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  • 1. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 12 Counselling is called the crux, heart, essence, pivot or core of all guidance programme. The proper functioning and growth of the body depends upon the proper functioning of the heart. Similarly, the success or failure of the guidance programme is determined by counselling service. Some of the definitions of counselling by various experts are the fol- lowing— 1.Webster’s Dictionary—Consultation, mutual interchange of opinion; deliberating together. 2.Strong—Face to face relationship in which growth takes place in the counsellor as well as the counselee. 3.Robinson—The term counselling covers all types of two person situations in which one person, the client is helped to adjust more effectively to himself and his environment. 4.Wren—”Counselling is a personal and dynamic relation- ship between two individuals— an older, more experienced and wiser (counsellor) and a younger, less wise (counselee). The latter has a problem for which he seeks the help of the former. The two work together so that the problem may be more clearly defined and the counselee may be helped to a self-determined solution. Thus, counselling is a process in which the pupil is ap- proached on an individual level. He is helped in educational, vocational or psychological field only at problem points. In counselling the subject matter is pupil’s needs, abilities, aims, aspirations, plans, decision, actions, and limitations. It is a sort of specialised, personalised and individualised service which makes effective use of information gathered about any individual. This information leads to self-insight, self-analysis and self-direction. This self-direction helps the individual in making maximum educational, vocational and psychological adjustment. CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELLING From the above discussion, it is clear that the following are major characteristics of counselling— 1.Counselling is a person to person relationship. 2.It involves two individuals—one seeking help and the other, a professionally trained person, who can help the first. 3.The objective is to help the counsellor to discover and solve his personal problems independently. 4.In order to help and assist properly, the counsellor must establish a relationship of mutual respect, cooperation and friendliness between the two individuals. 5.The counsellor discovers the problems of the client and helps him to set up goals and guide him through difficulties and problems. 6.In the whole of counselling process, the main emphasis is on the counsellor’s self direction and self-acceptance. 7.Counselling is democratic. It sets up a democratic pat- tern and allows the counselee to do freely whatever he likes while with the consultant and not under the consultant. DISTINCTION FROM RELATED CONCEPTS Counselling differs from other related terms or activities as follows— 1.Counsellinb and Guidance—Counselling is a part of guidance, not all of it. It is a specialised or individualised part which deals with the individual at problem points. Thus all counselling is guidance but all guidance is not counsel- ling. 2.Counselling and Interview—While counselling is a part of guidance, interview is only a technique used in the pro- cess of counselling. Counselling is a wider and compre- hensive term. 3.Counselling and advising—Counselling in not synony- mous with giving advice. A wise counsellor never gives ad- vice until it is absolutely essential. Counselling is a pro- cess in which the counsellor assumes the responsibility for the decisions that are made. In advising the counsellor accepts the responsibility for the quality of the decisions made. In counselling the counselee arrives at the decision as a result of process and not because of the advice of the counsellor. 4.Counselling and Teaching—Counselling is not teach- ing. The following are some of the points of difference be- tween counselling and teaching— (i) Whereas counselling is one to one relationship, teach- ing is done in group. (ii)Whereas counsellor is concerned with social and emo- tional problems, the teacher is concerned with academic and intellectual problems. (iii)Counsellors uses many techniques like diagnostic tools, occupational information and several types of tests to un- derstand the psychological make up of the counselee. Teacher uses various techniques like lecturing and audiovi- suals aids to make the teaching interesting and effective. (iv)In counselling, the counsellor does not know the sub- ject-matter of the counselling interview. On the other hand in teaching, the teacher knows the subject-matter of teach- ing. (v)In counselling the most important techniques is inter- view, but in teaching it is never used as a technique. (vi)Counsellor increases information about self-occupation, training institutions, colleges, apprenticeship-programmes, etc. Teacher increases information of instructional activi- ties. 5.Counselling and psychotherapy—Counselling is not psychotherapy although it is used by psychotherapist as one of the techniques of treatment. The following are some of the points of difference between counselling and psycho- therapy— (i)Counsnelling is concerned mostly with normal individu- als having normal anxieties whereas, psychotherapy is con- cerned with individuals whose behaviours are neurotic. (ii)Counsellor works in educational setting whereas, psy- chotherapist works in medical setting. (iii)Counsellor uses techniques and tools that can be used in schools whereas, psychotherapist uses tools and tech- niques that are applicable in any situation such as play- therapy psychodrama, sociogram, etc. (iv) In counselling, psychology is not only basis for study- ing the individual. In psychotherapy, psychology is the only basis of studying the individual. (v)Counselling is broader in scope as it touches all the prob- lems of the individual, but does not go deep in them. Psy- chotherapy is deeper rather than broader in scope. It deals with fewer problems but goes very deep in studying the personality of individuals. PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING 1.Acceptance—All schools of guidance and counselling agree that the client must be accepted as whole person, as a human being. 2.Respect for the individual—All schools of guidance and counselling attach importance to respect for individual. 3.Permissiveness—All schools of guidance and counsel- ling accept relative permissiveness of counselling relation
  • 2. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 11 UNIT—VI CONCEPTANDPRINCIPLESOFGUIDANCEANDCOUN- SELLING, TYPES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE— RECORDS, SCALES AND TESTS, TECHNIQUES, INTERVIEWORGANIZINGGUIDANCESERVICESATDIF- FERENT LEVELS OF EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONALINFORMATION, KINDS OF SERVICES, LIKE INFORMATION, TESTING, COUNSELLING AND FOLLOW-UP CONCEPT, PRINCIPLES AND TYPES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING CONCEPTS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING. In the words of Jones, “Guidance is the personal help that is given by one person to another in developing life goals, in making adjustment and in solving problems that confront him in the attainment of goals.” In this manner guidance is personal assistance. Although guidance is sometimes of- fered at the group level, yet even in these matters every member of the group is also individually given advice. Ap- plied psychology is based on the conception of individual difference. General experience and scientific research have both established that every single individual has certain abilities, problems and difficulties that are distinctly his own, as distinct form those of others. Evidently, if any advice or guidance is to be rendered, it must be rendered individually and personally. This personal helps is forthcoming from one individual to another. One of these two individuals is a psy- chologists, or one who knows psychology and the other a person who is in need of psychological guidance. Guid- ance, then, is the help rendered to an individual by the psychologists. In its more extensive sense, the term may be taken to comprehend the advice rendered by any indi- vidual who is in the know concerning psychology to an- other who is in need of it. For example, if a father guides his son in solving a problem, this too, amounts to guid- ance, irrespective of the fact that it may or may not be based on the most correct notion of psychological prin- ciple. But this extensive meaning of the term is its general meaning and implication. In a scientific analysis it is not taken in its general meaning but reduced to more definite and precise terms whereby its meaning becomes limited. That is why it is first defined. Guidance, in psychology, means a particular thing. It is the personal advice or ser- vice rendered by a psychologist, and not by any Tom, Dick and Harry, to another person. This guidance takes the form of advice which helps the guided individual to adjust to vari- ous conditions and circumstances. If one would only look at it that way, it would become evident that adjustment is the basic problems of human life. The person who fails to adjust to his circumstances, becomes a failure, suffered pain himself and inflicts it upon others, and is branded an abnormal being. In this way, educational psychology, through its helping the individual in adjusting himself, helps to spread happiness, peace and organization in society. Problems in human life do not come to an end, because new ones keep on arising. There is no end to trouble. A child, for example, is faced by very few problems, much of his anxiety being centered around the work forced upon him by the teacher, or the means of dealing with the more recalcitrant of his friends and such minor things. He has not to worry about keeping the hearth burning. But these are problems that gradually engulf every individual as he grows older. As a general rule, most people marry and have children who must go to school and with equal inevitability fall ill and be treated for it only to grow up, and get married themselves and keep the almost eternal circle moving forward. Thus one trouble grows out of another, and never lets the individual being sit back contented and unhurried. Human psychology is much like this. One desire arises and destroys the being’s peace till it is satisfied. Hence, he immediately busies himself in searching for the means to satisfy his desire and CONCEPT OF COUNSELLING
  • 3. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 10 used in both these senses. Education in both its forms is essential for a total development of the individual. An indi- vidual who is formally educated is not necessary totally developed, but he is unquestionably better informed than the average uneducated person. Besides, he develops the ability to imbibe education, as it is meant in its more liberal sense. Education of both kinds is, thus, essential. MEANING OF EDUCATION IN THE WEST Educational thinking, like every other branch of knowledge, started in the philosophical deliberation of the ancient Greek philosophers. Thus, the meaning of education in West is initially available in the works of Plato. It is interesting to note that thousands of years ago, Plato gave a meaning to education which is even now followed in the West with slight changes here and there. Plato defined education as a life long process starting, “from the first years of childhood and lasting to the very end of the life.” He used the term educa- tion in a very wide sense, “which makes a man eagerly pursue the ideal perfection of citizenship and teaches him how rightly to rule and how to obey.” Education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitudes and habits. In Republic, Plato points out, that “true education, whatever that may be, will have the greatest tendency to civilise and humanise them in their relation to one another and to those who are under their protection.” This humanist definition of education propounded by Plato is still the most widely ac- cepted meaning of education in the West Education every- where has been taken as a process of inculcating values. As Plato said, “Now I mean by education that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children.” These views of Plato have been universally ac- cepted in West as well as in the East. Education has been defined differently by the idealists, the pragmatists, the naturalists and the realist philosophers. However, its mean- ing has been generally idealistic. Without some sort of ide- alism, there can be no education worth the name. In the words of Robert R. Rusk, “We may accept that the aim of education is the enhancement or enrichment of personal- ity, the differentiating feature of which is the embodiment of universalvalues.”Thewesterneducationalphilosophershave generally agreed that the growth of the human child is the essence of education. In the words of A.G. Hughes, “The essence of discipline is, thus, not forced subordination to the will of the hated tyrants, but submission to the example of admired superiors.” In the middle ages, Comenius de- clared education to be a process whereby an individual developed qualities relating to religion, knowledge and mo- rality, and thereby established his claim to be called a hu- man being. “The fundamental principles of education”, ac- cording to Forebel, “instruction and teaching should be pas- sive and protective not directive and interfering.” The prin- ciple of liberty has found most eloquent expression in the definition of education given by Rousseau when he said, “Let us obey the call of Natue. We shall see that her yoke is easy and that when we give heed to her voice, we find the joy in the answer of a good conscience.” Others have laid emphasis upon the social meaning of education whereby it aims at making an individual fit in the society. It was in this sense that Aldous Huxley said, “A perfect education is one which trains up every human being to fit into the place he or she is to occupy in the social hierarchy, but without, in the process, destroying his or her individuality.” All the foregoing definitions have stated that education is the process of development. It, therefore, becomes neces- sary to discover what is implied in this development. Al- though the ability to learn depends upon development, but development is not synonymous with education. Develop- ment means the gradual and continuous progress of mind and body. Through this development, the child acquires the following elements— 1.Knowledge of the environment by which he is surrounded, 2.The necessary motor control to fulfil his individual needs, 3. Linguistic abilities to enable him to converse, and 4.Some knowledge of individual and collective relationships. The development of all these elements begins at home it- self. The educator’s task is to continue this process and to encourage it while the child is at school. In fact, this process of development continues right through an individual’s life time. Consequently, it is accepted that education in its general sense continues throughout a man’s natural span of life. Even the successful teacher or educa- tor himself remains a student throughout his life. On the one hand, he teaches certain things to some people but at the same time, he learns something from them. All suc- cessful educators experience that the development under- gone by their thoughts, personalities and abilities would have impossible otherwise. In much the same way, people other than the educators, teach and learn simultaneously. MEANING OF EDUCATION IN INDIA Learning to the Indian approach, it becomes necessary to include the spiritual aspect also because it is accepted as a part of the development by education. In fact, Indian think- ers have placed special emphasis upon this. Yajnavalkya opined that only that is education which gives a sterling character to an individual and renders him useful for the world. Shankaracharya said that education is that which leads to salvation. Even the more recent educationists have stressed the importance of the spiritual aspect. In the words of A.S. Altekar, “Education has always been regarded in India as a source of illumination and power which trans- forms and ennobles our nature by the progressive and har- monious development of our physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual powers and faculties.” This spiritual tradition has been carried on by contempo- rary Indian philosophers of education in their integral ap- proach , synthesis of idealism and pragmatism, rational- ism and humanism, diversity in unity and harmony to the individual and society. It was due to this emphasis on the spiritual meaning of education that Vivekanand said, “Reli- gion is the inner most core of education.” In the words of Sri Aurobindo, “The child’s education ought to be an outbringing of all that is best, most powerful, most intimate and living in his nature, the mould into which the man’s action and de- velopment ought to run is that of his innate quality and power. He must acquire new things but he will acquire them best, most wholly on the basis of his own developed type and inborn force. “ M.K. Gandhi expressed the same idea when he defined education by saying, “By education I mean an all- around drawing out of the best in child and man, body, mind and spirit. Literacy is not the end of education not even the beginning. It is one of the means whereby man and woman can be educated. Literacy in itself is no education.” SYNTHETIC DEFINITION it is clear from the above discussion of the meaning of edu- cation in West and India, ancient and modern that it may
  • 4. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 9 EDUCATION PAPER-III(A) [CORE GROUP] UNIT—I WESTERN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY:- •IDEALISM, REALISM, NATURALISM, PRAGMATISM, EXISTENTIALISM; WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CONCEPTS OF KNOWLEDGE, REALITY AND VALUES; THEIR EDUCA- TIONAL IMPLICATIONS FOR AIMS, CONTENTS AND METHODS OF EDUCATION. • INDIAN SCHOOLS’ OF PHILOSOPHY (VEDANTA,BUDDHISM,JAINISM,ISLAMICTRADITIONS) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CONCEPTS OF KNOWLEDGE, REALITY AND VALUES AND THEIR EDU- CATIONAL IMPLICATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDIAN THINKERS, LIKE VIVEKANANDA, TAGORE, GANDHI AND AUROBINDO TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING. PAPER-II 1.PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION • RELATIONSHIP OF EDUCATION AND PHILOSOPHY • WESTERN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY : • IDEALISM, REALISM, NATURALISM, PRAGMATISM, EXISTENTIALISM, MARXISM WITH SPECIAL REFER- ENCE TO THE CONCEPTS OF KNOWLEDGE, REALITY ANDVALUESTHEIREDUCATIONALIMPLICATIONSFOR AIMS, CONTENTS AND METHODS OF EDUCATION. • INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY (SANKHYA, VEDANTA, BUDDHISM, JAINISM, ISLAMIC TRADITIONS) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE, REALITY AND VALUES AND THEIR EDU- CATIONAL IMPLICATIONS • CONTRIBUTIONS OF VIVEKANANDA, TAGORE, GANDHIANDAUROBINDOTOEDUCATIONALTHINKING • NATIONAL VALUES AS ENSHRINED IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICA- TIONS • MODERN CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY : ANALYSIS— LOGICAL ANALYSIS, • LOGICAL EMPIRICISM AND POSITIVE RELATIVISM— (MORISS L. PRIGGE) MEANING AND NATURE OF EDUCATION Literal Meaning ThewordeducationhasitsoriginintheLatinword‘educatum1 composed of two terms ‘E’ and ‘Duco’. ‘E’ implies a progress from inward to outward, while ‘Duco’ means developing or progressing. In its most literal sense, therefore, education means becoming developed or progressing from inside to outside. Education, thus, is the process of developing the inner abilities and powers of an individual. The term is also often connected with the Latin ‘edueare’, meaning a propul- sion from the internal to the external. This Latin term means to educate through a change brought about by practice or usage. In this manner, education implies some kind of change for the better in person. GENERALMEANING In general usage, the term education is used either in its narrow sense or in its more liberal connotation. A slight elaboration of these two senses is given here. A large majority of people use the term to man the training or studies undertaken for a few years in some educational institutions. This is the restricted meaning of the term. It implies education provided according to a fixed curriculum by a particular set of people in a specific place. It does not necessarily provide any real knowledge, since the individual still has much to learn. The qualities an individual needs to achieve success in practical life cannot be generated in him by college education. This meaning of the term per- tains to the most formal kind of education, in which an indi- vidual pursues a course of study dictated by a standard curriculum and at the end of a stipulated period, wins a degree or diploma. This certificate enables him to get some kind of job. In actual fact, an individual should not be con- sidered educated merely because he possesses a degree, while on the other hand, absence of such a degree should not imply that the individual is uneducated. In every coun- try, there are instances of great social reformers, saints, philosophers and thinkers who have never been near an institution of formal education. But can they be called un- educated, on this ground? When the word is accepted in its more liberal meaning, it is granted that at all times and places, an individual is imbib- ing some education. Education is thus not limited merely to the classroom. It can be obtained from all kinds of social institutions and associations such as the family. It is not the prerogative of the teacher alone to provide education. It can be obtained from all individuals even from Nature. Con- sidered from this standpoint, it can be said that the child gets education not only from his teacher but also from the entire complexity of his environment, each object in which is a means of educating him. It must be granted that, with this definition, the subjects of education cannot be deter- mined, for they are far too numerous. Education is there- fore, also not limited to students but comprehends all hu- man individuals, of all sex, ages, races and groups. In this sense, education is informal. This aspect of educa- tion has great importance. Such an education is not planned or organised. The child learns many new and inter- esting things from his parents, his play- mates, his neighbours and other members of society. Many things he can learn merely by observing others. It should not be con- cluded from description that the restricted and the liberal, or the formal and the informal implications of education are mutually exclusive. In actual fact, the term education is
  • 5. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 8 too many instances. Educational television (ETV) was the first development. These telecasts usually complete with commercial telecasting. Instructional television (ITV) is a later development which is usually a closed circuit telecast. The essential differences attending ETV and ITV should generate a number of research questions. The telecasts reach a captive audience and programming is structured toward specific ends. They could range from concept appropriateness to the implications of their use on teacher and pupils behaviours. Origin of Educational Technology In spite of the psychological resistance and economic difficulty, one thing is clear that technology is creeping into our economic and productive spheres of life. Radio has gone into villages, television to has come and industries are demanding large number of persons trained for specific technical jobs. Some of the industries have started their own apprentice courses. These training establishments in industries which are not only familiar with industrial technology but also have arisen from its demand are trying to adopt new educational technology in their training systems. Before the sixties, the term ‘educational technology ‘was largely associated with audio-visual aids and teaching materials to classroom instruction. For most of the teachers and teacher-educators, by and large, the term conveyed a meaning of technology in education. The articles of Stanley Edward started creating interest in programmed learning. B.F. Skinner and S. Edwards emphasized the practical utility of programmed learning. Gradually the concept of technology of education has emerged in the field of education. Thus, the concept of ‘educational technology’ has developed during last few years. It is a new area in the discipline of education like : educational psychology, educational philosophy, educational measurement and evaluation. It makes a functional analysis of teaching learning process and located the various components that operate from the stage of input to that of the output Recently, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) realized its importance in the area of education and has established a Centre of Educational Technology (GET). The scientific inventions have influenced every aspect of human life even our Htchen has been mechanised. This is why our education process could not remain untouched by these, computer and language laboratory are now being used frequently in our teaching process. These machines are employed in all the phases of human knowledge : preservation, transmission, and advancement. A large number of students sitting at a distant places tan be benefited by an effective teacher by using radio and television in the teaching process. This mechanization of teaching process has emerged new area of educational technology in education. Meaning of Educational Technology Educational Technology can be conceived as a science of techniques and methods by which educational goals can be realized. It is not primarily concerned with the task of prescribing the goals. Although, it does help in specifying the goals and translating them into behavioural terms. It is not one particular method of achieving educational goals like that of Montessori or strategy of developing self instructional material, propounded by B.R Skinner. It is on the other hand a science, on the basis of which various strategies and tactics could be designed for the realisation of specified goals. The process of teaching then, in this frame of reference, involves arranging for the inputs and designing of situation or process through which a student learns to perform in a desired or specified manner. The desirability of certain performance may be prescribed by social, political, philosophers, legislators and other leaders of the society who take comprehensive view of the nation and society in prescribing the goals for education. The educational technology comes to see whether by a given process or situation the specified goals could be achieved, and if so to what extent, and if not what changes are to be made in process so as to achieve the specified goals? In this regard ‘Educational Technology’ involves four’ steps: 1. The first step is to make a functional analysis of the teaching Teaming process to identify the various components that operate from the stage of input to that of output 2. The second step is to observe the effect of manipulating the various components. 3. The third step is to observe the effect of manipulating the various components and their functions in the field. 4. The fourth step is to translate all these research findings into some kind of guideline for the practitioner. Second Meaning of Educational Technology The second meaning of educational technology is the mechanization of educational process. The mechanization is being done in all the three phases of human knowledge very rapidly : (1) Preservation of Knowledge, (2) Transmission of Knowledge, and (3) Advancement of Knowledge. The first phase of human knowledge is to preserve it. Prior to printing machines, most of the knowledge was memorized orally and transmitted by teachers to their students. But now the knowledge is being preserved in books by the use of printing machines. An effective teacher can be preserved as a whole (voice, expression, actions and content by the use of tape recorder, videotape, film etc.) In this way educational technology is the extension of a teacher. The future generation can see and hear to an eminent teacher even after his death with the help of these machines. The second phase of human knowledge is to transmit the knowledge to new generation. A limited number of students can be benefited by the classroom teaching, but a large number of students sitting at far distant places can be taught with the help of radio and television. In this way educational technology has reversed the process of teaching. With the introduction of Educational technology, the teacher has started to knock the door of students. It is generally said that the educational technology knocks at the doors. The open university, correspondence education, distance education and continuing education are the major contributions of the innovation. The third phase of human knowledge is to advance the knowledge. The function of research process is to advance new knowledge. The scientific are a based on the collection and analysis of data. The computer services are employed in analysing the data. The computer and electronic machines yield more dependable results. Thus, the education process is being mechanized and this aspect of
  • 6. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 7 ELECTIVE—III MEANINGANDSCOPEOFEDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGY —EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AS SYSTEMS AP- PROACH TO EDUCATION —SYSTEMS APPROACH IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOL- OGY AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS —COMPONENTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, SOFTWARE, HARDWARE MULTI-MEDIA APPROACH IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY MODEIITIES OF TEACHING— DIFFERENCEBETWEENTEACHINGANDINSTRUCTION, CONDITIONINGANDTRAINING STAGES OF TEACHING—PRE-ACTIVE, INTERACTIVE AND POST-ACTIVE TEACHING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS— MEMORY, UNDERSTANDING AND REFLECTIVE MODI- FICATION OF TEACHING BEHAVIOUR : MICROTEACHING, FLANDER’S INTERACTION ANALY- SIS, SIMULATION PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (ORI- GIN,TYPES,LINEARANDBRANCHING,DEVELOPMENT OFPROGRAMMEDINSTRUCTIONMATERIAL—LINEAR/ BRANCHING MODEL, TEACHING MACHINES, COM- PUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION MODELS OF TEACH- ING : CONCEPT, DIFFERENT FAMILIES OF TEACHING MOD- ELS DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM —FORMULATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES —TASK ANALYSIS —DESIGNINGOFINSTRUCTIONALSTRATEGIES,SUCH AS LECTURE, TEAM TEACHING, DISCUSSION, PANEL DISCUSSION, SEMINARS AND TUTORIALS COMMUNI- CATION PROCESS : CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION, PRINCIPLES, MODES AND BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION, CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION (INTERACTION VERBAL AND NON- VERBAL) DISTANCE EDUCATION CONCEPT, DIFFERENT CONTEMPORARY SYSTEM, VIZ., CORRESPONDENCE, DISTANCE AND OPEN; STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES; EVALUATION STRATEGIES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION; COUNSELLING METHODS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT OFEVALUATIONTOOLS—NORM-REF- ERENCED AND CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTS EDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGY (MEANING, TYPES SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE) With recent development and advances, technology in education is virtually a new source of concern for educators, teachers and students. As with the rapid developing area, there are problems- both internal and external ones- to be confronted and resolved. Technology is being successfully utilised in resolving many of our problems : hence its success is generalized to the teaching-learning situations. Boguslaw assumes a stance of alarm in his study of cybernetic systems design and social change. With technology in other fields develops pressures for school personnel to accept technology by acquiescence of the new technologies is based on advocacy to a greater extent than it is based on supporting evidence. Thelen asserts that change goes through three distinct phases in education : (1) enthusiasm (2) vulgarization and spread and (3) institutionalization. These may be applied to education technology in this manner :- (1) Enthusiasm, where by each tool or technology is introduced with boisterous excitement by the advocates; (2) Vulgarization and spread, which is a period of rationalization used to install the technology in the classroom as a do-it-yourself innovation and finally; (3) Institutionalization sets in; that is, traditional practices have been redefined to make them fit the rubrics of the innovation. Meaning and Definition of Technology- HJ. Leavit defines technology as problem solving inventions. The development of technology is essentially related to attempts to be rationale and to effect greater efficiency. Me Grath has expanded the definition to include methods and strategies of teaching. Tools, mechanical and electronic devices and instruments, media equipment, library inventories and even text books. Technology is a means components ; however observation of practice and other evidence lead to the conclusion that frequently the advocates and the users tend to view them as ends. It is possible to classify technology for education into two categories : (1) systemic programmes and (2) support/transport items. A systemic programme is conceived as a complete package or programme structured toward an end (a single text book or a CAI programme). Support/transport items consist of technologies of support, such as projectors transparencies or film and transport in including CCTV (closed circuit television), ITU (instructional television) and language laboratory. The computer alone is support/transport item. Further thecomputer can be used as a tool to generate an evaluation of the mentioned systemic programme. One of the most complex and difficult tasks in education is the designing of the programmes. Our eagerness is to adapt to this newly advocated technology, we have not rationally and objectively sorted out the concepts and knowledge- base items which lend themselves to computer programmes in teaching machines. A similar but more common situation attends the use of television in education. Advocacy and the apparent use of it for the sake of use described even current practice in for
  • 7. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 6 to home, school, emotion, etc. each of which requires a separate measurement and any attempt to measure them together may create difficulty. Here the investigator can, however the attributes with more sophisticated instruments specially designed for the purpose. 3.Numerals are used to represent quantities of the at- tribute—The process of measurement involves the process of quantification. Quantification indicates how much or to what extent that particular attribute is present in a particu- lar object. For example, when the investigator is measuring the achievement of a child in arithmetic, he quantities it by saying that the child has an 80 per cent mark in his class. This percentage indicates how much of arithmetical knowl- edge he has gained in the class. Concept of Evaluation Definition 1.By evaluation is meant appraisal or assessment with re- spect to some standard. Tuckman (1975) defines evalua- tion as, “a process where in the parts, processes, or out- comes of a programme are examined to see whether they are satisfactory, particularly with reference to the programmes stated objectives our own expectations or our own standards of excellence. “Thus, evaluation involves a process of appraisal of an object or event with reference to some standard. The standard may be social, cultural or scientific. The standard may also be true or arbitrary. An investigator may measure the height of a child (which say, is 30°) and type him as short. A typist typing 80 words per minute may be described as a ‘Grade A’ typist. Description of the height of he child (which is 30 ° ) and the typing speed of the typist (which is 80 words per minute) are ex- amples of measurement. However, when the child is said to be short or the typist is classified as a ‘Grade A’ typist, it means the performances of the typist and the height of a child are being compared with reference to some standard. A child is short because he is shorter than the general mean height of children of his age group and the typist is a ‘Grade A’ typist because his speed is faster than the aver- age speed of most the typists. Thus, the height of the child and the typing behaviour of the typist are being evaluated and not being measured.” 2.In the words of Kothari Commission, “Evaluation is a con- tinuous process, forms an integral part of the total system of education and is intimately related to educational objec- tives. It exercise a great influence of the pupil’s study hab- its and the teacher’s methods of instruction and thus helps not only to measure educational achievements but also to improve it. The techniques of evaluation are means of col- lecting evidence about the students development in desir- able directions.” Evaluation is an all exclusive and a global process in which data is collected from different persons at different times, from different sources using different techniques. The vari- ety of information, sources and techniques makes the pro- cess of evaluation more comprehensive. It covers the total personality of the students his cognitive, affective and psy- chomotor aspects and not only a few selected aspects of personality. 3.Sponsored by UNESCO in 1972 International Commis- sion on Education stated that, “Real evaluation of a pupil’s achievement should be based not on a single, summary examination, but on over-all observation of his work through- out a course of study. It should pay less attention to the volume of memorized knowledge and more to the develop- ment of his intellectual capacity, reasoning ability, critical judgement and proficiency in problem-solving.” Evaluation is a social and psychological process used in every field of life day by day. An individual evaluated the behaviours of other individuals. He also evaluated his own actions at regular intervals. A gardener evaluates his plants considering their beauty. A doctor evaluate his medicines by observing the behavioural changes in the patients. As a gardener and a doctor and other individuals evaluate their respective actions according to their results, similarly a teacher also evaluates his teaching on the basis of the behavioural changes occurred in the pupils. In the field of education, evaluation is linked with the learning objectives. Therefore, while evaluating his teaching, every teacher ob- serveswhetherthebehaviouralchangeswhichhaveoccurred in the pupils are with reference to the pre-determined learn- ing objectives. The teaching and testing going on side by side according to learning objectives is known as evalua- tion. CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF EVALUATION 1.Comprehensive Process—Evaluation is a comprehen- sive process. In it, not only cognitive aspect is evaluated as is done in essay type examination, it also evaluated the changes which occur in affective and conative aspects. It includes, all the chances which occur in all the aspects such as the physical, mental, social and moral aspects. Hence, evaluation is a comprehensive method to test the pupils. It includes both measurement and evaluation. 2.Continuous Process—Evaluation is a continuous pro- cess closely related to the learning objectives. The desir- able learning experiences are created in the pupil in accor- dance with educational objectives and the behavioural changes which occur day-to-day are recorded. On the ba- sis of this record, the ranking of pupils is made and they are upgraded to the next higher class. 3.Social Process—Evaluation is a social process. In this where all the aspects of personality are evaluated, it is also evaluated whether the teaching has been conducted ac- cording to the needs, ideals and norms of the society or not. 4.DescriptiveProcess—Evaluationisadescriptiveprocess. In this is given the progress which occurs in all the aspects of the pupils. 5.Cooperative process—Evaluation is a cooperative pro- cess. The source of pupil’s promotion is the pupil himself. As he writes in his answer books, so he gets the marks. In evaluation, the necessary material is collected by seeking essential cooperation of all the sources like teacher, pupils and parents. Then his progress is evaluated. 6.Decisive Process—Evaluation is a decisive process. Af- ter this, it is decided that— (i) whether any object or process is useful or not, (ii) to what extent the teaching is successful according to the determined educational objectives, (iii) whether the learning experiences provided to the pupils in the class are effective or not, (iv)How fair the teaching objectives have been achieved. If not achieved then whether the remedial instruction should be given or the teaching strategies are to be modified. Thus, evaluation measures the educational achievements. It also improves the teaching process. STEPS IN EVALUATION Evaluation is a continuous process with the following steps:
  • 8. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 5 ELECTIVE—II EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION CONCEPT, SCOPE, NEED AND RELEVANCE TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION SUB- JECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE TOOLS, ESSAY TEST, OB- JECTIVE TEST, SCALES, QUESTIONNAIRES, SCHED- ULES, INVENTORIES, PERFORMANCE TESTS. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MEASURING INSTRU- MENT : VALIDITY RELIABILITY NORMS USABILITY, ETC. TEST STANDARDIZATION:- NORM-REFERENCED AND CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTS,SCALING-STANDARDSCORES,T-SCORESAND C-SCORES STEPS IN THE STANDARDIZATION OF A TEST MEASUREMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT, APTITUDES, IN- TELLIGENCE, ATTITUDES, INTERESTS AND SKILLS INTERPRETATION OF TEST-SCORES AND METHODS OF FEEDBACK TO STUDENTS NEW TRENDS : GRADING, SEMESTER, CONTINUOUS INTERNAL AS- SESSMENT, QUESTION BANK, USES — OF COM- PUTER IN EVALUATION, QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION Concept of Measurement Measurement is a process by which the developed abilities of the pupils are expressed in the quantitative form. The measurement is directly concerned with quantity. By mea- suring the content, skill and the results of abilities are ex- pressed in numbers, scores, percentage and average, so that the provision of education of the pupils may be made according to their present achievement. By measurement, the variables, groups, capacities, time and distance etc. can be tested very conveniently. In short, according to Campbell, “Measurement is the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules.” DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT 1.J.P. Guilford—”Measurement means the description of data in terms of numbers and this, in turn, means taking advantage of the many benefits that operate with numbers and mathematical thinking provide.” 2.Campbell—measurement is “assignment of numerals to objects or events according to certain rules is called mea- surement.” MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION The term “measurement” and “evaluation” are often used interchangeably. However, in psychological, sociological and educational researches, these two terms connote two dif- ferent meanings. “Measurement”refers to the process of assigning numerals to events, objects, etc. according to certain rules. 3.Tyler—He defined Measurement “as assignment of nu- merals, according to rules.” 4.Nunnally—”Measurement consists of rules for assign- ing numbers to objects in such a way as to represent quan- tities of attributes.” CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASUREMENT 1.Numbers are assigned according to some rules—A number is kind of numeral which is assigned some quanti- tative meaning. In measurement the investigator does not assign numbers of his own choice, but according to certain fixed and explicit rules. Usually, such rules are of two types. One is where the procedure is obvious and explicit. For example, while measuring the length of cloth in feet and inches, rules for assigning numerals are very explicit and clear. But suppose one wants to measure the extroversion trait of personality or the intelligence of a child. In such a situation the rules would not be as clear as in the first ex- ample. The rules are generally vague and less explicit for measuring psychological, sociological and educational at- tributes. 2.Concerned with certain attributes, or variables or feature of an object—These attributes or features of the object are measured and not the object itself. For example, one would measure the aptitude, intelligence, attitude etc. of a person and not the person himself. When an investiga- tor is measuring the attribute of a person, he is faced with two difficulties. First, he may be asked to measure an at- tribute the existence of which is doubtful. Extra sensory perception is one such example. Most investigators have failed to show such perception in many individuals. Here, measurement is not difficult but rather an impossible task. Second, the investigator may be asked to measure attributes with are not unitary but rather a mixture of several sub at- tributes. Usually, this happens when one is asked to mea- sure “Personality adjustment”. Adjustment may relate
  • 9. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 4 diversified and made multipurpose in the light of facts and figures, otherwise a situation already desperate will soon become a hopeless one. Today we have men without jobs and jobs without men. A very large proportion of the annual output of our colleges and universities are not only unemployed but unemployable. There must be something very wrong in our educational system which has resulted in such a tragic situation. To be forewarned is to be forearmed. The State governments and the Central government have the all-important duty of planning ahead the education and the employment of Indian youth. Our educational system should become employment- oriented. It is time that this was done in right earnest. The alternative is disaster. A policy of drift spells danger. Education should be so planned that everyone after completing education becomes eligible for a job, and finds a job. Something on the lines of the New Deal of President Roosevelt in the U. S. A. in 1930 is urgently called for. Our rulers should create jobs, and our education system must fit our youth for these jobs. It may seem rather odd to say so but it is nevertheless true that a love of knowledge for its own sake and the desire to improve the mind and to build character are closely bound up with economic security. The academic life cannot be expected to be so unworldly as to disregard the compelling considerations of economic well-being. Let our society, our educational system and our governments in the State and at the Centre do the needful towards the hungry or hunger- fearing and angry generations of Indian youth. EDUCATION IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA We cannot imagine a progressive and democratic country in modern times without its citizens being properly educated. Agriculture, industries, big and small, arts and crafts, even menial work and domestic service require educated people for their efficient running. Our foreign rulers did not educate the whole of India. The masses were kept illiterate deliberately. India having become independent, it was felt that our manpower could not be put to the best use unless it was a trained and educated man-power. In every Five-Year Plan provision was made for the spread of literacy. Many new universities, colleges and schools have been opened during these several years. The percentage of literacy has nearly doubled during this period. Even in the face of the danger from external aggression, our Prime Minister declared that education should not suffer as a result of economy measures. Much has still to be done. We cannot rest till every Indian can read and write well. Many science institutes or research laboratories have been opened. Engineering and medical colleges are multiplying side by side with primary and secondary schools. Agricultural universities and colleges are being opened in increasing numbers. Education expansion has also taken into account the question of adult education. Labour organization and village Panchayats are having libraries of their own for the use of labourers and farmers. Even jails are having libraries of their own for the mental improvement of the prisoners. The State Governments and the Central Government are giving every aid and encouragement to the production of suitable books for general use. The Bharat Sevak Samaj is also making efforts to spread education. Our progress in education is certainly not too slow, but it is also not as one would desire. With more funds available for the purpose in the successive Five-Year Plans the progress is bound to be quicker. It is our sacred duty to see to it that the lamp of knowledge is lighted in every cottage and in every home. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH IN INDIA Even when India was under British rule, and even today when India is free, English was not and is not the language of the common people of India. It was and still is used for special purposes. Let us enumerate some of them. Arguments in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts of India still have to be presented in English. This is so because for lawyers and judges from all over India with different mother tongues, English alone can serve as a link language. The majority of the members of the Lok Sabha are from the non-Hindi speaking regions, and also members of the Central Secretariat and other Central services. The same is true of our ambassadors and other members of our embassies, of our army, our air force, our navy, of our research institutes and of our various other institutions. For them all English serves as a link language. In our universities there are teachers and students from all over India. The regional language may be the educational medium but it is equally necessary to have sections where the educational medium is English. And last but not least is the fact that books in Indian languages on hundreds of important branches and sub- branches of knowledge are not available. For the purposes mentioned above and for about five per cent of our people English is indispensable. It is wishful thinking to say that English has no future in India. To think in terms of English or no English is unrealistic. We should not be guilty of oversimplification of complex issues. Our mother tongues will not lose but will gain if our highly educated classes have their minds enriched and strengthened with the knowledge of English. Out of this class will come the future makers and creators of great literature in the Indian languages. For literature begets literature. TIME FOR SOUND EDUCATION POLICY NOTED Jurist, Dr. L.M. Singhvi ;has said, a sound educational policy and its purposeful and dynamic implementation has become a long overdue precondition for sustained economic and moral reforms. “If the country is still serious in liberating itself from the shackles of penury and privation, and the deadwood of inertia and dead habit, let us not talk glibly of educational reforms any longer”. Delivering the 72nd Convocation Address of the Delhi University, Dr. Singhvi stated that educational reforms were not optional any more, and argued that only by resuscitating education from the limbo of history, can we achieve socially just democratic participation and qualitative excellence, besides becoming more creative and organised. He also added that education must imbue a student with flexibility and versatility, so that he starts respecting value-relationship, and shapes into an open-minded personality imbued with the zeal to serve the nation and the world selflessly. More than 40,000 students were admitted to various degrees, on the basis of 1994 examinations, at the annual convocation, with 2% of them being awarded Ph.Ds. Besides, 172 medals and prizes were given away—80 to male students and 92 to female students. The convocation
  • 10. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 3 EDUCATION - ESSAYS RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF A STUDENT There are no rights without corresponding duties and no duties without corresponding rights. The condition of the whole society is reflected in the condition of its students. If society, including the government, does not safeguard the rights of the people, it will be nearly impossible for the people to do their duty. A healthy and progressive social organization alone can create a healthy and progressive people. Let us apply these principles to the students who are the most precious charge and the greatest responsibility of society. A hungry man cannot work properly, so a hungry student cannot learn or study properly. Among the first rights of a student are food, clothing and shelter. The home and the neighbourhood should not have a vulgarizing and debasing effect on the budding life of students. It is the right of students to expect and receive love and kindness and understanding. Teachers who know their job, courses of study suitable to the ages and temperaments of students, proper balance between work and play, sensible exercise and assertion of authority combined with sympathy and helpfulness on the part of teachers and elders, are among the just requirements and rights of students. Again, students would make mistakes almost as a matter of right. What are the corresponding duties of students? To be obedient and respectful to their elders and teachers, to be keen and eager to learn, to work honestly, to speak and write clearly and correctly, to be truthful, honest and straight forward, to be lively and happy, to learn self-control, to guard against the formation of bad habits, are among the duties of students. To shun disorderliness and slovenliness, to cultivate good manners and decorum are also in the list of students’ duties. It should be remembered by students that discipline and good behaviour are great fun and not tedious tasks. Love of knowledge and the adventure of the mind should go side by side with the culture of the emotions. It is necessary to feed the head as well as to feed the heart. The spirit of sportsmanship, love of fairness, dislike of injustice, patience and moderation, loving studies and not carrying on studies as an unwanted task are also among the duties and responsibilities of students. Above all, let students not only do their duty but love and enjoy the work they are to perform. If they do so they will not only become good students but happy students. WHAT IS WRONG WITH OUR EDUCATION ? What is wrong with our education? Quite a number of things. Our education has fallen into a vicious circle. The education, or the teaching or the training from the primary to the university stage is so poor that the products of our educational institutions are unfit to work at any job. Even our graduates with a few exceptions are unable to write a few paragraphs correctly either in English or in their mother- tongue. Syntax and sentence-making and the art of composition are woefully neglected at all stages. As a result education not only in language but in all subjects has become a farce and a mockery. Correct and intelligible writing is an indispensable need in all subjects. The sentences written by our students make no sense in the majority of cases. This is vicious circle number one. The vast majority of teachers from the primary stage to the university stage are unfit or nearly unfit to teach. Our system of education is neither producing nor employing good teachers. This is vicious circle number two. In an overwhelming number of cases the teachers are very poorly paid. Their services and prospects are in most cases subject to the whims of semi-literate school and college managers. Their heart is not and cannot be in their work. This is vicious circle number three. Love of knowledge for its own sake is an admirable sentiment. But when after spending the golden years of boyhood and youth and thousands of rupees, hundreds of thousands of our young people find themselves without jobs, they curse their education and they curse the government. Not only are there no jobs for them; in many cases they find that they are not fit for any job. We have thus a very sorry spectacle of men without jobs and jobs without men. These are the vicious circles number four and five. The prescribed books from the primary stage to the secondary stage generally, but specially in language and literature, are so poorly written that they render the minds of the young students blunt and dull. Our educational institutions are mostly producing literate illiterates. They are sending out dumb and language less people. Every department, every office, police service, civil service, clerical services, all classes of schools and colleges suffer grievously because they are being largely if not entirely manned by these literate illiterates. This is vicious circle number six, from which not only our education but every department of our life has been suffering. High-powered bodies are appointed from time to time to make searching enquiries into the state of our education. This is only a ceremony. The reports of such committees are treated by the powers that be with respectful inattention. Nothing is done. Nobody cares. Indiscipline, using unfair means at the examinations, vulgarity and filthy language, crime and violence have become a familiar feature of student life all over the country. Vicious circle number seven. To crown it all political parties have taken to fishing in the troubled waters of school and college life, doing incalculable harm to the cause of education. Vicious circle number eight. Indian education sorely requires complete overhauling. Education is a sacred trust of the government. The education minister in every State should be a seasoned educationist. And he should be a non-party man. The educational budget should be quadrupled. Indiscriminate opening of schools and colleges should be stopped. Private and aided institutions should become government institutions. Proper training and employment should be provided for. All civilized countries are doing this. And this must be done by India as well. OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM More than ninety-nine per cent students in the high school and university classes have as their aim the securing of some job with adequate pay or emoluments. Only about one per cent look forward to taking up independent professions, such as trade or law or medicine. Year after year our universities and degree colleges send out lakhs of graduates as job-seekers. Of this large number perhaps less than one-third can be absorbed in the various services. The rest are doomed to remain jobless and unemployed. This state of affairs has brought matters to such a pass that our educational institutions, our society and our government are faced with the revolt of the youth. Our educational system should be overhauled. It should be
  • 11. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 2 performance and the ranking assigned to compared performances. Achievement Test. Refers to test designed to measure the effects of specific teaching or training in an area of the curriculum. Achromatism. Refers to extremely rare condition of total colour blindness or the inability to distinguish colours. Acoumeter. It is a device used to test hearing by marking clicking or other sounds at prescribed distances from the subject. Acoustic Method.It is a method used to teach the deaf to hear and speak by developing their sensitivity to sound vibrations. Acoustics.Science of sound. Acrostic. A system which helps individuals to recall a sequence or a rule by remembering a word or phrase. Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) (UK). A pressure group which seeks to inform people, particularly school children, of the danger to health which results from smoking. Active Responding.Refers to frequently observing student responses during an instructional sequence. Active Variable. It is variable that can be changed or manipulated by an educational researcher. Activity Curriculum.Curriculum wherein the interests and purposes of children determine the educational programme of activities being planned cooperatively by teacher and pupils. Activity Learning/Teaching. It is a learning or teaching situation, such project work, that is characterized by participation on the part of the learner. AD.Average deviation. ADA. Average daily attendance. Adaptability Test. Test of specific or general ability used to predict performance in a wide range of occupations. Adapted Physical Education.Regular physical education programmes designed for handicapped children. Adaptive Programme. Flexible form of programmed instruction wherein the sequence of frames presented changed so as to suit the pace and difficulty experienced by individual students. Adjunctive Programmes. Questions presented to trainees/student after they have studied instructional material or conventional text books. Adjunct Professor. (US) college/university professor employed on a part-time or contract basis. Adjustment.Refers to process of adapting behaviour to a changed environment. Adjustment to Teaching. Process that occurs in the probationer teacher who successfully adapts to the role of professional teacher from the role of student teacher. Administrative Studies (or Science). It is a branch of educational management with special reference to the organisation of educational institutions and systems. Administrator. Refers to a person with administrative responsibilities e.g. bursar. Admission Criteria.Refers to rules laid down for student selection. Adolescent Crisis.Refers to problem of adjustment due to conflicting influences that young people encounter both within themselves and in the outside world. Adolescent Literature. Refers to the reading material written mainly for, or read by, young people. Adolescent Theory. It is the part of psychological theory that deals with adolescent growth and development. Adolescent Unit. Institution for mentally handicapped adolescents that is intermediary between special school and adult training centre. Adult Education.Education provided for adult for general educational, rather than vocational purposes. Advanced, Reading or Accelerated Reading. Refers to exercises designed to increase reading speed without loss of comprehension. Advance Organizers. Refers to short introductory texts presented to a student at the commencement of course to enable him to structure the course material and put it in perspective. Adviser (US). Refers to a member of the academic staff who advises students about the selection of courses to be taken. Advisory Centre for Education (ACE) (UK). It is an independent, nonprofit making educational body that publishes the journal ‘Where’ and operates are search and enquiry service, providing parents and other laymen with an information service on all aspects of education. Aectiology. Means examination of the origins and derivations of psychological and social states. Affection. Refers to the emotional, feeling aspects of experience and behaviour. Affective.Refers to certain aspects of growth or educational experience that deal with emotional development. Affective Behaviour. Behaviour from which is inferred an individual’s disposition to feel or to adopt an attitude to a value. Affective Education. Teaching or learning experience that have the development of the feeling or emotional aspects of behaviour in the pupils as their focal interest. Affiliation Needs. Refers to the need for acceptance by one’s peers. Affirmative Action.It is positive action taken to overcome under-representation of women and minority groups in employment and student bodies, in comparison with the composition of the area population. African Training and Research Centre in Administration for Development.(Centre African de formation et de recherches administratives pour le development) Establishment 1964 by agreement between Morocco and UNESCO for the training of African civil servants and research into problems of administration. It has some 20 member countries. Afro-Anglo-American Programm in Teacher Education (A.A.A. Programme). Programme begun jointly by Teachers College Columbia University, New York, and the Institute of Education of London University, with financial support from the Carnegie Corporations. It was established to prepare teachers to teach in African secondary schools and teacher education institutions. Age Earnings Profile. Chart or table representing the pattern of earnings for a worker (or workers) at different ages. Age-Grade Report (US). Analysis representing the number of students in the normal grade for their age and the number in higher and lower grades. Age of Criminal Responsibility. It is the age at which a child becomes subject to the criminal law of his/her country or residence.
  • 12. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 1 EDUCATIONAL TERMS A Abacus.Calculating devise made up of beads that can be moved along parallel wires mounted in a frame. Abendgymnasium.German adult education institute. Abendschule.Refers to German evening school or night school that is sponsored by industry or a municipality. It provides both general and vocational education. Abend-techniken. Swiss adult education institutions. Ability Grouping. Method of grouping pupils or students in accordance with their intellectual ability for teaching purpose. Ability Proflls. Chart or diagram that graphically -depicts an individual’s score. Ability Tests.Standardized tests carried out to assess the overall efficiency of a person mentally. Abreaction. Expression or release of repressed feelings through increasing experiences in imagination. Absenteeism.Refers to failure of a pupil to attend school regularly. Abstract.It is the process of writing or collecting abstracts. Abstraction. Mathematical operation for which it is not possible to imagine a concrete model. It also refers to any intangible concept that is used to explain concrete phenomena. Absurdities Test. It is a form of mental test wherein the subject is asked to point out whatever is absurd in a statement, story or picture. Academe. Refers to an academic institution or the academic life. Academicals. Refers to academic dress, pupils or ex-pupils of an academy in Scotland. Academic Aptitude or Ability. It is the ability to perform well in academic education, e.g. a pupil winning merit scholarship might be said to possess academic aptitude. Academic Development.Refers to gain in knowledge and ability to learn by students. Academic Education. Education of an abstract kind, generally demanding a high degree of academic ability. Academic Elite.Refers to a select group educated to high academic standards. Academic Freedom (or Liberty). Refers to freedom of educational institutions, universities, to decide the courses. Academic Games or Gaming.Educational use of games for achieving certain behavioural objectives. Academic Handicap. Refers to handicaps that limits a student’s ability to learn. Academician.Refers to distinguished scholar or member of a national academy of sciences, arts, etc. Academic Persistence. It is a measure of the extent to which students continue their studies at school or college. Academic Against Poverty. It is a UK association to teacher and lecturers concerned with alleviating the effects of poverty in the international community. Academic Selection. Refers to a process whereby education is restricted by criteria of academic aptitude. Academic Staff (or personnel). School, college or university staff with teaching responsibilities. Know as faculty in a US college/university. Academic Standards. Criteria established by an educational institution for determining levels of student achievement. Academic Tenure. Means permanency of appointment, granted to a member of faculty or a academic staff. Academic Year. Refers to period between new intakes of students in a university, college, school, or other academic institution. Academic.(1) Netherlands non-university higher education institution. (2) One of 16 geographical areas into which France is divided for the purposes of educational administration. Academy of Management. It is US association for teachers of management and business studies in college and universities. Academy of Pedagogical Science of the USSR (Akademiya Pedagogicheskikh Nauk). It is a learned society concerned with educational methods techniques and organization. Acalculia. Refers to state of inability to work with numbers in mental operations. Acatalepsia. Means inability to understand commands or instructions. Access and Survey Skills. Refers to skills that enables a student to locate and select reading material pertinent to his/her field of study. Accessibility. It is the extent to which learning resources can be made available to students who are unable to use them at normal or specified times. Accessory Material(US). Refers to teaching materials and aids used to supplement basic textbooks. Accidental Errors. Refers to mistakes in experimental observations because of unknown variables that affect results. Accomplishment Quotient (AQ). It is the ratio of educational age (EA) to mental age (MA). Accountability. The extent to which student performance is attributable to instruction rather than ageing, selective admission, etc. Accreditation. Means recognition and acceptance of the academic standard of an educational establishment by an outside accrediting agency, association or body like an examination board, a professional and qualifying body. Acculturation. Refers to leamine, consciously or unconsciously, of a culture through contract with it. The award of higher degree at the same time as a first or lower degree, both from the same college or university. Achievement. Refers to performance in school or college in a standardized series of educational test. Achievement Age. It is the age that corresponds to the mean score on a given achievement test. Achievement Analysis. Refers to examination of stages in the progress of a project. Achievement Curve. It is a graph of achievement in a specific task or area of study as plotted against time or number of trials. Achievement Method of Marking. A method of marking compositions and essays where in the examiner judges are the writer’s intentions. Achievement Quotient (AQ). It is the ratio between the expected and actual measured performance level in a educational or training programme. Sometimes called accomplishment quotient or educational ratio. Achievement Rating. Means comparing achieved