Power to the People!


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Extracts from a workshop at GOVIS 2007 (www.govis.org.nz)

This one-day intensive workshop taught attendees how to incorporate user goals and agency needs into the web design process.

Workshop presenters: Zef Fugaz, Bob Medcalf, Elyssa Timmer

Feedback from the workshop attendees:

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  • Power to the People!

    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>9:15AM CONSUMER MARKET RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>10:00AM MORNING TEA (30min) </li></ul><ul><li>11:15AM PERSONAS & TASK ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>12:30PM LUNCH (60min) </li></ul><ul><li>1:30PM CONCEPTUAL MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>2:30PM USABILITY TESTING </li></ul><ul><li>3:30PM AFTERNOON TEA (30min) </li></ul><ul><li>4:00PM THE PANEL </li></ul><ul><li>5:00PM ENDS </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>CONSUMER MARKET RESEARCH Making an Emotional Connection with your Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Elyssa Timmer </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>PERSONAS </li></ul><ul><li>Zef Fugaz </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why do personas?
    6. 6. In this session <ul><li>Who are your users? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they fit into the UCD process? </li></ul><ul><li>How to create a persona </li></ul><ul><li>How to utilise the persona(s) you’ve created </li></ul>
    7. 7. Exercise <ul><li>“ Our site needs to cater for EVERY New Zealander” </li></ul><ul><li>Using the identikit create your own ‘typical New Zealander’ </li></ul>
    8. 8. Personas in the UCD Process User Research & Task Analysis Information Architecture & Interaction Design Prototyping Usability Testing Visual Design Build Test ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPTUAL MODEL
    9. 9. The ‘POV Persona’ who they are what they do contextual needs site features usage environ-ment attributes & general needs
    10. 10. <ul><li>Identify the users </li></ul><ul><li>Profile the users </li></ul><ul><li>Understand their behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Describe common usage scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Identify features to support scenarios and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play each persona during design, development and testing </li></ul>The ‘POV Persona’
    11. 11. POV Personas in 4 Stages Explore (Who Are Your Users?) Research People Model Your Persona(s) Utilise Your Persona(s) 1 2 3 4
    12. 12. STEP 1: Explore
    13. 13. So, who are they? <ul><li>Who has direct contact with your users? </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to them! </li></ul><ul><li>Emails </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback, complaints, questions </li></ul><ul><li>Web usage statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular content, repeat visitors, location </li></ul><ul><li>Online questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Limited value on it’s own, but a good starting point! </li></ul>
    14. 14. So, who are they? <ul><li>Heading </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>“ Researchers” </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Academics </li></ul>
    15. 15. Personas
    16. 16. A hypothesis <ul><li>Jill is an Intranet Content Manager working for Govt and living in Petone. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s a regular visitor to the Internet, where she buys books and 2 nd -hand goods online, uploads photos to Flickr and reads the news. </li></ul><ul><li>She likes to read - prefers to print out any articles she finds online. </li></ul><ul><li>Her work is fast-paced with a lot of meetings - requiring a mixture of people management and technical know-how. </li></ul>Background 34-years old Doing a degree in Information Management Experienced Internet user Windows XP, 19” LCD monitor, LAN Network Attributes Fast learner Cautious but early adopter of new technology Never learnt to touch type – mouse dominant Needs Ability to work independently Advice from other content managers To share her experiences and frustrations Goals Ensure uptake of the new intranet Leverage staff off email and into online tools Become a collaboration guru Learn about Information Architecture Jill
    17. 17. A persona set
    18. 18. <ul><li>YOUR TURN! </li></ul>
    19. 19. Activity <ul><li>Create a persona hypothesis for your own site </li></ul><ul><li>Who are your users? </li></ul><ul><li>Choose one user-cluster and create a persona hypothesis for this cluster </li></ul>
    20. 20. STEP 2: Research
    21. 21. Meet your users - observe
    22. 22. Meet your users – talk!
    23. 23. What to look for... <ul><li>Demographic Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Gender, Age group, Family situation, Income, Housing, Where living, Occupation, Education, Religion, Race/Ethnicity, Nationality, Language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Psychographics </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks , Lifestyle traits, Interests/Hobbies, Media read/watched/listened to </li></ul><ul><li>[Your Orgs] Relation to Person </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship (i.e. Employee) , Job title , Time in job , Previous jobs , Percentage of overall users, Importance of person relative to [Your Org] </li></ul><ul><li>Person’s Relation to [Your Org] </li></ul><ul><li>Usage rate of [Your Org], Attitude towards [Your Org], Frustrations, Hours of work, Place of work, Work environment, Computer reliance </li></ul>Specific Goals/Needs from [Your Site] Reliance on [Your Site], Intensity of use, Emotional goals, Needs, Frustrations, Attitude to [Your Site], Valued Context of use for [Your Site] Users role, People interactions, Surrounding environment, Traceability, Accuracy, Confidentiality, Flexibility, Operational risk, Assistance, Legal, Standards Webographics Type of usage, Connection speed, Browser setup, Operating System, Screen Resolution, Monitor Hardware, Input Devices, Base Computer, Other Devices , Accessibility, Software Workplace Scenarios “ From start-to-finish describe the main tasks you do on [Your Site]” (and get user to show you)
    24. 24. STEP 3: Model Persona(s)
    25. 25. Personas
    26. 26. Mapping user behaviour Uses Occasionally Uses Frequently
    27. 27. Audience Activity (Mapping) <ul><li>5 volunteers who have used Trade Me in last 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Place yourself on the polar graph </li></ul>North South
    28. 28. Audience Activity (Mapping) <ul><li>Freq of use? Every day Several times a month </li></ul><ul><li>Doing what? Buying stuff Selling stuff </li></ul><ul><li>If buying? Know what I want Random browsing </li></ul><ul><li>If selling? One thing at a time Several at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Usage? Keyboard Mouse clicker </li></ul>North South
    29. 29. Real Example
    30. 30. Personas
    31. 31. Scenarios <ul><li>A ‘short story’ from start to finish describing what happens </li></ul><ul><li>Motivator / trigger for action </li></ul><ul><li>Steps and activities along the way </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome / next steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mira does a search in Google for “student jobs Dunedin” and SJS comes up top of the list. She visits to the SJS website and decides she wants to register, (which will then give her the ability to create a personal profile). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She selects ‘Register’ and is presented with a number of questions and options. To ensure she has a strong chance of getting a job she is prepared to spend time getting it right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the registration/profile is entered and saved, the SJS website presents Mira with instructions to visit or phone a SJS Office. She is also sent an email with the same information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is asked if he would like to browse the available jobs. If “yes” goto Scenario.03 </li></ul></ul>SEO register path save option map
    32. 32. A persona set
    33. 33. <ul><li>YOUR TURN! </li></ul>
    34. 34. Activity <ul><li>Describe some common usage scenarios for your persona </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some website features to support these usage scenarios </li></ul>
    35. 35. STEP 4: Utilise Your Persona(s)!
    36. 36. POV personas <ul><li>Enacting the users point of view is one technique to better enable user centred design. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not intended to replace observational usability testing, but it can (and should) work in unison. </li></ul><ul><li>When to enact your persona(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Taskflows and Sitemaps </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Information Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings – idea generation, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (Heuristic) Reviews </li></ul>
    37. 37. POV personas
    38. 38. POV Personas - Task Analysis Use persona POV to model flowcharts showing complex scenarios. E.g. website registration Flow charts can be used to identify core screens for prototype development. Task flows can be used as a collaborative tool to clarify requirements and refine the designs.
    39. 39. Task Analysis
    40. 40. POV Personas – Task Accomplishment (POV Usability Review)
    41. 41. POV Personas – Task Accomplishment (POV Usability Review)
    42. 42. POV Personas – Information Architecture
    43. 43. POV Personas – Tagging Metadata Element Element Definition Possible Attributes (Default is underlined ) Topic The topic of the content of the resource or keywords related to the resource that might be used by customers when performing a search (e.g. alternative spellings, acronyms). Examples: Administration, Communication, Government, Law, Money, People, Projects, Property, Publications, Research, Risk & Insurance, Safety, Security, Technology, Travel, Other Note: No default – user must make a selection. Transport Mode Identifies the transport type associated with the resource Air, Land, Sea, Rail, Multimodal, All Origin Resources can be identified by the government department concerned Ministry of Transport , Transit New Zealand, Land Transport New Zealand, Maritime Safety Authority, Civil Aviation Authority, Aviation Security Service of New Zealand, New Zealand Police, Ministers Offices, Transport Accident Investigation Commission, Ontrack, Other Govt, Non-Government Ministerial Portfolio Resources can be identified by a ministerial department Minister of Transport , Associate Minister of Transport, Minister for Transport Safety, Other
    44. 44. Question| What is this? iPod MP3 Music Shuffle Portable Device Digital Player
    45. 45. Question | What is this? Radio Funky Retro Appliance Transistor
    46. 46. Question | What is this? Agreement Tenancy Form Document
    47. 47. How BIG is your persona? several hours about a week several weeks Interview 5 users Basic personas Brainstorm with user/usage experts Interview 20+ users Advanced personas
    48. 48. <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Medcalf + Zef Fugaz </li></ul>
    49. 49. Why do personas? <ul><li>[diagram!] </li></ul>
    50. 50. Exercise <ul><li>It’s all in your head... </li></ul>
    51. 51. In this session <ul><li>What’s a conceptual model? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they fit into the UCD process? </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of models </li></ul><ul><li>How to utilise the models you’ve created </li></ul>
    52. 52. What’s a Conceptual Model ? <ul><li>Many interpretations! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative ‘conceptual design’ sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh perspective on challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break assumptions about constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest new design approaches for reaching solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from each other </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. What’s a Conceptual Model ?
    54. 54. What’s a Conceptual Model ?
    55. 55. What’s a Conceptual Model ?
    56. 56. What’s a Conceptual Model ?
    57. 57. Conceptual Models in the UCD Process User Research & Task Analysis Information Architecture & Interaction Design Prototyping Usability Testing Visual Design Build Test ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPTUAL MODEL
    58. 58. Conceptual Model | Uber Chart
    59. 59. Conceptual Model | Uber Chart
    60. 60. Conceptual Model | Mystery Client Size matches for Charlotte Sizes for the family 6 monthly reminders
    61. 61. Conceptual Model | Biz
    62. 62. Conceptual Model | Biz Scenario Doug has been an independent plumber and gasfitter for the past year following on from his apprenticeship. He’s managed to finally gain enough regular contacts to think about getting a firmer understanding of developing better business principles. Doug wants to hire a part time employee. He visits biz get information on the steps required to employ someone.
    63. 63. Conceptual Model | Biz
    64. 64. Conceptual Model | Biz
    65. 65. Conceptual Model | Biz
    66. 66. Conceptual Model | Biz
    67. 67. Wireframes| Walk the landscape
    68. 68. Paper Prototypes| Imagine...
    69. 69. Decorating| Play with the test pots...
    70. 70. Conceptual Model | Visual Design
    71. 71. Conceptual Model | Visual Design
    72. 72. Colours
    73. 73. Conceptual Model | Visual Design
    74. 74. Imagery
    75. 75. <ul><li>YOUR TURN! </li></ul>
    76. 76. Activity <ul><li>Create a hand-drawn conceptual model! </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to your persona and sketch a prototype for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The homepage for your website or intranet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And (if you have time), one other feature (or screen) you’ve identified for your persona. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe how your design will meet the goals of your persona </li></ul>
    77. 77. <ul><li>USABILITY TESTING </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Medcalf </li></ul>
    78. 78. Overview CARS Image taken from Formway’s Life Brochure
    79. 80. User Centred Design Process User Research & Task Analysis Information Architecture & Interaction Design Prototyping Usability Testing Visual Design Build Test ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPTUAL MODEL
    80. 82. Cost Benefits of Early Testing
    81. 83. Activity – Quick test of your prototype <ul><li>Take a prototype (not your own) and try to answer these questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What site is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is it for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you find or do on this site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you navigate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you search? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial impressions? </li></ul></ul>
    82. 84. HEURISTIC REVIEW EXPERT REVIEW AD-HOC TEST Types of Usability Test an hour several days a week several weeks OBSERVATIONAL USER TEST
    83. 85. Ad-hoc review
    84. 86. Ad-hoc review
    85. 87. Activity - Expert Review
    86. 88. Expert Review
    87. 89. Heuristic Evaluation
    88. 90. HIGH FIDELITY Observe 20 users over several rounds. Deliver in-depth report detailing findings, quick fixes and long term solutions. LOW FIDIELITY Observe 5 users. One round of testing. Deliver a short report of recommendations. AD-HOC Grab somebody who has little knowledge of your project Observational User Testing An hour Several days Several weeks
    89. 91. Observational User Testing Overview Plan Identify Participants Prepare Observe Report PRE-TEST TEST POST-TEST Analysis
    90. 92. <ul><li>Scope and purpose of test </li></ul><ul><li>Types of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks & questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Data / Defined Usability Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Test location and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation email template </li></ul><ul><li>Reimbursements </li></ul>Plan
    91. 93. Plan
    92. 94. <ul><li>YOUR TURN! </li></ul>
    93. 95. Activity <ul><li>Create a task which can be used in a user test. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the task relate to the purpose as defined in the test of plan? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose tasks which are important or common to users of your site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on areas of the site where difficulties may arise. </li></ul></ul>
    94. 97. Identify
    95. 98. Identify
    96. 99. <ul><li>ISO defines usability as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The effectiveness , efficiency , and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments” </li></ul>Effectiveness Number of tasks completed successfully. Optimal pathway followed? Efficiency Time taken or number of clicks. Number of back buttons. Number of pages viewed to find information. Satisfaction Comments, body language. Post-test questionnaire findings. Observe
    97. 101. <ul><li>See each candidate individually. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the forms and questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the test and ask the participants to ‘Think aloud’ </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on what people do, not what they say. </li></ul>Observe
    98. 102. <ul><li>YOUR TURN! </li></ul>
    99. 103. Activity <ul><li>Perform a mock user test </li></ul>
    100. 104. Analysis
    101. 105. Report
    102. 106. Report
    103. 107. Report
    104. 108. Report
    105. 109. <ul><li>THE PANEL </li></ul>
    106. 110. [email_address] [email_address] [email_address] blog www.zefamedia.co.nz