States of Matter


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States of Matter

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Matter & Change <ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Molecular Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. A. Kinetic Molecular Theory <ul><li>KMT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter is made of tiny particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles of matter are always in motion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. B. Four States of Matter <ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not easily compressed </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. B. Four States of Matter <ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low KE - particles can move around but are still close together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variable shape (that means they take the shape of the container) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not easily compressed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. B. Four States of Matter <ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variable shape (that means they take the shape of the container) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variable volume (that means it will expand to fit the size of its container) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily compressed </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. B. Four States of Matter <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gas-like, variable shape & volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stars, fluorescent light bulbs, flat screen TVs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Quickie Questions <ul><li>This theory says particles are always in motion? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the four states of matter? </li></ul><ul><li>What state of matter has fixed volume and shape? </li></ul><ul><li>What state of matter consists of charged particles </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic Molecular Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ch. 2 Matter & Change <ul><li>II. Classification of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter Flowchart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (SOLUTION) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element yes no MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Can it be chemically decomposed? no yes Is the composition uniform? no yes Colloids Suspensions
  10. 10. A. Matter Flowchart <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graphite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pepper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar (sucrose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Element (Carbon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneous mixture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneous mixture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solution </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of identical atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : copper wire, aluminum foil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2:1 - like H 2 O or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1:1 like NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>properties differ from those of individual elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : table salt (NaCl) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Law of Definite Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Multiple Proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>For example… </li></ul>Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.
  15. 15. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. </li></ul>Heterogeneous Homogeneous
  16. 16. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Homogeneous Mixture (aka Solution) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very small particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no Tyndall effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles don’t settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : rubbing alcohol </li></ul></ul>Tyndall Effect
  17. 17. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Heterogeneous Mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Colloid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium-sized particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyndall effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles don’t settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : milk </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Heterogeneous Mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No true Tyndall effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles will settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : fresh-squeezed lemonade </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mayonnaise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muddy water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saltwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian salad dressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>colloid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>colloid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspension </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ch. 2: Matter & Changes <ul><li>III. Properties & Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive vs. Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Physical vs. Chemical </li></ul>
  21. 21. A. Extensive vs. Intensive <ul><li>Extensive Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depends on the amount of matter present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensive Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depends on the identity of substance, not the amount </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. A. Extensive vs. Intensive <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boiling point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conductivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intensive </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Physical Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be observed without changing the identity of the substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flammable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>magnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tarnishes in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Physical Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes the form of a substance without changing its identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>properties remain the same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes the identity of a substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>products have different properties </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Signs of a Chemical Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change in color or odor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of a gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of a precipitate (solid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change in energy (light or heat) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rusting iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissolving in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>burning a log </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melting ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grinding spices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. B. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Law of Conservation of Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Mass can not be created nor destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>*Mass of Reactants = Mass of Products </li></ul>