TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: TQM Origins, Evolution & key elements
What is Quality? Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph Juran) Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby) Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer
Evolution of Quality Management Inspection Quality Control Quality Assurance TQM Salvage, sorting, grading, blending, corrective actions, identify sources of non-conformance Develop quality manual, process performance data, self-inspection, product testing, basic quality planning, use of basic statistics, paperwork control. Quality systems development, advanced quality planning, comprehensive quality manuals, use of quality costs, involvement of non-production operations, failure mode and effects analysis, SPC. Policy deployment, involve supplier & customers, involve all operations, process management, performance measurement, teamwork, employee involvement.
Deming’s view of a production as a system Consumer Research Design & redesign Receipt & test of materials Suppliers, materials & equipment Production, assembly, inspection Distribution Consumers Test of processes, machines, methods, cost
Improve Quality Productivity improves Provide jobs and more jobs Deming’s Chain Reaction Cost decreases because of less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, snags, better use of machine time and materials Stay in business Capture the market with better quality and lower price
PLAN CHECK DO ACT The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it. Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.
W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and services. Adopt the new philosophy. We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective workmanship. Cease dependence on mass inspection. Require, instead, statistical evidence that quality is built in. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. 1) 2) 3) 4)
W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points Find problems. It is management’s job to work continually on the system. Institute modern methods of training on the job. Institute modern methods of supervision of production workers. The responsibility of foremen must be changed from numbers to quality. Drive out fear that everyone may work effectively for the company. 5) 6) 7) 8)
Break down barriers between departments. Eliminate numerical goals, posters and slogans for the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods. Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas. Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right to pride of workmanship. 9) 10) 11) 12) W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points
Institute a vigorous programme of education and retraining. Create a structure in top management that will push everyday on the above 13 points. 13) 14) W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points
Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge Appreciation for system Knowledge about variation Theory about knowledge Knowledge of psychology
Joseph M. Juran and the Cost Of Quality 2 types of costs: Unavoidable Costs: preventing defects (inspection, sampling, sorting, QC) Avoidable Costs: defects and product failures (scrapped materials, labour for re-work, complaint processing, losses from unhappy customers “ Gold in the Mine”
Joseph M. Juran and the Cost Of Quality 100% defective Point of “Enough quality” Total Costs Unavoidable costs Avoidable costs Costs
What is TQM? Constant drive for continuous improvement and learning. Concern for employee involvement and development Management by Fact Result Focus Passion to deliver customer value / excellence Organisation response ability Actions not just words (implementation) Process Management Partnership perspective (internal / external)
Learning LEARNING AND TQM Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Satisfaction Shareholder Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM Approach Management Led Scope Company Wide Scale Everyone is responsible for Quality Philosophy Prevention not Detection Standard Right First Time Control Cost of Quality Theme On going Improvement
THE CASE FOR QUALITY 1 Success of competitors who take quality seriously 2 Rising expectations of customers 3 Quality differentiates companies from the competition 4 Narrowing of supplier bases by quality conscious companies .
5 Growing evidence that growth in market share comes from sustained quality. 6 Cost advantages 7 High cost of catastrophic failure 8 Inspection poor substitute for right first time THE CASE FOR QUALITY
The project quality plan is a documented description of the project management system and must be approved by the AEM, in part to demonstrate his commitment to quality but primarily it is the means by which technical and administrative authorities are delegated through out the project.
All projects shall have quality plan.
Project engineer shall develop and update the PQP.
Relationships between project quality plans PQP ADCO PQP Designer PQP construction contractor Suppliers quality plans
Preparation of a project quality plan Confirm project objectives Plan the project allocate resources Identify critical activities Define standards and controls Audits Close-out AEM/PE/HE AEM/PE HE/HC/PE DE/CE/PE QA/SCE/PE PE