Operant applications

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  • Preview Question 11: How might educators, business managers, and other individuals apply operant conditioning?
  • Psychology 101 On-line Norris Edwards, Chapter 8, Wade08.ppt, Page 09/15/99 21 ©1999 Prentice Hall Learning Figure 5.17 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Lepper, M.R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R.E. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28 , 129-137.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Examples of learning are easy to recognize. It’s hard to say what they all have in common.
  • Transition form S-S to S-R Like driving a car
  • Tolman believed that learning is a process of discovering what leads to what in the environment. S-S mean that the S invokes a representation of some other S (can’t measure= black box)
  • Animal learns response (they are stamped in) Cr invokes UR, just causes response
  • Cs invokes a mental picture, representation of US, the animal makes choice to respond
  • Psychology 101 On-line Norris Edwards, Chapter 8, Wade08.ppt, Page 09/15/99 20 ©1999 Prentice Hall Learning Figure 5.16 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Tolman, E.C., & Honzik, C. (1930). Introduction and removal of reward and maze performance in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4 , 257-275. And Blodgett, H.C. (1929). The effect of the introduction of reward on the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4 , 117.
  • Psychology 101 On-line Norris Edwards, Chapter 8, Wade08.ppt, Page 09/15/99 19 ©1999 Prentice Hall Learning Figure 5.15 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Tolman, E.C. (1948). Sign-Gestalt or conditioned reflex? Psychological Review, 40 , 391-411.

Transcript

  • 1. Operant Applications Principles of Learning
  • 2. Applications of Operant Conditioning Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards. In School LWA-JDL/Corbis
  • 3. Applications of Operant Conditioning Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership. At work
  • 4. Applications of Operant Conditioning At Home In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.
  • 5. 6 Operant conditioning: Addiction (1) Drug use is a behaviour that is reinforced by the positive reinforcement that occurs from the pharmacologic properties of the drug.
  • 6. 7 Operant conditioning: Addiction (2) Once a person is addicted, drug use is reinforced by the negative reinforcement of removing or avoiding painful withdrawal symptoms.
  • 7. Behavior Therapy • Behavior therapy uses learning methods to change abnormal behavior, thoughts and feelings – Behavior therapists use classical and operant conditioning techniques as well as modeling – Counterconditioning: learning a new response • Systematic desensitization: relaxation is paired with a stimulus that formerly induced anxiety • Aversive conditioning: an unpleasant event is paired with a stimulus to reduce its attractiveness Ch 2.23
  • 8. Counterconditioning
  • 9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy • Cognitive therapy assumes that thought patterns can cause a disturbance of emotion or behavior – Beck’s Cognitive Therapy for Depression • Depressed mood caused by cognitive distortions – “Nothing good ever happens to me” – Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy • Emotional upset is due to irrational beliefs – “I must be loved by everyone” Ch 2.25
  • 10. The Cognitive Paradigm • Cognition involves the mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, judging and reasoning • The cognitive paradigm focuses on how people structure and understand their experiences and how these experiences are related to past experiences stored in memory Ch 2.24
  • 11. 12 Operant conditioning: Addiction (2) Once a person is addicted, drug use is reinforced by the negative reinforcement of removing or avoiding painful withdrawal symptoms.
  • 12. 13 Operant conditioning: Application to CBT techniques • Functional Analysis – identify high-risk situations and determine reinforcers • Examine long- and short-term consequences of drug use to reinforce resolve to be abstinent • Schedule time and receive praise • Develop meaningful alternative reinforcers to drug use
  • 13. Gary Wilkes (1994) Animal Trainer • Elephants: Dangerous, handling stress sensitive Calluses build-up (unable to walk) Cut away with sharp tool
  • 14. Elephant Manicure • Violent Aggressive Bull • Callous not trimmed in 10 years • Vets can not touch • What to do? • Large steel gate with hole in corner (size of elephants foot) • Clicker + Carrot • Clicker + approach gate + carrot • Clicker +lift foot + carrot • Clicker + move foot to hole • Etc…. • After training: elephant would voluntarily walk to gate and put foot through
  • 15. Elephant Manicure • CS + US • SHAPING • Large steel gate with hole in corner (size of elephants foot) • Clicker + Carrot • Clicker + approach gate + carrot • Clicker +lift foot + carrot • Clicker + move foot to hole • Etc…. • After training: elephant would voluntarily walk to gate and put foot through
  • 16. Self Awareness • Self Aware: observe ones own behavior • “I think Joe will quit school” ( he is engaged in those types of behaviors) • I have observed myself engaged in those behaviors. (“I think I will quit school”) • Long-term Comas • Behave like awake: Open eyes Turn heads Move a hand Coma = not responsive to environment
  • 17. Boyle and Greer (1983) • Reinforced spontaneous behaviors with music Moved patient Requested action Reward = short selection of favorite music 2 sessions a day/ 16 weeks • Reinforcement • Outcome (Reward) contingent on behavior • Cause and effect! • 33% increased spontaneous movement 1 came out of coma
  • 18. Norris Edwards: Chapter 8: Wade08.ppt The Problem withThe Problem with RewardReward • Misuse of rewardMisuse of reward ~ rewards must be tied to the~ rewards must be tied to the behavior we are trying to increase.behavior we are trying to increase. • Each of use has had the experience of standingEach of use has had the experience of standing in the checkout line and the market and seeing ain the checkout line and the market and seeing a child in a shopping cart tempted by the candychild in a shopping cart tempted by the candy and toys on display adjacent to the line.and toys on display adjacent to the line. • When we as parents giving a purchase somethingWhen we as parents giving a purchase something to quiet our kids in that situation, what behaviorto quiet our kids in that situation, what behavior are we actually reinforcing?are we actually reinforcing?
  • 19. Norris Edwards: Chapter 8: Wade08.ppt Page: 20©1999 Prentice Hall Hidden Cost of Rewards • Preschoolers played with felt-tipped markers and observed • Divided into 3 groups: – Given markers again and asked to draw – Promised a reward for playing with markers – Played with markers, then rewarded
  • 20. Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory • Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans expectations, and beliefs. • Observational Learning ~ A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called Vicarious Conditioning.
  • 21. Skinner (1953) and Verbal Behaviors • “That itches” • “That tickles” • “That hurts” • Observed behavior: • Scratching • Giggling • Tears and groans
  • 22. Basic Behavioral Principles • Antecedent - any stimulus that happens before a behavior (S) • Behavior - an observable and measurable act of an individual (R) • Consequence - any stimulus that happens after a behavior (O)
  • 23. Social-Cognitive Learning Theories • To this point most American learning theories have maintained the position that most learning can be explained in terms of the behavioral ABCs. • Antecedents event preceding the behavior • Behavior itself • Consequences of the behavior. • Social Learning Theories emphasizes the importance of observational learning by observing people in social context.
  • 24. Verbal Conditioning S-R-O
  • 25. Skinner (1957)
  • 26. The Mand (Requesting) • All mands have one thing in common: in the antecedent condition, there is a Motivative Operation (or motivation {S-S}) in place. • A= thirst (MO) (S) • B= “I want juice” (R) • C= student gets juice (O) • If a child does not want the item, you cannot teach them to mand for it.
  • 27. Verbal Conditioning • S Hungry? Sleepy? • O Reinforced (Behavior and self aware observation) Reward or Punish? • R Yes! No! (self awareness?)
  • 28. Norris Edwards: Chapter 8: Wade08.ppt When Punishment Fails • Most misbehavior is hard to punish immediately. • Punishment conveys little information. • An action intended to punish may instead be reinforcing because if brings attention.
  • 29. Behavior and the Mind • Edward Tolman (1938) experiment with rats demonstrated latent learning • Latent learning is learning that in not immediately revealed through a change in behavior • Latent learning occurs without obvious reinforcement • Perception of the model and of themselves influence individual's learning.
  • 30. Tolman Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) Three groups of rats were given practice trials in a maze, 1 trial per day. The maze consisted of a series of components shaped like the letter T. A trial started when the rat was placed in the Start box and ended when he entered the Goal box, after which he was removed from the maze.
  • 31. Tolman Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) T START T T T i T T ... GOAL When the rat went up the stem of the T, he reached a choice point. If he turned one way, he came to a dead end. If he turned the other way, he came to the entrance of the next component.
  • 32. Tolman Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) T START T T T i T T ... GOAL Each time the rat turned into the dead end, it was counted as an error. The measure of performance (dependent variable) was the number of errors on a trial. If learning occurred, the number of errors should decrease as more and more trials were given.
  • 33. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) GROUP 1: On every trial, these rats received food when they reached the goal box. GROUP 2: These rats never received food. They were simply removed from the maze when they got to the goal box. GROUP 3: These rats got no food on Trials 1 to 10. But on Trial 11, and every trial afterwards, they received a food reward. US = Food UR = Consume Food CS = Maze CR= Consume Food
  • 34. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) 1 10 11 17 Trials (1 Trial per Day) AverageErrors 0246810 GR 1 — GR 2 — GR 3 — The day-to-day decrease in errors represented a “relatively permanent change in behavior” that resulted from practice. This was clear evidence for learning. Hull’s theory predicts that the rats in groups 3Hull’s theory predicts that the rats in groups 3 & 2 will not learn& 2 will not learn
  • 35. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) 1 10 11 17 Trials (1 Trial per Day) AverageErrors 0246810 GR 1 — GR 2 — GR 3 — Group 2 got no food but still improved slightly. Removal from the maze was a small reward. There was little evidence for learning.
  • 36. Hull vs. Tolman • Hull’s law of primary reinforcement: – “when a stimulus-response relationship is followed by a reduction in need, the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will invoke the same response” (Schultz & Schultz, op. cit., p. 329) • Learning can only take place if there is reinforcement • S-R connections strengthened by the no. of reinforcements that have occurred - Hull called this “habit strength” • Habit strength = intervening variable
  • 37. Hull vs. Tolman • Tolman devised an experimental test of Hull’s theory • Hull’s theory states - learning must involve reinforcement – So we can deduce this hypothesis from his theory: • Rats will not learn if they are not rewarded – Tolman tested this hypothesis
  • 38. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment 1 10 11 17 Trials (1 Trial per Day) AverageErrors 0246810 GR 1 — GR 2 — GR 3 — Getting no food on Trials 1 – 10, Group 3 performed like Group 2 through Trial 11.
  • 39. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment 1 10 11 17 Trials (1 Trial per Day) AverageErrors 0246810 GR 1 — GR 2 — GR 3 — On the next trial, Group 3 matched Group 1, and then did even better!
  • 40. Latent Learning: A Classic Experiment (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) Interpretation Group 3 learned the route to the maze on Trials 1 to 10 but didn’t show it because there was no motivation to perform. How could they learn if there was no CS/US pairings? They outperformed Group 1 because the shift from no reward to reward made the reward seem larger by comparison. This is called “positive contrast.”
  • 41. So S-S is the way animals learn? Hull maintained that maze itself caused little S-R bonds to form S-R theory still dominated psychology for 40 more years
  • 42. Response Vs. Place Learning GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. Start 1 Start 2 Goal 2 Goal 1 (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) This maze had no walls or roof so that rats could see “landmarks” in the room such as a window, door, or lamp. On a random half of the trials, the rats started from Start Box 1, and on the other half they started from Start Box 2. GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 43. Response Vs. Place Learning GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. Start 1 Start 2 Goal 2 Goal 1 (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Cognitive theory predicted that GROUP P would learn faster because they only had to learn one cognitive map. Behavior theory predicted GROUP R would learn faster because they only had to learn one sequence of movements at the choice point—a right turn. GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 44. Response Vs. Place Learning GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. Start 1 Start 2 Goal 2 Goal 1 (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2. What’s YOUR prediction? Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP PGROUP R
  • 45. Response Vs. Place Learning GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. Start 1 Start 2 Goal 2 Goal 1 (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2. What’s YOUR prediction? Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP PGROUP R Group P learned faster. But Later studies found that if the maze had a roof so the rats couldn’t see things in the room, response learning was faster.
  • 46. Response Vs. Place Learning GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. Start 1 Start 2 Goal 2 Goal 1 (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2. What’s YOUR prediction? Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP PGROUP R Group P learned faster. Both response and place learning occur. Which type is faster depends on what cues are available. So both the S-R and S-S views turned out to be right!
  • 47. S-R or S-S Classical conditioning can involve both S-R and S-S Today: Controlled vs. Automatic processing S-S= While learning S-R= After learning
  • 48. Theories Explaining Classical Conditioning HULL • Born 1884 in Akron NY • Graduated U. of Michigan in 1913 • Ph.D. U. of Wisconsin 1918 • 1929-1952 Professor of Psychology at Yale • Died 1952 Tolman • Born Newton, Mass. On April 14, 1886. • BA at MIT in electrochemistry • Ph.D. psychology in 1915 • Spent month at Giessen under Kofka. Heavily influenced by Gestalt movement • Ardent pacificist • Dismissed at Northwestern U • Went to UC Berkley rest of career S-R or S- S
  • 49. Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of Learning These traditions in learning theory have existed for decades. They give different answers to the fundamental question, “What is learned” when learning takes place? Behaviorists say: “Specific actions” Cognitivists say: “Mental representations” For example, in a “Skinner Box”, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. What has he learned? S-R S-S
  • 50. S-R vs. S-S Views of Learning These traditions in learning theory have existed for decades. They give different answers to the fundamental question, “What is learned” when learning takes place? S-R view: “to press the bar.” S-S view: For example, in a “Skinner Box”, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. What has he learned? “that pressing produces food.”
  • 51. S-R vs. S-S Views of Learning S-R (“learns to”) 1. Learning involves the formation of associations between specific actions and specific events (stimuli) in the environment. These stimuli may either precede or follow the action (antecedents vs. consequences). 2. Many behaviorists use intervening variables to explain behavior (e.g., habit, drive) but avoid references to mental states. 3. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM (operant conditioning/behavior modification/behavior analysis): avoids any intervening variables and focuses on descriptions of relationships between behavior and environment (“functional analysis”).
  • 52. S-R vs. S-S Views of Learning S-S (“learns that”) 1. Learning takes place in the mind, not in behavior. It involves the formation of mental representations of the elements of a task and the discovery of how these elements are related. 2. Behavior is used to make inferences about mental states but is not of interest in itself (“methodological behaviorism”). 3. EXAMPLE: Tolman & Honzik’s experiment on latent learning. Tolman, a pioneer of cognitive psychology, argued that when rats practice mazes, they acquire a “cognitive map” of the layout—mental representations of the landmarks and their spatial relationships.
  • 53. S-R or S-S • Autoshaping • Taste aversion • Eyeblink conditioning • Blocking • Extinction • Spontaneous Recovery • S-R • S-S • S-R • S-S • S-R • S-S
  • 54. Latent Learning • Rats: one maze trial/day • One group found food every time (red line) • Second group never found food (blue line) • Third group found food on Day 11 (green line) – Sudden change, day 12 • Learning isn’t the same as performance
  • 55. Norris Edwards: Chapter 8: Wade08.ppt Page: 56©1999 Prentice Hall Cognitive Maps • Tolman trained rats in this maze, with all alleys open – Not to scale; the path on the left is too long. • If “Block A” in place, rats chose green (shorter) path • If “Block B” in place, rats chose blue path – Green path also blocked • Rats navigate as if they have an internal map
  • 56. Varieties of cognitive maps? (Gallistel 1990) Specific issues: • Spatial scale (local vs. home-range) • Geometric content (metric, topological) • Reference frame (egocentric/view-dependent vs. allocentric/view- independent) Evidence: • People: short cuts in cities and VR (errors); mixed evidence contents of underlying map • Rodents: most studies on local scale; mixed evidence on contents • Insects: on local and home-range scale--metric, egocentric Broader Definition (Gallistel 1990): ‘A cognitive map is a record in the central nervous system of macroscopic geometric relations among surfaces in the environment used to plan movements through the environment. A central question is what type of geometric relations a map encodes’.
  • 57. More on Cognitive Maps: Chimpanzee Behavior
  • 58. More on Cognitive Maps: Chimpanzee Behavior • Chimpanzee on experimenter’s back • Watched site bating: 18 locations • Later released to retrieve food • Most food found • Retrieval route differed from baiting route • Traveling distance was very efficient Cognitive Maps (spatial learning)
  • 59. More on Cognitive Maps: Chimpanzee Behavior • Second experiment • Same general plan • 18 locations: 9 fruits and 9 vegetables • First retrieval visits were to retrieve fruits, according with food preferences
  • 60. More on Cognitive Maps: Chimpanzee Behavior • Results suggest that chimpanzees have something like a cognitive map of compound. • As they are carried around, chimpanzees store information about food locations not on the basis of the particular path that they are traveling, but on the basis of their cognitive map. Cognitive Map = A separate type of memory (Bedroom, Gestalt)
  • 61. More on Cognitive Maps: Chimpanzee Behavior • Chimpanzees work with this cognitive representation to determine most efficient route to travel in gathering food. • This solution depends on cognitive mediation between inputs and behavior that transforms and organizes inputs. • To explain chimpanzees’ behavior without appeal to mediating processes would provide an impoverished view of what animal does.
  • 62. http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/ BeeBehavior/images/06waggleDance_jpg.jpg Sun Compass and Memory in Bees F o o d 2 0 ° 4 0 ° 7 5 ° (U p ) 2 0 ° 4 0 ° 7 5 ° • Bees encode (allocentric?) flight direction in dances • As sun moves, dances change • Dances change even when bees can’t see sun (thus compensate by memory) • Reference for memory: landmarks (Dyer & Gould 1981; Dyer &Dickinson 1996) H F Noon 16:00 α12 α16 The basic task QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 63. A STRATEGY FOR INCREASING BEHAVIOUR • Behavioral self-management is a strategy for increasing some desired behavior (for example, hours spent studying or exercising) by using self-administered rewards. A behavioral self-management program requires the following:
  • 64. Strategies for increasing a desired behavior • Choose a targetChoose a target behaviour (the behaviourbehaviour (the behaviour you want to increase)you want to increase) • Record a baseline (countRecord a baseline (count time engaged in thetime engaged in the desired behaviour ordesired behaviour or number of times thenumber of times the desired behaviour isdesired behaviour is performedperformed ) • Establish goals (setEstablish goals (set gradual goals – daily andgradual goals – daily and weekly)weekly) • Choose reinforcers (forChoose reinforcers (for when you reach daily andwhen you reach daily and weekly goals)weekly goals) • Record your progressRecord your progress (time you engaged in the(time you engaged in the behaviour or number ofbehaviour or number of times you performed thetimes you performed the activity)activity)