01 intermolecular forces

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01 intermolecular forces

  1. 1. Intermolecular Forces
  2. 2. States of Matter Attraction between molecules increasing
  3. 3. Intermolecular Forces a.k.a. van der Waal’s Forces <ul><li>Attractive force between molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Much weaker than chemical bonds within molecules </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Intermolecular Forces <ul><li>London Dispersion Forces: an attractive force acting between all molecules </li></ul><ul><li>* attraction of electrons of one atom to nucleus of another atom </li></ul><ul><li>* very weak force </li></ul><ul><li>* increases in strength as molar mass increases (more electrons) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dipole-Dipole Forces: attractive force acting between oppositely charged ends of polar molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>* medium strength </li></ul><ul><li>* strongest when molecules close together </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hydrogen Bonding: attractive force between positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and N, O or F in another molecule </li></ul><ul><li>* strongest force </li></ul><ul><li>* NOT a chemical bond </li></ul>
  7. 7. Predict IMF acting between molecules of: <ul><li>F 2 </li></ul><ul><li>- London dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>PH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>- dipole-dipole, London dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>- London dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>- Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole, London dispersion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Properties of Liquids <ul><li>Boiling Point: Temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas </li></ul><ul><li>* It represents the amount of energy to overcome the intermolecular forces holding the liquid molecules together </li></ul><ul><li>* Substances with greater intermolecular forces have higher boiling points </li></ul>
  9. 9. Boiling point is higher for molecules with greater intermolecular forces

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