Bilingualism
L1 and L2
Presented to:
Sir Faheem-ud-din

Presented By:
Adeel Hussain Shah
Hafiz Imran
Hassan Fraz
Ishtiaq A...
PRESNTATION OUTLINE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Categories in Bilingualism
First Language Acquisition
Stages in Learning L1
Second ...
HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT ABOUT THIS
• Why every single person can acquire the first language (L1)
easily?
• Why very few peop...
DO YOU AS A TEACHER FEEL THIS
FROM TIME TO TIME?
• This may be
Because the
Difference in
L1 and
L2
FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
“Language is Innate”= Universal
Grammar
Naom Chomsky

Unless there is something wrong
with them...
CATAGORIES OF BILINGUALISAM
Simultaneous

L1 and L2
learned at the
same time

Early
Sequential
L1 learned first,
but L2 le...
FLA Stages (L1)
• COOING
• 2-4 months.
• Earliest speech like sounds
• Laughter appears after 4 months

• BABBLING
• 6-8 m...
FLA STAGES (L1)
Holophrastic stage
• 9-18 months
• Children communicate
with one word, relating it
to many similar things
...
FLA STAGES (L1)
Telegraphic stage

Multiword stage

• 24-30 months
• Word combination:
• me want that
• what her name?
• c...
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
• Students learning a second language go through five stages:
Preproduction, Early Production,...
STAGES OF LEARNING L2
Pre-production
(The silent period) :

• Has minimal
comprehension.
• Does not speak at all.
Nods "Ye...
STAGES OF LEARNING L2
Speech emergence
The learner:
• Has good comprehension.
• Can produce simple
sentences.
• Makes gram...
STAGES IN L2
Advance Fluency:
ADVANCED FLUENCY:
• The student has a near-native level of speech.
• It takes learners from ...
Why very few people manage to
acquire a second language fluently?
• Learners are not allowed to
have a silent period, they...
MOVING BETWEEN LANGUAGES
• As we might remember from
school, or from our last foreign
holiday, translating a foreign langu...
WHY CHILDREN SEEM TO ACQUIRE L2
BETTER THEN THE ADULTS
• Children have access to
Universal Grammar.
• Adults are more
infl...
THE USE OF L1 AND L2 IN CLASS
ROOM
• ADVANTAGES:
According to Paul Seligson
• Unavoidable anyway.
• Reduces affective filt...
REFERENCES
• ReferencesYule, George. (2006). The study of language third
edition. [on line]. Fourth Worth: Harcourt Brace ...
• 19. Pinker, S. Language acquisition. [on line]. Technical Report NIH
grant HD 18381 and NSF grant BNS 91-09766. Massachu...
Bilingualisam
Bilingualisam
Bilingualisam
Bilingualisam
Bilingualisam
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  • L1:  first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language(s) a person has learned from birth[1] or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity. In some countries, the terms native language or mother tongue refer to the language of one's ethnic group.second language (L2): a language learned later in life than one’s native language, whether in childhood or in adulthood.
  • “We are born with the grammar in our heads” Naom chomsky
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  • Bilingualisam

    1. 1. Bilingualism L1 and L2 Presented to: Sir Faheem-ud-din Presented By: Adeel Hussain Shah Hafiz Imran Hassan Fraz Ishtiaq Ahmed Zeeshan Ali Khan
    2. 2. PRESNTATION OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • Categories in Bilingualism First Language Acquisition Stages in Learning L1 Second Language acquisition Stages in Learning L2 Why few people get fluency in second language Interlanguage and Transfer L2 children v/s Adults Advantages of L2 in Class
    3. 3. HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT ABOUT THIS • Why every single person can acquire the first language (L1) easily? • Why very few people manage to acquire a second language (L2) successfully? • Why, even though you try your best as a teacher, some learners have a hard time acquiring L2.
    4. 4. DO YOU AS A TEACHER FEEL THIS FROM TIME TO TIME? • This may be Because the Difference in L1 and L2
    5. 5. FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION “Language is Innate”= Universal Grammar Naom Chomsky Unless there is something wrong with them mentally or physically, all children acquire a language as they develop” Jermy Harmer
    6. 6. CATAGORIES OF BILINGUALISAM Simultaneous L1 and L2 learned at the same time Early Sequential L1 learned first, but L2 learned in relative early in childhood Late L2 learned in adolescence onwards
    7. 7. FLA Stages (L1) • COOING • 2-4 months. • Earliest speech like sounds • Laughter appears after 4 months • BABBLING • 6-8 months babies start to have control on speech vocalization. • This happens as an instinct.
    8. 8. FLA STAGES (L1) Holophrastic stage • 9-18 months • Children communicate with one word, relating it to many similar things • They understand more than they can produce. Two-word stage • 18-24 months • Mini-sentences with simple semantic relations. • Examples: More cereal, no bed, bye car etc.
    9. 9. FLA STAGES (L1) Telegraphic stage Multiword stage • 24-30 months • Word combination: • me want that • what her name? • chair fell down! • These sentences resemble to short messages in telegram • 30+ months • Grammatical or functional structures emerge (the syntax stage). • Children language blooms into fluent grammatical conversation.
    10. 10. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Students learning a second language go through five stages: Preproduction, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). • Speed of progress through the stages depends on level of education, family background, amount of exposure to the target language, among others.
    11. 11. STAGES OF LEARNING L2 Pre-production (The silent period) : • Has minimal comprehension. • Does not speak at all. Nods "Yes" and "No." • Draws and points. • Uses gesturing. • Repeats like a “parrot”. • Everything This stage may last up to 6 months Early Production (The learner)) • Has limited comprehension. • Produces one or two-word responses. • Uses present-tense verbs. • Answers yes / no questions. • Benefits from: realia, vocabulary with pictures, listening activities. • From 6 months to 1 year.
    12. 12. STAGES OF LEARNING L2 Speech emergence The learner: • Has good comprehension. • Can produce simple sentences. • Makes grammar and pronunciation errors. • Asks simple questions, that may or may not be grammatically correct, such as: May I go to bathroom? • From 1 to 3 years. Intermediate fluency The learner: • Has excellent comprehension. • Makes few grammatical errors. • Willing to express opinions and share thoughts. • Writing will have errors. • From 3 to 5 years
    13. 13. STAGES IN L2 Advance Fluency: ADVANCED FLUENCY: • The student has a near-native level of speech. • It takes learners from 5 to 10 years to become fluent
    14. 14. Why very few people manage to acquire a second language fluently? • Learners are not allowed to have a silent period, they are asked to produce when they are not ready = Inter language • Inter language is the mixture of L1 and L2 to be able to communicate = interference. • Interference = errors • Fossilization: No further learning appears possible. Learners will have the same error despite of any correction or grammatical explanation. • Critical Period: Before the age of 12, fluency may be reached. After, this is no longer possible due to the changes in the brain. • Affective filter: Motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety all affect language acquisition.
    15. 15. MOVING BETWEEN LANGUAGES • As we might remember from school, or from our last foreign holiday, translating a foreign language can be fraught with difficulties.
    16. 16. WHY CHILDREN SEEM TO ACQUIRE L2 BETTER THEN THE ADULTS • Children have access to Universal Grammar. • Adults are more influenced by L1. • Children are more motivated than adults. • Children receive more input in the second language than adults do.
    17. 17. THE USE OF L1 AND L2 IN CLASS ROOM • ADVANTAGES: According to Paul Seligson • Unavoidable anyway. • Reduces affective filters. • Practice translation. • Provides feedback. • Discuss idioms.
    18. 18. REFERENCES • ReferencesYule, George. (2006). The study of language third edition. [on line]. Fourth Worth: Harcourt Brace Janovich College Publishers . Retrieved on October 4, 2009 from: http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=Zw5Y0o0q1bYC&dq=y ule+the+study+of+language&printsec=frontcover&source=bl& ots=uo2v8ZcYYa&sig=ixeYmIWXhPglFlSwoqSIAVE_0yc&hl=es& ei=ZmvNSqKeM8XY8AauzaSFBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=re sult&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=&f= falseEverything English as a Second Language (2000). Everything ESL. [On line]. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.ph pLuria, H, Seymour D.M, & Smoke, T. (2006). Language and Linguistics in Context. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc. [on line]. Google books. Retrieved October 5, 2009 from http://books.google.com.mx/books
    19. 19. • 19. Pinker, S. Language acquisition. [on line]. Technical Report NIH grant HD 18381 and NSF grant BNS 91-09766. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Press. Retrieved October 3, 2009, from: http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Papers/Py104/pinker.langacq.h tml. Society for Research in Child Development (2009, September 21). Children Under Three Can't Learn Action Words From TV -Unless An Adult Helps. ScienceDaily [on line]. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090915100947.htm.Schütz, R. (2007, July 2). Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition. [Review of the book Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learningby Stephen Krashen]. Retrieved October 4,2009, from http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html.You tube videos retrieved on October 3, 2009, from: http://www.youtube.com/

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