhat can be knownbe known..
    14. 14. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) The level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task without assistance. Zone of Proximal Development: range of tasks too difficult to master alone-but can be learned with guidance
    15. 15. Zzzzzozzo cccccccc CHILD DOES ALONE CHILD CANNOT DO Scaffolding ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT CHILD DOES WITH GUIDANCE teachers technology parents child care workers media peers
    16. 16. THEREFORE The job of the teacher is…. to provide activities within each child’s Zone of Proximal Development.
    17. 17. Scaffolding, cont. • Private speech —internal dialogue when people talk to themselves through which new ideas are developed and reinforced – verbal interaction is a cognitive tool • Social mediation —use of speech to bridge gap between child’s current understanding and what is almost understood
    18. 18. • Implications for Education: Vygotsky – Vygotsky proposed the existence of a zone of proximal development, which is the distance between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance from others. – Instruction should occur within the zone, but appropriate guidance should be given whenever possible to bring the child to understanding of more sophisticated concepts. – He compared this process to scaffolding, temporary supports used to construct a new building. These are temporary supports for the child’s cognitive processes.
    19. 19. 1. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Self-discovery where children discover for themselves through interaction with the environment. Constructi- on by child only. Assisted discovery through teacher-child and child-child interaction. Construction by child and adult. Vygotsky approached cognitive development from a process orientation. Rather than looking at the endpoint of developmental processes, he looked at the process itself and analyzed the subject's participation in social activities.
    20. 20. 2. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Teacher watch and listen to students, introducing experiences that encourages the practice of new schemes and challenges incorrect ways of viewing the world. Teachers guide student’s learning with explanations, demonstrations and verbal prompts. Rather than looking at the endpoint of developmental processes, Vygotsky looked at the process itself and analyzed the child's participation in social activities.
    21. 21. 3. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Hands-on-learning provided rather than presenting ready-made verbal knowledge. Using of language for student learning is emphasized. Children are encouraged to talk. He proposed that development does not precede socialization. Rather, social structures and social relations lead to the development of mental functions.
    22. 22. 4. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Students at the same cognitive development level get the same task and work in a group. Students with different abilities work and collaborate in groups, helping and teaching one another.
    23. 23. 5. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Scientific concepts grow spontaneously – from down upwards. Scientific concepts have to be introduced and implemented - do not grow from down upwards.
    24. 24. The role of language in cognitive development cont’d • According to Vygotsky: – Thought and language eventually emerge – A child’s nonsocial utterances, which he termed private speech, illustrate the transition from paralinguistic to verbal reasoning – Private speech plays a major role in cognitive development by serving as a cognitive self-guidance system, allowing children to become more organized and good problem solvers – As individuals develop, private speech becomes inner speech
    25. 25. LANGUAGE For Vygotsky learning language facilitates development. It allows children to receive ideas, culture, and thinking from those around them. Vygotsky believed that learning language could enhance thinking. Thinking reflects language. Piaget believed that language reflects thinking.
    26. 26. Lev Vygotsky A key assumption made by Vygotsky is that during the course of development everything occurs twice. • The child first makes contact with the social environment. This occurs on an interpersonal level. • Then a child makes contact within himself, on an intrapersonal level.
    27. 27. Which Viewpoint Should We Endorse? • According to contemporary research: – Children rely heavily on private speech when facing difficult problems – There is a correlation between “self-talk” and competence – Private speech does eventually become inner speech and facilitates cognitive development
    28. 28. Lev Vygotsky He believed that learning could occur through play, formal instruction, or work between a learner and a more experienced learner. The basic process by which this occurs is mediation (the connection of two structures, one social and one personally constructed, through tools or signs.) It is when the cultural signs become internalized that humans acquire the capacity for higher order thinking.
    29. 29. The role of culture in intellectual development: • Vygotsky proposed that we should evaluate human development from four interrelated perspectives: – Microgenetic-changes that occur over brief periods of time-minutes and seconds – Ontogenetic-development over a lifetime – Phylogenetic-development over evolutionary time – Sociohistorical- changes that have occurred in one's culture and the values, norms and technologies such a history has generated
    30. 30. Tools of intellectual adaptation • Vygotsky (1930-1935/1978) proposed that infants are born with a few elementary mental functions – attention, sensation, perception and memory – that are eventually transformed by the culture into new and more sophisticated mental processes he called higher mental functions.
    31. 31. The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies: • Zone of Proximal Development range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner – Scaffolding- the expert participant carefully tailors their support to the novice learner to assure their understanding
    32. 32. Implications for Education: • Children are seen as active participants in their education • teachers in Vygotsky’s classroom would favor guided participation in which they: – structure the learning activity – provide helpful hints or instructions that are carefully tailored to the child’s current abilities – monitor the learner’s progress – gradually turning over more of the mental activity to their pupils – Promote cooperative learning exercises
    33. 33. Theories of Cognitive Development: Vygotsky vs. Piaget Vygotsky’s socioculturalVygotsky’s sociocultural theorytheory Piaget’s cognitivePiaget’s cognitive developmental theorydevelopmental theory Cognitive development variesCognitive development varies across culturesacross cultures Cognitive development is mostlyCognitive development is mostly universal across culturesuniversal across cultures Stems from social interactionsStems from social interactions Stems from independentStems from independent explorationsexplorations Social processes becomeSocial processes become individual-physiological processesindividual-physiological processes Individual (egocentric) processesIndividual (egocentric) processes become social processesbecome social processes Adults are important as changeAdults are important as change agentsagents Peers are important as changePeers are important as change agentsagents
    34. 34. Piagetian Ideas: Four discrete stages Cognitive development is limited by stages Young children are schematic Motivation to maintain cognitive equilibrium Development occurs when assimilation is not possible (adaptation) Vygotsky's ideas: Continuous development (no stages) Zone of proximal development Socially transmitted knowledge (cooperative learning and Scaffolding) Private speech helps internalize knowledge Both were constructivists Both believed that social forces set the limits of development Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky’s Theories
    35. 35. Logic and Culture • Piaget’s ideas still remain logical – research shows that sometimes older children may make mistakes when applying new logic • Vygotsky’s premise is that, added to Piaget’s ideas, the social cultural context of learning is important
    36. 36. Building on Piaget and Vygotsky • Concrete Operational Thought – Piaget’s 3rd stage – children reason logically about the things and events that they perceive • Vygotsky did not believe the child was a socially isolated learner – instruction by others is crucial