ias notes for physhic

1,569 views
1,495 views

Published on

Net study material , ugc net notres,
Ias exam notes, ias study material, ias coaching , civil service exams notes,
Civil service prepration

Published in: Education
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,569
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ias notes for physhic

  1. 1. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-1 LIBRARY SCIENCE TERMS A AACR-1.Abbreviation of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (1967), AACR-2.Abbreviation of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (1978). AACR-2 does not supersede AACR-1 (1967) but continues it, for, in spite of the changes in presentation and content which it introduces, these are still the Anglo- American Cataloguing Rules, have the same principles and underlying objectives as the first edition and being firmly based on the achievement of those who created the work, first published in 1967. The new code has harmonised the two differing texts of the first edition.lt incorporates the latest international standards, makes provision for the whole range of new materials and media and takes notice of the full impact of MARC and bibliographic systems. AACR-2 has only two parts. Part I description and Part II Headings, Uniform Titles and References. The rules of Part I contain instructions as the formulation of descriptions of library materials. The rules in Part II are applicable to works and not generally to physical manifestations of those works, though the characteristics of an individual item are taken into account in some instances. Abbreviated Card.Refers to a catalogue card which gives an abbreviated entry. Abbreviated Catalogue Card. A catalogue card which is bearing an added entry but having less information than the main entry. Abbreviated Catalogue Entry. Refers to a catalogue entry (title, subject, translator, etc.) which does not provide as much information as the main entry card. Abend. Abnormal ending (acronym, pronounce as one word). Early termination of a computer program due to an error. A.B.C. Abridged building classification for architects, builders and civil engineers. Aberrant Copy. One in which binding or machining errors, and not merely defects, take place and the correct state of which could be recognized. Abnormal Termination. Means termination which takes place when an error condition is detected by hardware, revealing that a particular series of actions previously initiated cannot be completed correctly Abort.In computing, to terminate, in a controlled manner, a processing activity in a computer system because it is impossible undesirable for the activity to proceed. Abridged Bliss Classification (1967). Henry Evelyn Bliss gave bibliographic classification in 1908. The abridged from was produced for schools in 1967. Abridged Decimal Classification. Refers to an abridgement of Dewey’s Decimal Classification intended for use in small and slowly growing libraries. Abridged Edition.Means a shortened or curtailed version of a book but is retaining the essential character and theme of the original. Abridgement.A reduced form of a work which is produced by condensation and omission of more or less of detail, but retaining the general sense and unity of the original. Absolute Address. In computing : (1) An address in a computer language that identifies storage location or a device without the use of any intermediate reference, (2) An address that is permanently assigned by the machine designer to a storage location, (3) A pattern of characters that identifies a unique storage location or device without further modification. Absolute Addressing. Means address locations in store by their absolute addresses. Absolute Code. Refers to a programming code which is using absolute addresses and operators It is also known as actual code direct code, one level code and specific. Absolute Coding. Program instructions written in absolute code. They do not need further processing before being intelligible to the computer. Absolute Location. Perfect location. Absolute Size. Perfect size. Absolute Value. Refers to the magnitude of a number without regard to sign. Absolute Value Computer. A computer in which data is being processed in its absolute form, all variables keeping their full values. Abstract. Refers to a form of current bibliography in which sometimes book, but mainly contributions to periodicals, are summarized; they are accompanied by adequate bibliographical descriptions to enable the publications or articles to be traced, and are frequently arranged in classified order. They may be in the language of the original or be translated into English or some other language. Periodicals which contain only abstracts are known as journals of abstracts or abstract journals. Abstract Bulletin. A printed or mimeographed bulletin which contains abstracts of currently published periodical articles, pamphlets, etc. It is issued by a special library and distributed monthly, weekly, or daily to its clientele. Also called abstract journal, Abstract Classification. Refers to abstract arrangement in classes/abstract assignment to a class. Abstract Entity. Abstract of a thing that exists or has existence. Abstracting Periodical. Refers to the abstracts of magazines (Periodic) published at regular intervals. It is a special magazine for the purpose specially having abstracts of magazines under a class of knowledge Abstracting Service.The preparation of abstracts, usually in a limited field, by an individual, an industrial organization for restricted use, or a commercial organization; the abstracts being published and supplied regularly to subscribers. Also the organization producing the abstracts. Such services may be either comprehensive or selective. Abstraction. Refers to the mental process of dividing and grouping which is involved in classifying. Abstract Journal or Periodical. A periodical which is having abstracts of current material in books, pamphlets and periodicals. Abstracting Service. Abstracts in a particular field or on a particular subject which are being prepared by an individual or a company and supplied regularly to subscribers or on request. Abstractor. Refers to one who summarises the thought in reference. Academic Dissertation. Written discourse which treats a subject at length academically. Academic Libraries. Those of universities, university colleges, and all other institutions of forming part of, or associated’ with, institutions of higher education.
  2. 2. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-2 Academy Publication. Refers to a work which is being issued by an academy. Sometimes, in an inclusive sense, it refer to a work issued by any learned society. Acceleration Time. The time elapsing between the interpretation of an instruction to a peripheral unit to read or write, and the moment when transfer of information from the unit to store or vice versa could start, e.g., the time taken for accelerating the tape transport on a magnetic tape unit. Acceptance Test. Refers to a test which is used to demonstrate the-capability of a new computer system. It is generally conducted by the manufacture to show the customer that the system is in working order. Access (1) In information retrieval : (i) a device or method whereby a document may be found; (ii) permission and opportunity to use a document (IBM); (iii) the approach to any means of storing information, e.g., index, bibliography, catalogue,. electronic computer. (2) The ability to get data from and/or place it into memory. Access Arm (1) A device which is employed to position the reading and writing mechanisms of a storage device. (2) A mechanical device in a desk file storage unit that is able to position the reading and writing mechanisms. Accession.To enter in an Accessions register particulars of each book in the order of its acquisition. Accession Arrangement. Refers to the arrangement of posting different facts relating to a acquired property/material of library. Accession Assistant.Refers to a person who helps the job of acquiring and accessioning of the material. Accession Book. See Accessions Register. Accession Card. See Accessions Register. AccessControlRegister. Thetermusedforaregisterwhich is used to record the access level allocated to an active procedure. Accession Date. Refers to the date on which a publication has been entered in the accessions register. Accession Department. See Cataloguing Department. Accession Division.Refers to the section of an acquisition department that records, in chronological order of receipt, publications secured by purchase, exchange, or gift. Accessioning. Refers to addition to library property by acquiring it because of demands as it is a growing organism. Accessioning Book. A register which is used for accessioning purpose. Accessioning Book of Periodicals. A register which is used for maintaining account of periodicals. Accessioning Date. Refers to the date of posting the arrival of the library material. Accessioning Department. Department which renders services of accessioning the material of the library. Accessioning Register. Refers to a strongly bound register which has the following Columns : (1) Date of acquisition. (2) Accession number. (3) Author. (4) Title. (5) Publisher’s Name. (6) Place of Publication. (7) Ed. (8) Vols. (9) Pages. (10) Source of supply. (11) Price class/Book No./Remarks, etc. Accession Number. The number given to a book from the Accessions Register. It may also be a number given to an article in a periodical, or other document, which is indexed by the Uniterm Concept Co-ordination System. Accession Order. Refers to the arrangement of books on the shelves according to the order of their addition to a class; a numerical and chronological, as distinguished from a classified, arrangement. Accession Record. The term used for a record of the volumes which are added to a library in the order in which they are received. It may be known, from its various forms, as Accession Book, Accession Cards, Accession Catalogue, Accession File, Accession Sheets, etc. Accession Slip. A slip which is used for accessioning purpose. Accessions. A group term which indicates additions to the stock of a library. Accessions Catalogue. Synonymous with Accessions Register. Accessions List.See Accessions Register. Accessions Register. The chief record of the books added to a library. Books are numbered progressively as they are added to stock and entered in the register. It may be in book form or on cards, and may give a condensed description of the acquisition and history of each book from its reception to its withdrawal. Materials other than books which are added permanently to stock and of which records should be kept are similarly recorded. Not to be confused with Acquisition Record. Accession Section. A section of a cataloguing or processing department which concerned with accessioning library materials. Accession Stamp. A rubber stamp which is impressed on the back of a title-page; when the information is written in the appropriate panels of which the stamp is comprised, it gives much information concerning the records, and processing, of the individual book. Access Method. Refers to the way in which data in a file has been selected for processing; e.g., a direct access storage system can contact files which have been accessed in a number of different ways serial access, random access, and selective sequential access. Access Permission. A response which is given to an attempt for initiating a software routine, when access control mechanisms have ascertained that the attempt possesses correct status and satisfies predetermined security checks. ACM. An acronym for association for computing machinery, a professional computer science organisation. Acme Colour Separator. A machine developed for making three or four colour-corrected continuous tone negatives from coloured transparencies. Acquisition. The processes of acquiring, or the department concerned with acquiring, books for a library. Acquisition Department. The department of a library concerned with the ordering of books and possibly their cataloguing and processing also. Often other functions such as obtaining books by exchange or gift, administration of serials and binding are undertaken. Acquisition Number. Refers to the number in serial to the material acquired in accession register of entry. Acquisition Record. A record of all books and other material added or in process of being added; it is usually kept in alphabetical order. Acquisition Work. The work of book selection, ordering, obtaining by gift or exchange, serials control, and rebinding (American).
  3. 3. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-3 ESSAYS LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SOCIAL ROLE OF LIBRARIES Libraries are service centres. Libraries help the users to get the information they want. For this purpose the library staff has developed a number of tools and techniques. The classified arrangement of books on the shelves helps the users to locate easily the books they want The library cata- logue helps the users to know whether a book is available in the library or not; it is the call number in the catalogue entry helps to locate the book on the shelf. The various maps, plans, guides, etc. provided in the library helps the users to find their way in the complex library mechanism. In addition, the Reference Library Staff provides personalised service whenever the user is in difficulty. The lending, refer- ence, bibliographic, inter-library loan, translation, reprogra- phy etc. are the general services provided by the library. Services other than these normal services, we can call as extension services. BASIC REQUIREMENTS Extension services are employed for the following purpose 1.To help the users to better utilise the library services 2.To attract and see that more and more people make use of the library. For achieving die first objective mentioned above, the librar- ies have to employ what some call as the “International Extension Services”. For achieving the second objective, one has to apply what we call “External Extension Ser- vices”. Internal Services:-Apart from providing assistance to us- ers, the reference librarians or reference assistance are expected to orient the users in the library mechanism. Be- cause libraries are these days mechanised things. Mechanised things are dependent ones. One needs orien- tation to exploit the resources to the fullest extent. The activities to be carried out by the Reference staff within the library to orient or educate the users are called ‘Internal Extension Activities’. Some address these activities as ‘User Education Programm e’. Such as lower education or ‘orientation’ programme not only help the users in exploit- ing the resources of a library, but also, help the library staff in better organisation and management of the libraries. Some of these Internal Extension Services are detailed below: Orientation into the Library Mechanism:-The Reference staff may orient the users either formally or informally into the library systems. In an informal way, the user may be taken to the Library Map/Plan and explain the various sec- tions, special collections and services. The Reference Staff may take the user personally to various sections and ex- plain the type of material available, kind of information one can get, etc. It will be more effective if it is demonstrated to the user as to how to locate the information from various types of source material. In the formal system of orienta- tion, the structured orientation programme may be planned wherein one can combine lectures supported by audio-vi- sual aids; tour around the library demonstration; etc., can be used effectively. In a formal programme, the following areas may be compre- hended: Introduction to the Library:-Concept and role of the li brary; types of libraries; kinds of documents; sections of a library; services provided etc. Documents:-Sources-Primary, Secondary and Tertiary,’ Kinds-Books, Periodicals, Audio-Visual, etc. Parts of a Book:-Preliminaries-Half title page, Title page, Back of the title page, table of contents, preface, introduc- tion; Body of the book Parts, Chapters, Paragraphs, Sec- tional headings, references, notes, etc., End matter-Notes, references, index etc. Care of Books:-How to pick-up a book from the shelf, open- ing of the book for consultation, protecting books from its enemies, improper ways of handling, etc. Arrangement of Material:-Books-textbooks, reference books-pamphlets; pictures; clippings; periodicals; films and film strips; slides; wire, tape; phono; cassettes-audio, vi- sual; floppies; CDs, DVDs; etc. Location of Documents:-Use of catalogues-Kinds of en- tries; arrangement of entries; location in the catalogue; Call Number-Parts and role of each part; Arrangement of books on the shelves-Bay guides, shelf guides, inclusive num- bers on the tier, arrangement are spine labels; identifica- tion of the book etc. Reference Books:-Characteristics, Kinds-Encyclopedias; Dictionaries, atlases, almanac, guide books, gazetteers, gazettes, biographical dictionaries, indexes, etc. Bibliography:-Selection of items, arrangement preparation of index cards; etc. Technical Writing and Editing:-Planning a study order- ing of the subject chapterization; paragraphing; providing feature headings; hints on punctuation and capitalization citing references; arrangement of references editions proof reading; etc. OTHER ACTIVITIES Other extension activities that a library may take-up to bring books and users together are: Organisation of Exhibitions-Which will help in bringing to the notice of the users the richness of me collection of the library: topical exhibitions will attract large number of users; provide an opportunity to discover bocks which were not expected of. Display of New Additions:-Many libraries display the jack- ets of the new additions at the entrance of the library so that they can draw the attention of the users and thus tempted to read. Nagpur University Library has started a ‘Monthly Book Exhibition’ wherein, books added in the pre- vious month are displayed from 3-11 of every month. This provides an opportunity for users to have a look at books on all subjects at one place. Inter-disciplinary nature of the research support such displays. Lectures:-Libraries should arrange topical lectures; lectures suitable to different sections of the users-men, women, chil- dren, students, etc. This opportunity should also be utilised for arranging suitable exhibitions/display of books and other reading material which help the users to select the right book for extended reading. Dr. Ranganathan used to bring out topical bibliographies also on such occasions and dis- tribute them among the listeners so that they can easily select literature on their choicest subject Other Extension Activities:-Many public libraries are also organising dramas, musical concerts, film shows, quiz programmes, elocution and essay competitions, etc. to at- tract the public to the library and finally become beneficia- ries of its resources.
  4. 4. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-4 External Services:-External Extension Services are those provided outside the library. These services are aimed at: 1.Creating awareness among the general public about the role of libraries, library services, etc. 2.Use of external sources like mass media, mass contact programmes, etc. for the spread of the message of the li- braries as sources of enlightenment and education 3.Organising community services, group oriented progra- mmes, etc., as supportive to library service and 4. Plan an integrated, coordinated and well modulated li- brary and information services at various levels. Reader Friendly Service:-Regular users of the library know the role and resourcefulness of the libraries. There may be many who are not aware of the role of the libraries and how to exploit the resources of the library. The creation of aware- ness among the public may be taken up either by library staff or by voluntary organizations (NGOs). STAFF AT WORK The library staff may attract the people to the library and appraise them about the role and services of the library. In fact, the library staff can serve the public at large and make them willing beneficiaries of the library-literates, neo-liter- ates as well as illiterates. The ways and means by means of which the library staff can achieve this objective will be detailed in the next section. SERVICE CENTRES In India, voluntary organizations (NGOs) have been playing an important role in the establishment, maintenance and execution of innovative services. The Library Movement in Andhra Desa was described as ‘peoples movement’ be- cause the enlightened public took initiative in spreading the library movement to the nook and corners of the region. The Andhra Desa Library Association (established in 1914) organised ‘Library Pilgrimages’ for spreading the message of library movement. They used to go from place to place convince the local public the need for establishing a library, as well as, advice the existing libraries in organizing librar- ies on technical lines and organise various extension ser- vices to enhance their utility. Publicity:-Publicity is the art of influencing public opinion and demand. The publicity target may be general or indi- vidual. General, here we mean, those programmes which are aimed at making the public aware of the need of librar- ies; value of books and other reading material; educative role of libraries; services offered by the libraries etc. Mass Media:-In this context mass media can be exploited in spreading the message by writing articles in newspa- pers and magazines; radio and television talks; organising public lectures; demonstration tours; attractive sign boards; organising exhibitions: observing library weeks publishing brochures; leaflets; bulletins; etc. Library Bulletin:-Publication of library bulletin would be a valuable medium which can be used to provide general information about library services, particularly new initia- tives; routine programme of the library topical issues book reviews literature survey articles; rules and regulations spe- cial announcements etc. MEANT FOR PEOPLE Use of Fairs and Festivals:-India is said to live in villages. Villages have the tradition of holding fairs and festivals. These provide greater opportunity to have mass contact programmes. Programmes like lectures, exhibitions, etc. on libraries and books can be organised which will enable the public to realise the importance of libraries and the so- cial change mat die books can bring. Wall magazines, posters, charts giving useful information about libraries, literacy, education, etc. be displayed at the venue. Exhibition of manuscripts, maps, microforms, phonorecords, use of internet, CD-ROMs, etc. will prove to be useful Cultural events like dramas, film or video shows, musical concerts, etc. can be arranged at the venue of the lecture or exhibition which will attract more and more people to the event SOCIAL ORIENTATION Adult Education Programmes:-As a part of the exten- sion programmes, library enthusiasts were organising adult education classes to make the public literate so that they could make use of the libraries. Even today many of the public libraries are conducting adult education programme. Local Broadcasting:-Village libraries have been organising film shows, audio and video broadcasts, lecture programmes, etc. In order to enlighten the illiterate public in terms of health, hygiene, family welfare, agriculture, cul- ture and heritage, contemporary politics and economics, etc. Reading Newspapers, Display of Wall-newspapers:- Libraries in the villages, in localities where there is a con- siderable number of illiterate population have been reading newspapers and magazine articles of interest to the illiter- ate public at specific hours in the morning and evening, during those hours where majority of them have a free time. For thebenefit of neo-literates, librariesdopreparewallnews- papers and display in the library as well as at places where majority of the public congregates. COLLECTIVE EFFORTS Reading Circles:-Many public libraries are organising ‘Reading Circles’ for various groups, like, ‘Women Circles’; ‘Children’s Circle’; ‘Student’s Circle’; ‘Special Reading Circles’ on the basis of subject, profession, etc. Such circles are found to be always effective. These groups provide an opportunity to come together discuss, common issues, problems and get die information from the library at their disposal. Libraries should provide suitable time, space and reading material for these groups. In the United States of America some of the public libraries are providing free accommoda- tion for NGOs to locate their offices and offer services. Special ‘Summer Reading Programmes’ for pre-schoolers; special awards or incentives to children who visit the library often and for those who read more books; special programmes like story-telling; film showing; library tours; reading lists for different age groups; different standards; lists of books giving fairly fables; poems; etc., guides to parents giving information as to how they can help their children succeed in schools. To Young Adults:-College bound students should have ac- cess to material that help develop skills for college entrance examinations (like PMT, GATE, etc.); complete set of col- lege prospectuses; computer and internet facility: job infor- mation; career planning literature etc. To Adults:-Health guides and medical tips events lists; ref- erence and referral service; bibliographical service book lists workshops and seminars; etc. integrated services. Extension service also implies providing library service by
  5. 5. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-5 LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PAPER -II & PAPER -III (PART A & B) UNIT—I • INFORMATION, INFORMATION SCIENCE, INFORMA- TION SOCIETY • INFORMATION AS A RESOURCE/COMMODITY • INFORMATION TRANSFER CYCLE GENERATION, COLLECTION, STORAGE AND DISSEMI- NATION ROLE OF INFORMATION IN PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER • COMMUNICATION—CHANNELS, BARRIERS • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS— CONCEPT, COPYRIGHT, CENSORSHIP— PRINT AND NON-PRINT MEDIA • LIBRARY AND INFORMATION POLICY AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL INFORMATION, INFORMATION SCIENCE, INFORMATION SOCIETY INFORMATION Information The man is a thinking animal so various kinds of thoughts and ideas are created in his mind. Thus human mind is a generator of ideas. These thoughts and ideas are based on certain facts, which are derived by continuous observances and experiences. When these facts hold the test of time, they become data, i.e. something which occurs, which can be seen, felt and observed. When these data are arranged in an organised manner and presented, told or passed on to some one, become information. Hence we can say that information originates from an idea that creeps in mind of a man as a result of observation. The word information is derived from two Latin words Forma andFormatio,which convey more or less the same meaning. There are other such terms as knowledge, facts, data, news, message, etc., which are used synonymously near to the word information. But none of these terms are equivalent to information. In fact, information is the act of informing the fact. Therefore the concept of information is taken to the meaning as a collection of facts or other data. It is also an assemblage of data in a comprehensible form recorded on paper or some other medium, and capable of communication. In simpler terms, the processed data is information. Information consists of data that have been retrieved, processed or otherwise used for informative or inference purpose, argument or as a basis for forecasting or decision making. The way in which the data of a message are structured is crucial to their effect as information. GENERALCONCEPT According to Shera, information is that, which is transmitted by the act or process of communication, it may be a message, a signal, a stimulus, it assumes a response in the receiving organism and therefore, possess response potential... its motivation is inherently utilitarian... it is instrumental and it usually is communicated in an organised or formalised pattern, mainly because such formalisation increases potential utility. A number of authors defined information as follows : 1. Facts concerned with a subject, called information. — J. Beeker 2.The information is a collection of statements, facts and the figures. — Haufman 3. Information is a symbol or set of symbols which has the potential for meaning. —Faibisoff & Ely 4.Information is that which has the power of changing the size of a thing. — Bacon A PROPERTY OF DATA According to ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Service, information is a property of data resulting from or produced by a process that produced the data. According to Ford : The structure of any text which is capable of changing the image structure of a recipient is information.” With reference to library and information science, information may be defined as the structure of any text which is capable of changing the image-structure of a re- cipient or any stimulus that reduces uncertainty.
  6. 6. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-6 Mainly the terms data and knowledge are also used for information, where the term data refers to an individual fact, a piece of information. Thus data can be described as dis- crete and unorganised pieces of information. Data becomes information when these pieces are processed, interpreted and presented in an organised or logical form. And knowl- edge is the organised body of that information. Thus in com- mon parlence, information and knowledge more or less can be used synonymously without making any distinction be- tween them. The following example may make the ideas clear about these 3 terms i.e. Data, information and knowledge. We take the example of cloth which is weaved by yarns and the yarns are prepared from the cotton. Cotton is loomed into yarns which in turn is weaved into cloth. In the same way data also can be weaved into information which can be used to form an organised body of knowledge. In general, both data and information are the building blocks of knowl- edge. Thus now the meaning of the above terms might be clear. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION “Information is the product of the human brain in action. It may be abstract or concrete. When an individual begins to think, a variety of images and sensations flash across his mind. This makes some information to accumulate in his mind and his memory retains some pieces of knowledge”, says Viswanathan. INFERENCE From the above statements, we can infer that : (a) Information is the data that have been retrieved and processed; (b) Information may be a message, a signal, or a stimulus; (c) Information is meant for communication and it is capable of bringing a change in the recipient; (d) What we often call information is only a random collection of data, until it is used by someone to achieve a specific purpose; and (e) Information reduces the uncertainty when used. Data and Information According to Faibisoff and Dely, data can be numerically expressed, that is, quantified, quantifiable or objective. Data is highly repetitive. Information is not highly repetitive or quantified or quantifiable. It is characterised as narrative and subjective. Data then are number or unit facts, frequently repeated. Whereas, information is an idea. Information is a symbol or a set of symbols, which has the potential for meaning. ILLUSTRATION Let us take the datum ‘9 6 1946’. This may be a date (9th June 1946), a telephone number, an account of a person in a bank, or any thing like. When we attribute a value or meaning to a datum, it is called information. Since the invention of printing, there has been a continuous revolution in the generation, transfer and communication of information in fact has been growing at an exponential rate which is often referred to as “information explosion”. Information is Cumulative-Human activity can be viewed as a process of building-up knowledge. The knowledge conserved by human, we call as ‘Universe of Knowledge’. The individual knowledge is the sum-total of ideas comprehended by a person. An individual gathers information either by (sensory) experience or through formal education or both. The information available can be elaborated, consolidated, interpreted and used for varied purposes basing on the kind of information. The information can be used as raw-material for elaboration and generation of new information. The broad areas of application of information are : (i) Recreative; (ii) Creative (or technological); (iii) Economic (or Financial); (iv) Management; (v) Planning and Decision making. Characteristics of Information: The following are the characteristics of information. 1. Information is the flow of message. 2. Information is transitory by nature. 3. Information inherits meaning. 4. Information is particular. 5. Information is fragmented. 6. Information is dynamic. 7. Information is timely. 8. Information is purpose oriented. 9. Information can be recorded. 10. Information is quantitative. 11. Information is structural. 12. Information is explanatory. 13. Information may be destroyed. Types of Information: Shera has categorized information into following types: 1. Conceptual Information: The idea, theories, hypotheses about the relationships ex- ists among the variables in the area of a problem. 2. Empirical Information: Experience, the data of research, may be drawn from one’s self or through communication from others. It may be labo- ratory generated or it may be a product of Literature Search. 3. Procedural Information: The methodology which enables the investigastor to oper- ate more effectively. Procedural information relates to the means by which the data of the investigation is obtained, manipulated and tested, it is certainly methodological, and from it has been derived the scientific attitude. The commu- nication of procedural information from one discipline or field or investigation to another may illuminate vast shadows of human ignorance. 4. Stimulatory Information : Man must be motivated and there are but two sources of such motivation, himself and his environment. Stimulatory information that is transmitted by direct-communication the contagious enthusiasm of another individual - but whether directly or indirectly communicated. It is probably the most difficult of all forms of information to systematize. It is fortu- itous by nature, it submits unwillingly to direction or com- pulsion. 5. Policy Information : This is the focus of the decision making process. Collec- tive activity necessitates the definition and objective and purpose, the fixing of responsibility, the codification of rights and privileges, and the delineation of functions, 6. Directive Information : Group activity cannot proceed effectively without coordina- tion, and it is through directive information that this coordi- nation is achieved.
  7. 7. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-7 UNIT—V • ORGANISATION OF KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION • MODES OF FORMATION OF SUBJECTS • LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION CANONS AND PRINCIPLES • LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES DDC, UDC AND CC • LIBRARY CATALOGUING CANONS AND PRINCIPLES • LIBRARY CATALOGUING CODES CCC AND AACR -II • BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS INTERNATIONALSTANDARDS—ISBDS,MARCANDCCF • INDEXING PRE-COORDINATE, POST-COORDINATE • VOCABULARY CONTROL THESAURUS, LISTS OF SUBJECT HEADINGS • DATABASES SEARCH STRATEGIES, BOOLEAN OPERATORS • KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION/KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Information and knowledge are related words and are used synonymously to each other. Even then there is a shade of difference in their meaning and in the context of their us- age. Both are being explained with reference to library and information science. 1.Information — Any news is the information but it is new or interesting information. There are so many news around us which create information. Information is created as a result of the different types of human activities. Both indi- viduals and corporate bodies are involved in the creation of information for some specific purposes. 2.Knowledge— The organised body of information is called knowledge. With some statements, we can clearly under- stand the meaning of knowledge. We often say a knowl- edge of French is desirable for the post, which means that a person having reasonable acquaintance with French is eligible for a certain position. Similarly, we often called li- brary as a store house of knowledge, which means that library store documents which contain knowledge. Thus we see that with a shade of difference in their mean- ing, we treat information and knowledge more or less syn- onyms to each other without making any distinction be- tween them. Information Management: The application of the principles of management to the ac- quisition, organisation, control, dissemination and use of information is called information management. The term information management is used ambiguously in several fields. In computer science it is used as a synonym for information technology or as indentical to data manage- ment. In business or management studies it has similar connotations to technology management. According to D.D.Wilson compared with other areas, in the context of library and information science, it is more widely concerned with the meaning of information for the information uses and with information retrieval issues. Knowledge Management: Knowledge Management is form of application of sound management practices to human resources as a whole which are the carrying vectors of knowledge. In a sense, it is the management of the organisation towards the con- tinuous renewal of the organisational structure, facilitation of organisational members, putting information technology instruments with emphasis on teamwork and diffusion of knowledge into place. Knowledge Management process is a question of proper vision, organisational networks, edu- cated decision and the best use of lessons learned as the key to organisational learning. Hence KM is needed in the librariestoimprovelibraryservices,recordinformation,create knowledge and enables users to share and learn by provid- ing user friendly approach in all the activities. Information Management v/sKnowledge Management :We often use information and knowledge interchangeably and more so because we are unable to clearly distinguish between the two as they are very much related. However, while trying to manage them, the distinction would be fairly clear in the sense that KM (i.e Knowledge Management) involves not only all activities of IM (Information Manage- ment) but some more specialised activities centred around creation and recording of new knowledge and sharing it. IM basically deals with information present in the docu- ments while KM deals not only with the information con
  8. 8. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-8 tent of documents but also with the knowledge present in the employees’ brain. Also, in IM, coded information be- comes knowledge for the future use but in KM, coded knowl- edge becomes information for future knowledge base, IM and KM have different challenges to meet. For IM, the chal- lenges lies in valuing separate information items and dem- onstrate the power of IM in the context of profit margins, increased organisational efficiency etc. As far as KM is concerned, the challenge lies in tapping the tact knowl- edge (knowledge which cannot be easily codified) and cre- ate an environment that would facilitate creation of new knowledge and sharing it for organisational developments. 2. MODES OF FORMATION OF SUBJECTS Today new subjects are being formed in the universe of subjects by different modes of formation of subjects. Where each mode has distinct implications on the design and development of schemes of classification. Dr. Ranganathan made initiation towards the modes of formation of subjects in 1950. He first postulated four modes. Later he recognised following types of modes of formation of subjects. Of them, some are simple, some are compound and some are com- plex. Thus these modes are as follows: 1. Fission— Fission is the process of division of subjects into smaller pieces. In this mode an isolate or basic subject gets fis- sioned or split into subdivisions. Thus there is increasing intention and decreasing extension of subjects into spe- cialized fields. Hence fission is an internal process of divi- sion without involvement of outside agency. Example: 2. Dissection— Dissection is a process to cut a universe of entities into parts of coordinate status. In this mode an isolate or a ba- sic subject gets fissioned or split into parts of coordinate status. The classes are ranked equally. Example: 3. Denudation — This term is used to denote fission, when a subject is splitted up in chain type relationship, the mode of formation is denu- dation. Here the classes are subdivided and the extension of class is decreased and intension is increased. Each later class is subordinated to the earlier one. Example: 4. Lamination — The process of lamination gives rise to compound subjects. It means layering one facet on the other. When a subject has more than one, direction, it is called lamination. Example: Agriculture of corn , Curriculum of university education 5. Loose Assemblage— It is the process linking together different classes. This is achieved by the process of assembling together of two or more basic subjects or compound subjects. It is used to show relation of a subject with another subject or its subdi- visions. Examples: Mathematics for engineers BobD Classification and cataloguing 2:51or5 6. Fusion — In this mode two or more main subjects are fused together in such a way that each of them loses its individuality in respect of the schedules of isolates needed to form the compound subject going with it. This results in fused main subject. Examples: Biophysics, Geochemistry, Medical Jurisdic- tion etc. 7. Distilation — In this mode, a pure subject is evolved as a main subject based on experience in its appearance in action in diverse compound subjects going with different basic subjects. This results in a distilled main subject. Examples: Management of university, Public heath, Microbiology etc. 8. Agglomeration — Agglomeration is a subject comprehending several succeed- ing consecutive basic subjects and having some essential qualities in common. This mode of development is used in some partial context usually in the context of main class. In CC, enumeration device and interpolation device are used for agglomeration. Examples: Biological science is an ag- glomeration class including Zoology, Botany, Animal Hus- bandry, Agriculture and Medicine etc. 9. Cluster — This mode was formerly known as subject bundle. In this mode a new kind of agglomeration of subjects is formed and a new subject is constructed. Example : Indian Phi- losophy. Indian Culture, Indian History, Indian Civilization etc.
  9. 9. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-9 UNIT—X • TYPES OF LIBRARIES— NATIONAL, PUBLIC, ACADEMIC AND SPECIAL OBJECTIVES, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS • DIGITAL LIBRARIES—CONCEPT • VIRTUAL LIBRARIES—CONCEPT • TYPES OF USERS, USER STUDIES, USER EDUCA- TION • ROLE OF UGC IN THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTRES IN INSTI- TUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • ROLE OF RAJA RAMMOHAN ROY LIBRARY FOUNDA- TION(RRLF) TYPE OF LIBRARIES The word library has been derived from the Latin word Libraria, whose verbal meaning is the house of books, i.e. the place where the books are collected or stored. But there is no suitable definition of the library which would describe clearly, but the aims of the library has always been changed at time to time. Before inventions of papers, printing and machines, the main aim of libraries was only to keep safe of the books and they were available only to high gentry of the people. But now their aims have basically been changed and now they are open to every one. Thus keeping in minds the present aims, libraries can be defend as a collection of books so organised and arranged in a suitable physical plan by the staff to facilitate easy use by readers. In more clear way, we can say that today libraries are those that collect, store, process, organise, disseminate and distrib- ute information and knowledge recorded in documents. Thus we see that there was a time when libraries were regarded only as store houses of books and other reading materials, but now they have become the dynamic social agencies for effective dissemination of information and knowledge. Now the/libraries are essentially to promote the best utilization of their resources and services and to make the users aware about them. Thus libraries play a predominant role in the progress and development of the society and has also be- come an integral part and indispensable agency for impart- ing education. Libraries are not only the nucleus of the society, but they are also very dynamic components of the society. Hence a library is supposed to be the most powerful and effective media for bulk communication of ideas for the betterment of society. The modern libraries serve as information and com- munication centres. They identify the information needs of the users and supply required information and necessary guidance. The success of a library depends upon the qual- ity of the services it provides. There are variety of libraries which are functioning in mod- ern society these days to meet knowledge and information needs of different segments of our contemporary society. Parry Committee on libraries (UK) talked about 6 types of libraries while discussing the functions and duties of the libraries. Libraries differ in their nature and forms of activi- ties they perform. On this basis libraries are of various types. But mainly five types of libraries are present at this time, which are being discussed. 1. National Libraries 2. Academic Libraries 3. Public Libraries 4. Special Libraries 5. Information Centres Such libraries exist in almost all the countries all over the world. We give below the brief discussion of each of the libraries here as follows: NATIONAL LIBRARIES National Libraries differ in size and scope from country to country. For example National Libraries like British Museum (Britain), Library of Congress (U.S.A.), and Bibliotheque Nationale (France) contain not only literature of their countries but also of other countries. Earlier the aim of the National Library was to build up exhaustive collections. Secondly, during the first century and half of their development, most of the National Libraries allowed the public to have limited access to their collections.
  10. 10. - IIndFloor,PaliwalMarket,GumanpuraKOTA (-0744-2392059&3290500 t-10 Thirdly, they did not participate in the inter-library cooperation with other libraries of their countries. The essential services for National Library are follow- ing:- 1.A reference collection of all the publications of the par- ticular country, achieved by compulsory legal deposit (i.e., the requirement that all publishers deposit at least one copy of everything which they produce with the national library). 2.A current national bibliography of the country’s output of publications (the comprehensive of which can be best as- sured by the legal deposit requirement), which in time will cumulate into the country’s definite retrospective bibliogra- phy. 3.A lending service, consisting of a store of multiple copies of the whole of the country’s publication, plus as much of the publication of the rest of the world as is economically feasible, so that- (a)any individuals or groups within the country concerned, through their own local or specialised library services, may be sure that a copy of an information-containing material, which they require, may be made available through the na- tional library service as quickly as possible (b)so that libraries in other countries may have a central point mat they may approach to borrow material which may not be available in their own collections. Other services of national libraries include:- (i) A national information service, or at least a national re- ferral service, i.e., an office which can reliably and speedily refer enquiries to, sources of information which may not be available from the national library itself. (ii) A national translation centre, where new and proposed translations are recorded, copies of completed translations held, and translations made of foreign material which is of great interest or importance, but is unlikely to be translated elsewhere. (iii) A national publishing house. This might, e.g., repub- lish out of print material and give opportunity to authors who cannot achieve publication elsewhere. (iv) Librarianship and information work research and devel- opment. (v) Librarianship and information work education and train- ing. STAFF AT NATIONAL LIBRARY There are two broad classes of staff employed in libraries- those involved in library and information work and those who provide back-up services. These categories car be sub- divided: 1. LIBRARY/INFORMATION STAFF Non-professional:- Unqualified staff are usually educated to ‘O’ level standard; should be able to understand national language and En- glish language. They may have ‘A’ level or even higher quali- fications which will enable them to take professional ex- aminations. Non-professional staff are expected to undertake most of the routine work so that professionals can afford more intel- lectually demanding duties. Some librarians have recognised the Reed for a career ladder for non-professional staff. Pre-professional:- Broadly speaking all non-professional staff are pre-profes- sional, but strictly the term relates to trainee librarians. The distinction is worth making, for trainees should be given some practice at professional duties and an attempt should be made to introduce them to a wider perspective of librarianship than they see in their immediate job. The use of trainees as a cheap source of high quality labour is unfair and on a par with the use of library science students on field work as convenient extra hands, available for clearing long-standing work and doing unpopular jobs. Specialist:- Professional librarians can specialise in many ways, by type of library, i.e., national, public, academic, special; by function, Le., reference work, children’s services, biblio- graphical services etc.; or, perhaps, by subject interest, as in university libraries where graduate qualified staff specialise in an area of the stock-selecting, cataloguing, classifying, and taking general responsibilities in that area. In special libraries the knowledge of a particular subject area is very useful. Professional staff also carry out indexing, abstract- ing and translation work. Managerial:- Very senior posts in large libraries require more than biblio- graphical skills. Chief librarians are professional librarians with wider than average responsibilities, or professional managers comparable to industrial executives. Irrespective of the classification, it is evident that managerial expertise is now necessary for more senior posts in the profession. 2.SUPPORT STAFF Manual/caretaking libraries are expensive warehouses of knowledge. Equip- ment, stock, the buildings themselves are valuable. It makes good economic sense to employ people specifically to care for the library and its physical assets. Caretaking staff need to have qualities of realibilities, responsibility and resource- fulness-many caretaking problems arise outside normal hours of work when senior staff cannot be consulted. Clerical/Secretarial:- Many libraries employ secretarial and other clerical staff. Increased use of ‘media resources’ in libraries of all types, and the installation of computerised processes, have made technical knowledge essential. Although all staff concerned with handling new media should be trained in their use, large collections will require specialist technical staff. Com- puter processing in libraries has led to a need for trained operatives and, for libraries with in-house systems, some technical expertise; such posts are often designated ‘Tech- nical Services Librarian’. Here we are discussing in brief some familiar national li- braries of important countries of the world. 1. British Library, London (National Library of UK) — The British Museum which was founded in 1759, was the national library of UK till March 1973. Since April 1973 the British Library has assumed the status of National Library. British Library is not the name of one library but of a sys- tem of libraries which is comprised of the six libraries and information centers. British Library has occupied a central position in the library and information network of U.K. It reflects the intellectual, Cultural and socio-economic life of the country. The library aims to serve scholarship, research and development, in- dustry, commerce and all other major users of information. This library is directed by a Board of Management compris- ing a chairman and the nine experts. 2. Library of Congress, Washington (DC) (National Li- brary of USA) — The Library of Congress founded in 1800 is the national

×