Traditional training methods

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Traditional training methods

  1. 1. Human Resources TrainingHuman Resources Training and Individual Developmentand Individual Development Traditional Training MethodsTraditional Training Methods February 16, 2004February 16, 2004
  2. 2. Traditional Training MethodsTraditional Training Methods Presentation Methods Hands-on Methods Group Building Methods
  3. 3. Presentation MethodsPresentation Methods • How is the information transmitted to the trainee with presentation methods?? • What information is transmitted? • Two presentation methods: –Lectures –Audio-visual techniques
  4. 4. Hands-on MethodsHands-on Methods • Hands-on methodsHands-on methods refer to trainingrefer to training methods that require the trainee to bemethods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning.actively involved in learning. • These methods include:These methods include: – On-the-job trainingOn-the-job training – SimulationsSimulations – Case studiesCase studies – Business gamesBusiness games – Role playsRole plays – Behavior modelingBehavior modeling
  5. 5. On-the-Job TrainingOn-the-Job Training • On-the-job training (OJT)On-the-job training (OJT) refers to newrefers to new or inexperienced employees learningor inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managersthrough observing peers or managers performing the job and trying toperforming the job and trying to imitate their behavior.imitate their behavior. • OJT includes:OJT includes: – ApprenticeshipsApprenticeships – Self-directed learning programsSelf-directed learning programs
  6. 6. OJT Programs: ApprenticeshipOJT Programs: Apprenticeship • Work-study training method with both on-Work-study training method with both on- the-job and classroom training.the-job and classroom training. • To qualify as a registered apprenticeshipTo qualify as a registered apprenticeship program under state or federal regulations:program under state or federal regulations: – 144 hours of classroom instruction144 hours of classroom instruction – 2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience • Can be sponsored by companies or unions.Can be sponsored by companies or unions. • Most programs involve skilled trades.Most programs involve skilled trades.
  7. 7. SimulationsSimulations • Represents a real-life situation.Represents a real-life situation. • Trainees’ decisions result inTrainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what wouldoutcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job.happen if on the job. • Used to teach:Used to teach: – Production and process skillsProduction and process skills – Management and interpersonalManagement and interpersonal skillsskills
  8. 8. Case StudiesCase Studies • Description about how employeesDescription about how employees or an organization dealt with aor an organization dealt with a difficult situation.difficult situation. • Trainees are required to:Trainees are required to: –Analyze and critique actions takenAnalyze and critique actions taken –Indicate the appropriate actionsIndicate the appropriate actions –Suggest what might have been doneSuggest what might have been done differentlydifferently
  9. 9. Role PlaysRole Plays • Trainees act out characters assigned toTrainees act out characters assigned to them.them. • Information regarding the situation isInformation regarding the situation is provided to the trainees.provided to the trainees. • Focus on interpersonal responses.Focus on interpersonal responses. • Outcomes depend on the emotional (andOutcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees.subjective) reactions of the other trainees. • The more meaningful the exercise, theThe more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus andhigher the level of participant focus and intensity.intensity.
  10. 10. Behavior ModelingBehavior Modeling • Involves presenting trainees with a modelInvolves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate.who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate. • Provides trainees opportunity to practice theProvides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors.key behaviors. • Based on the principles of social learningBased on the principles of social learning theory.theory. • More appropriate for learning skills andMore appropriate for learning skills and behaviors than factual information.behaviors than factual information. • Effective for teaching interpersonal andEffective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills.computer skills.
  11. 11. Group Building MethodsGroup Building Methods • Group building methodsGroup building methods refer torefer to training methods designed totraining methods designed to improve team or groupimprove team or group effectiveness.effectiveness. • Training directed at improvingTraining directed at improving individual trainees’ skills as wellindividual trainees’ skills as well as team effectiveness.as team effectiveness.
  12. 12. Group Building MethodsGroup Building Methods • Involve trainees:Involve trainees: – Sharing ideas and experiencesSharing ideas and experiences – Building group identityBuilding group identity – Understanding interpersonalUnderstanding interpersonal dynamicsdynamics – Learning their strengths andLearning their strengths and weaknesses and of their co-workersweaknesses and of their co-workers
  13. 13. Group Building MethodsGroup Building Methods • Group techniques focus onGroup techniques focus on helping teams increase their skillshelping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork.for effective teamwork. • Group building methods include:Group building methods include: – Adventure learningAdventure learning – Team trainingTeam training – Action learningAction learning
  14. 14. Group Building Methods:Group Building Methods: Adventure LearningAdventure Learning • Focuses on the development of teamworkFocuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills using structuredand leadership skills using structured outdoor activities.outdoor activities. • Also known as wilderness training andAlso known as wilderness training and outdoor training.outdoor training. • Best suited for developing skills related toBest suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as:group effectiveness such as: – Self-awarenessSelf-awareness – Problem solvingProblem solving – Conflict managementConflict management – Risk takingRisk taking
  15. 15. Group Building Methods:Group Building Methods: Team TrainingTeam Training • Involves coordinating theInvolves coordinating the performance of individuals who workperformance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.together to achieve a common goal. • Teams that are effectively trainedTeams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify anddevelop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate informationresolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other.gathering, and reinforce each other.
  16. 16. Group Building Methods:Group Building Methods: Action LearningAction Learning • Involves giving teams or work groups:Involves giving teams or work groups: – an actual problem,an actual problem, – having them work on solving it,having them work on solving it, – committing to an action plan, andcommitting to an action plan, and – holding them accountable for carryingholding them accountable for carrying out the plan.out the plan.
  17. 17. Choosing a Training MethodChoosing a Training Method 1.1. Identify the type of learning outcome thatIdentify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence.you want training to influence. 2.2. Consider the extent to which the learningConsider the extent to which the learning method facilitates learning and transfer ofmethod facilitates learning and transfer of training.training. 3.3. Evaluate the costs related to developmentEvaluate the costs related to development and use of the method.and use of the method. 4.4. Consider the effectiveness of the trainingConsider the effectiveness of the training method.method.
  18. 18. WednesdayWednesday • Creative training andCreative training and presentation techniquespresentation techniques • Exam review sheetExam review sheet

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