US ArmyCorps of Engineers Reconstruction Assistance for Iraq’s Water Sector Iraq’s U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Dr. Edwin A. Theriot Director, Interagency and International Services
OutlineUS ArmyCorps of Engineers • Iraq’s physical infrastructure – needs and reconstruction status • National Water Resources Planning • Capacity Development
US ArmyCorps of Engineers Part 1 Iraq’s physical infrastructure – needs and reconstruction status
US ArmyCorps of Engineers • Euphrates Basin Thirty-two BCM; 95% Turkey, 5% Syria. TURKEY • Tigris Basin Fifty BCM; 20 BCM Tigris Turkey, 30 BCM IRAN tributaries. SYRIA • System storage Euphrates Baghdad Turkey – 90 BCM; Syria – 14 BCM; Iraq – JORDAN IRAQ 110 BCM. • Utilization Iraq – 90% used for KUWAIT irrigation. SAUDI ARABIA Gulf
US Army Duhok Dam Corps of Engineers Mosel Dam Iraq Water Dokan Dam Management Haditha Dam System Dibs Barrage• 8 major storage dams, Tharthar Outlet Regulator Derbend-i Khan Dam (including Tharthar and Habbaniyah), with Tigris – Euphrates Regulator another large dam Hemrin Dam under construction• 12 large barrages for Diyala Weir irrigation projects• 275 irrigation pump Ramadi Barrage stations• Produce 17%+ of Iraq’s Fallujah Barrage electricity• 27,000 km of irrigation channels Kut Barrage• 3.25 million hectares irrigated• Historical marsh regions at confluence of Tigris Gharaff Regulator Marshes and Euphrates
Problem / RelevanceUS ArmyCorps of Engineers • Mosul Dam has severe foundation problems and has been subject to grouting 6 days a week, 24 hours a day since construction. • Enhanced grouting system using Intelligrout is being procured for the dam. • GRD / PCO solicited ERDC to develop geologic and numerical groundwater model to support grouting program.
Nassariyah Drainage Pump StationUS ArmyCorps of Engineers
Nassariyah Drainage PumpUS Army StationCorps of Engineers • Largest irrigation drainage pump station in the Mideast • Will improve the agricultural drainage in the Iraqi heartlands, enhancing agricultural productivity; minimizing long-term salinization of 220,000 hectares • Partially constructed in the 1980s – USG is currently completing remaining construction and rehabilitating the pumps and associated mechanical and electrical equipment to make the pump station fully operational • USG funding most of costs • Additional funds needed
Water SectorUS Army Goals and EffectsCorps of Engineers As of 23 Oct 06 World Bank Estimate: $14.4B US Contribution: $2.4B Current US Program Product End State Way-Ahead ($2.4B) Potable Water Complete major 2.4 Million m³/day projects (Nassriya, Delivery Capacity Added Meshkab). Potable Water Complete small direct 8.4 Million People Affected contracts. Sewerage 1.2 Million Treatment Capacity Added m³/day Complete Fallujah Sewerage project. Sewerage 5.3 Million People Affected Complete Diyala Weir Repair Dams, Barrages, Canal 2 project. Complete Nassriya Drainage Pump Station project. Irrigated Land 387k ha Initiate Eastern Euphrates Drain project.
US ArmyCorps of Engineers Part 2 National Water Resources Planning
Strategy for Water and Land Resources in Iraq (SWLRI)US Army Component of the USAID ARDI Project Component of the USAID ARDI ProjectCorps of Engineers • Two-phased comprehensive planning effort. – Phase I – Data, issues, models, plan Phase II. 14 Months. – Phase II – Comprehensive Studies, formulate and compare ‘interventions’ (physical/policy/operations). 4/5 years. • MoWR lead Iraqi institution. • Management and execution by USAID contractors DAI and Mott MacDonald, USACE HEC participation. • Oversight by Iraqi inter-ministerial steering committee • Phase I initiated late August 2005, expected to conclude end of December 2006. • Phase II scope to be determined based on Phase I assessments.
Select SWLRI Phase I OutputsUS ArmyCorps of Engineers • Web-based Data • Groundwater: • Water resources models: Collection and Sharing – Limited data collection on – Refined HEC-ResSim groundwater quantity and Reservoir Simulation Model System: quality – Mott MacDonald Pilot Hydro- – Claromantis online server – Identified areas for future 1D Water Quality Model and hosting uploads of data studies Pilot Integration of Salinity collected from various Transport Methodology into ministries the HEC-ResSim Model • Environment: – Pilot HEC-ResPRM Reservoir • Irrigation and – Literature review on major Optimization Model areas of concern and limited agriculture: water quality data collection – Limited data collection on – Assessment of the current • Multi-Criterion Analysis: irrigation projects framework for environmental – Mott MacDonald spreadsheet- – Initial preparation of GIS impact assessment and based tool for weighting and maps and tools (AEZ enforcement of regulations screening various Program) alternatives, considering – Investigation of qualitative value judgment of methodologies for assessing • Hydropower: economic, social, crop yield production – Limited information collected environmental, and on energy sector implementation criteria. – Investigation of suitable • Municipal water supplies: economic models and – Limited data collection appropriate ranges for – Initial assessment of current sensitivity analysis of power levels of supply and future demand and the role of demands hydropower. – Preliminary water balance example for Thi Qar Governorate
US Army Corps of Engineers Agroecologic Zones (AEZ) Program• Crop ecological requirements• Automating the land evaluation process• Agro-climatic analysis• LGP (length of growing period) analysis• Analysis and interpretation of rainfall time series• Analysis and interpretation of time series of other climate parameters• GIS implementation
US ArmyCorps of Engineers Part 3 Capacity Development
Five Levels of CapacityUS ArmyCorps of Engineers Development Functions Policy, Strategy, Level 1 Program Direction Policy Interface Drivers (e.g., Requirements, Level 2 Incentive Structures, Laws and Regulations Budgets) Interface Focus on Required Management Interfaces Level 3 between Host Nation Inter-Organizational Government entities Interface Institutional Development (e.g., Structures, Missions, Business Level 4 Systems/Processes, Integrated Host Nation Government Logistics Support, HR) Interface Labor Force Development and Level 5 Training at Facility/System Level Infrastructure LEGEND Policy and Direction, Information, Reporting 16
USACE Capacity Building TrainingUS ArmyCorps of Engineers Program • 90 MoWR staff received 6,500 hours of training • Courses in water control, GIS, H&H, stream and snow gauging, reservoir system modeling, surveying and mapping, dam safety, operation and maintenance, geospatial reference systems, Mosul Dam rehabilitation • Future training plan developed
US Army MoWR Future Training NeedsCorps of Engineers • USACE and MoWR identified $9.5M in unfunded training needs • Priority 1 training needs: supervisory and leadership, strategic planning, GIS, GPS for GIS, hydraulic, watershed and reservoir modeling, project management, statistical methods, soil salinity management, environmental analysis, compliance, and regulatory, and information technology security • 50 other topics identified in addition to repeating courses
Capacity Development – UNESCOUS Army Institute for Water EducationCorps of Engineers • Master’s degrees in four engineering (water and environment) majors • Very cost effective approach to capacity development for mid-level career employees • 16 students in FY 2005, 5 students in FY 2006, 10 students in FY 2007 • Costs $60,000 per student all inclusive
Future Training Possibilities throughUS Army UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHECorps of Engineers • Additional students @ $60,000 each • Short courses in Jordan, Egypt, or Kuwait - $100,000 each • Study tours for senior Ministry officials to Europe, Asia, and/or U.S. - $100,000-$200,000 each • Project-oriented training • Technology course (GIS, models, databases) - $100,000 each • Work-study tours with European, Asian, U.S. agency - $50,000 per person
Modeling Consultations with Ministry ofUS Army Water Resources EngineersCorps of Engineers
US ArmyCorps of Engineers Marshland Restoration Programs
Reversing EnvironmentalUS Army DegradationCorps of Engineers
Iraq Marshland Restoration Project (IMRP)US ArmyCorps of Engineers • USAID-funded (~$4 Million), DAI-managed program with several partners involved including Iraqi governmental and academic organizations • Main program components 1. Action Plan for Integrated Marsh Management 2. Agricultural Production and Agribusiness 3. Livestock and Dairy Production 4. Fishing and Fish Farming 5. Health Care Services 6. Domestic Water Treatment
New Eden Master Plan for Integrated Water ResourcesUS Army Management In the Marshland AreasCorps of Engineers • Consortia of Italian Ministry of Environment and Territories (IMET), Iraq Foundation (IF), U.S. and Italian Engineering Firms • Comprehensive study of the Southern region of Iraq: – River hydraulics of the Tigris and Euphrates in the vicinity of the Marshes – Hydraulic modeling of the Marshes and assessment of water needs for various restoration levels – Assessment of Existing and Planned Agriculture in the south of Iraq – Assessment of Social, economic, and energy aspects related to resettlement (“Green Village”) in the Marshes
The FutureUS ArmyCorps of Engineers • Supporting stability and reconstruction is one of our primary agency goals • We will continue to assist Iraq and assist other countries as called upon • Water resources infrastructure and management is important to stabilize nations • We seek partnerships from others to accomplish the above
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