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Strong/Weak_Acid/Base

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  • 1. Ch 18 & 19 – Acids and Bases Strong, Weak and Concentrated
  • 2. Definitions
    • Strong: completely dissociated into ions
    • Weak: Only slightly dissociated into ions
  • 3. Definitions
    • Concentrated: A high number of moles of solute per liter of solution
    • Dilute: A low number of moles of solute per liter of solution
    • * An acid/base can be strong and dilute or weak and concentrated, etc…
  • 4. Strong & Weak Acids/Bases
    • Strong Acids: HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HBr, HI, HClO 4
    • Weak Acids: all others
    • (ex:HF, CH 3 COOH, H 3 PO 4 , H 2 CO 3 , HCN)
    • Strong Bases: Group 1 Hydroxides (ex; NaOH) and lower group 2 hydroxides (ex: Ba(OH) 2 )
    • Weak Bases: all others (ex: NH 3 )
  • 5. Distinguishing between Strong and Weak Acids/Bases
    • pH measurement of two substances of same molarity (strong acids/bases dissociate more and have more extreme pH)
    • Conductivity measurement of two substances of same molarity (strong acids/bases have higher conductivity)
    • Rate of reaction: strong acids/bases will react more vigorously and produce more products
  • 6. Acidic and Basic Salts
    • Salts dissociate in water
    • Some of these ions are weak acids or bases
    • To predict if acidic or basic salt must look at the acid and base that forms the salt
  • 7. Neutral Salt
    • Formed from a strong acid and strong base
    • NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H 2 O
    • strong strong neutral
    • base acid
  • 8. Acidic Salt
    • Formed from strong acid and weak base
    • NH 3 + HCl -> NH 4 Cl
    • weak strong acidic
    • base acid
    • Salt dissociates to form hydronium ions
    • NH 4 Cl -> NH 4 + + Cl -
    • NH 4 + + H 2 O -> H 3 O + + NH 3
  • 9. Basic Salts
    • Formed from strong base and weak acid
    • H 2 CO 3 + NaOH -> Na 2 CO 3
    • weak strong basic
    • acid base
    • Salt dissociates to form hydroxide ions
    • Na 2 CO 3 -> Na + + CO 3 2-
    • CO 3 2- + H 2 O -> OH - + HCO 3 -

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