Stem cell

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  • Human embryonic cells have been used for many years to culture viruses in search of vaccines and medicines that might be effective in treating human diseases. The first use of embryonic cells was by john Enders, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work with the Polio virus in 1954.
  • Stem cell

    1. 1. Presented By: Zahida Umar
    2. 2. “Undifferentiated cells that have ability torenew themselves through mitotic celldivision and differentiate into a diverserange of specialized cell types are known asstem cells Self renewal Unspecialized Produce specialized cells
    3. 3. Embryonic stem Cells Induced pluripotent cells Adult stem Cells
    4. 4. These two types can be divided into two groups: Undifferentiated cells Tissue specific cells:
    5. 5. Basic Stem Cell Technology Stem Cell Functions Isolating Stem Cells Growing Stem Cells in the Lab Differentiating Stem Cells Getting Stem Cells into Patients
    6. 6. Altered Nuclear Transfer
    7. 7. Altered Nuclear TransferTherapeutic Cloning
    8. 8. Altered Nuclear TransferTherapeutic CloningIPS Cells
    9. 9. Altered Nuclear TransferTherapeutic CloningIPS Cells
    10. 10. Stem Cell Markers Stem cell markers are cell surface receptors used to isolate and identify stem cells. A receptor is a specialized protein included in the surface of any cell in the body that is capable to selectively bind to other "signaling" molecules Example: Liver Receptors Groups: Glycoprotein receptors Cell specific gene expression Cell specific molecules
    11. 11. expression of certain genes in specific cell typenogginNon express in nonneural tissueFISHCells expressing noggin will beblue
    12. 12. Hormones, macromolecules, and enzymes B cells in the pancreas Neurotubulin Genesis Ea-3 Sca-1 Green fluorescent protein (GFP)
    13. 13. Several stem cell therapies are routinely used to treat disease.The basis for stem cell transplantation is that blood cells andimmune cells (lymphocytes) arise from the stem cells, which arepresent in marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. These includes: 1. Adult Stem Cell Transplant: Bone Marrow Stem Cells 2. Adult Stem Cell Transplant: Peripheral Blood Stem Cells 3. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant
    14. 14. Autologous Transplant process
    15. 15. Allogenic transplant process
    16. 16. Bone marrow TransplantLeukemia & cancer
    17. 17. Leukemia Treatment:
    18. 18. Peripheral blood stem celltransplantation is a new techniquein which cells are obtained from apatients blood and used in bonemarrow transplantation.•PBSCs are easier to collectthan bone marrow stem cells
    19. 19. U m b ilic a l C o r d B lo o d S t e m C e ll T r a n s p la n t :Newborn infants no longer need their umbilical cords, sothey have traditionally been discarded as a by-productof the birth process. In recent years, however, themultipotent-stem-cell-rich blood found in the umbilicalcord has proven useful in treating the same types ofhealth problems as those treated using bone marrowstem cells and PBSCs.
    20. 20. Stem cell therapy does not depend on viral vectors .It attemptsto treat a disease by introducing whole human cells into thebody, which will restore the patient’s health.
    21. 21. SCID is actually a group of inherited disorders that causesevere abnormalities of the immune system. severe combined immunodeficiency- XI
    22. 22. SCID TreatmentThe most effective treatment is a bone marrowtransplant. Unspecialized stem cells that will formblood and immune cells are taken from the bonemarrow of a healthy donor and injected into the SCIDpatient. Ideally, these new cells will stimulate theproduction of the needed immune cells.
    23. 23. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that destroys thebody’s ability to utilize glucose
    24. 24. Coronary arteries carry blood tothe cardiomyocytes or heartmuscle cells, and if they becomeblocked or damage, thecardiomyocytes die from lack ofoxygen.
    25. 25. Alzheimer’s disease
    26. 26. History of Human Embryonic Cell Research  1954 – John Enders received a Nobel prize in Medicine for growing polio virus in human embryonic kidney cells  In 1998, James Thomson (University of Wisconsin-Madison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of the early embryo, and developed the first human embryonic stem cell lines.
    27. 27. History of Somatic CellNuclear Transfer (Cloning) • 1952 – Briggs and King cloned tadpoles • 1996 – The first mammal cloned from adult cells was Dolly, the sheep.  1998 – Mice cloned  1998 – Cows cloned  2000 – Pigs cloned
    28. 28. History of Cloning “CC” Carbon Copy • 2001 – Cat cloned  2002 – Rabbits cloned  2003 – Mule cloned  2004 – Bull serial-cloned  2005 – Dog cloned
    29. 29. Cloned Embryonic Stem Cells – Advantages/Problems • Advantages – No rejection – “Prefect match” • Problems  Only 10% of cloned oocytes became embryos  0% survived to become a cell line  higher risk of a patient getting an infection.  Cost is high (health insurance probably wont pay)

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