Chapter 8 Culture Within Society – Culture in Plural Michel de CerteauZELİHA UYURCAID 501 - Advanced Project Development in Industrial Design
Culture Within Society Overview • Presents a skeletal sketch, • Clarify a few prerequisites and explain a few choices. • Applies result of some practical analyses to few social and political options, • Allows to think of embedded and sedimented systems in plural ways.
Outline ABCs of Culture • The term culture • Subculture & Counter culture • Cultural Expressions A Social Functioning • The valorization of knowledge • A restructuring of private life in relation to professional life • The society of spectacle • A neuter form: The cultural A Topography of Questions • Institutions and Initiatives • Culture and Passivity • Economic production and communicating A Field of Strategic Possibilities • Sociocultural units taking shape • Institutional connections Politics and Culture • A condition of possibility: Political power • The relation with authorities • A necessary politicization Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
ABCs of CultureCultural Problems: •Logic of a society based on production elementary need, cultural needs Economic plans & systems Increasingly proportioned to “people who only want to have something”. Decreasingly proportioned to those who “want to be somebody”. Culture express a labor to be undertaken over expanse of social life rather than values to be defended and ideas to be promoted Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
ABCs of Cultureprerequisites :A Social Functioning Cultural represent: organizations and actions – symptoms and responses in respect to structural changes in society.A Topography of Questions The study of information concerning culture through seeking rifts for a formulation of problems.A Field of Strategic Possibilities Objectives specified as a function of analyses of given situations.Political Implications Strategic decisions question organization of power. Through political analysis, making this relation clear = returning to social system Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
ABCs of Culture Cultural Problems: impossible conceptual definition, meaning assigned to the use, “culture” and “cultural” Culture : six different usesCultivated culture : cultivated human beings in stratified societiesCultivated culture: patrimony of works to be preserved and diffused, or in relationUnderstand the world by image, perception, comprehension needs a given social environment and timeDistinguishing one society from another through modes of behavior, institutions, ideologies, mythsCreativity that culture directs in spite of the things innate.A system of communication, Subculture – culture of subgroup, of a minority Counterculture- the values and norms of behavior of a subculture CULTURE Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
ABCs of CultureCultural: frequently used expressionCultural Action : Union Action,Political Action linking the agent to specific goalCultural Activity : Activity located in an inherited cultureCultural Agent: Who exercise one of the function or one of the positioned defined cultural fieldCultural Politics: Cohorent totality of objectives, means, actions aiming at modifying behavior by principles or criteriaCultural Discourse: All languages dealing with cultural problemsCultural Development: Extension of production and consumption, ideology of continuity rather than cultural revolution or structural changesCultural Problems: reclassification in long-range planningThematic: Idea of present and futureInstitutions: Draw into structure of state and administration of long-term planning.Objectives: Aimed at revising social equilibrium Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Social Functioning1. Valorization of Knowledge:Direct production Automation•Value and Profitability Privileges knowledge • transfer of knowledge from one party to another, a transfer that needs to result in economic benefit.2. A restructuring of private life in relation to professional lifeNew style of life a connection between productive labor and personal development this tension is felt in nations whose coherence is stronger, history is longerNeed to find space for relation to private life institutions (family, marriage), need to explore other styles oflife: a cultural expression Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Social Functioning3. The Society of Spectacle:Collective representation Objects of folkloreIdeological instances SpectaclesRisk, creativity not in life.After all, “cultural” growth- Symptomatic of the movement transforming people into “public”Militants – cultural agents, planners4. A Neuter Form: The CulturalCulture - to be assumed indistinct and soft, non place in which everything goes in which anything can circulate generalities and recycles residues of politics, philosophy, religion. (Museums) Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Topography of Questions1. Institutions and Initiatives:Institutions obey the rule of two-sided game.Their facade public organization, power belongs to social groups by owners’ innovation Marginal development of counter cultures. Existence of creativity and nature of cultural institutionsparalyzed by bureaucracies. Public organizations – remain in a place or extend themselves, but by repression their victory over change in trap, deprived of power possibly their own.Rejection of Initiatives toward marginality eradication of diversity. Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Topography of Questions2. Culture and Passivityin Leisure Activities ( compensatory for labor ), subjects are a spectator within a passivity.Consumer Culture : number passive of actors subjectSocial Selection through hierarchization intellectual level according to power of group or classes. (gap between elite schools, universities, technical schools)Cultural centers – for privileged layer of society and culture Creators consumersLack of practical experiences creates the stuff of consumer literature such as powerrelations, love, eroticism… Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Topography of Questions3. Economic Production and CommunicationExchange economical relationProducts advertisingEnterprises, administrations and media powers values, and seek to restore human relationsCommunication : The press, radio fool or satisfy the consumers with celestial magic, exoticism of love, terrors of drugs. Humans are spoken by the language of socioeconomic determinismWill it be possible for humans to create spaces for themselves in which their own speech can beproffered? Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Field of Strategic Possibilities1. Sociocultural Units Taking ShapeAlienation Consciousness-raisingcultural isolation. transformation of political organization andRelation of cultural situations the conviction of collective groupsBoth works in different way clientele fragmented, reclassified in other areasAssociations - no longer fallow the patterns of the same division. - reunite people who take public transportation, use public park…New set of social divisions - current between power of decision and law of consumption rather than traditional lines of border between worker and bourgeois…. - new border produced between economic and political sphere“Culture” - the act of understanding the environment and desire to change it, function of an action undertaken in order to transform it. Social production – conditional of cultural production Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
A Field of Strategic Possibilities1. Institutional ConnectionsEnglish “open university”- example of institutional mix.A system of relations rather than univocal places – a connection of spaces that are differentiated and hierarchizedInterference between culture and labor: • circulate cultural models • by taking account of motivations, the use of surrounding space • The development of collective participation, diffusion of common values.Blockage of certain organizations (universities) • Resistances that are tied to earlier stages of institutional development, that localize in discourse the values slowly drive out of social practice. Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
Politics and Cultures1. A condition of Possibility: Political PowerCultural Actions ( for certain people) to their implications, margin of sociopolitical profit. Festivals. Discovery of possibilities, invention of encounters, experience of these departures of other places.Politics: Do not: • Assure happiness, • Give meaning to things Does: • Creates or refuses conditions of possibilities • Prohibits or allows • Makes possible or impossibleCultural action collides with the interdictions that powers set forth in silence. Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
Politics and Cultures2. The Relation with the Authorities• Mass culture no longer has a colonizing • People procure access to decision making by function belonging the productive groups• The relation between the authorities starts to • Studying computer programming to be in change, exploit culture without compromise. service of big company• Cultural commodities serve class of those who create themThe authorities • Organized independently from body from which they draw their force, • Suck off the richness investment in the different sectors of culture, from national television to countless institutions that recycle the victims in the name of education or psychology Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
Politics and Cultures3. A necessary PoliticizationReintroduction of political problems in literally expression.Cultural politics camouflages the coherence that links : depoliticized culture decultured politics used for ends used for heraldsPolitics: • Subtracted from democratic, ideological and cultural language as it is really practicedThere can be no cultural politics unless sociocultural situations can be fashioned in term of present forces andcommonly known oppositions. Culture Within Society (Chapter 8)-Culture in Plural Michel de Certeau
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