Human embryonic cells have been used for many years to culture viruses in search of vaccines and medicines that might be effective in treating human diseases. The first use of embryonic cells was by john Enders, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work with the Polio virus in 1954.
Presented By: Zahida Umar
“Undifferentiated cells that have ability torenew themselves through mitotic celldivision and differentiate into a diverserange of specialized cell types are known asstem cells Self renewal Unspecialized Produce specialized cells
Stem Cell Markers Stem cell markers are cell surface receptors used to isolate and identify stem cells. A receptor is a specialized protein included in the surface of any cell in the body that is capable to selectively bind to other "signaling" molecules Example: Liver Receptors Groups: Glycoprotein receptors Cell specific gene expression Cell specific molecules
expression of certain genes in specific cell typenogginNon express in nonneural tissueFISHCells expressing noggin will beblue
Hormones, macromolecules, and enzymes B cells in the pancreas Neurotubulin Genesis Ea-3 Sca-1 Green fluorescent protein (GFP)
Several stem cell therapies are routinely used to treat disease.The basis for stem cell transplantation is that blood cells andimmune cells (lymphocytes) arise from the stem cells, which arepresent in marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. These includes: 1. Adult Stem Cell Transplant: Bone Marrow Stem Cells 2. Adult Stem Cell Transplant: Peripheral Blood Stem Cells 3. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant
Peripheral blood stem celltransplantation is a new techniquein which cells are obtained from apatients blood and used in bonemarrow transplantation.•PBSCs are easier to collectthan bone marrow stem cells
U m b ilic a l C o r d B lo o d S t e m C e ll T r a n s p la n t :Newborn infants no longer need their umbilical cords, sothey have traditionally been discarded as a by-productof the birth process. In recent years, however, themultipotent-stem-cell-rich blood found in the umbilicalcord has proven useful in treating the same types ofhealth problems as those treated using bone marrowstem cells and PBSCs.
Stem cell therapy does not depend on viral vectors .It attemptsto treat a disease by introducing whole human cells into thebody, which will restore the patient’s health.
SCID is actually a group of inherited disorders that causesevere abnormalities of the immune system. severe combined immunodeficiency- XI
SCID TreatmentThe most effective treatment is a bone marrowtransplant. Unspecialized stem cells that will formblood and immune cells are taken from the bonemarrow of a healthy donor and injected into the SCIDpatient. Ideally, these new cells will stimulate theproduction of the needed immune cells.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that destroys thebody’s ability to utilize glucose
Coronary arteries carry blood tothe cardiomyocytes or heartmuscle cells, and if they becomeblocked or damage, thecardiomyocytes die from lack ofoxygen.
History of Human Embryonic Cell Research 1954 – John Enders received a Nobel prize in Medicine for growing polio virus in human embryonic kidney cells In 1998, James Thomson (University of Wisconsin-Madison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of the early embryo, and developed the first human embryonic stem cell lines.
History of Somatic CellNuclear Transfer (Cloning) • 1952 – Briggs and King cloned tadpoles • 1996 – The first mammal cloned from adult cells was Dolly, the sheep. 1998 – Mice cloned 1998 – Cows cloned 2000 – Pigs cloned
Cloned Embryonic Stem Cells – Advantages/Problems • Advantages – No rejection – “Prefect match” • Problems Only 10% of cloned oocytes became embryos 0% survived to become a cell line higher risk of a patient getting an infection. Cost is high (health insurance probably wont pay)