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  • 1. The Pollution from a Phosphate fertilizer Plant By Prof.Dr. Tarek Elnimr (Tanta University, EGYPT)
  • 2. The Pollution from a Phosphate fertilizer Plant and its Effects on Human and ecological Health By Prof.Dr. Tarek Elnimr (Tanta University, EGYPT)
  • 3.
    • In 1900 14%
    • Now ~ 47% (3 billion people)
    • The strong industrialization that normally occurs with intense urbanization heightens health and environmental problems of cities.
    Continued exposure to low-level environmental pollution may be a much more serious problem. Many industries are the source of low-level environmental pollution with different types of pollutants
  • 4.
    • Non-nuclear industries such as phosphate fertilizer industry use raw material containing significant levels of natural radionuclides.
    • Also, the phosphate fertilizer industry is one of activities leading to environmental pollution with fluoride and heavy metals.
    Selected industry
  • 5.
    • is to assess the impact of a production plant of phosphate fertilizers on the environment.
    • Through determine the contents of fluoride, heavy metals and radioactivity in
    • various types of environmental samples (sediment, water and plant) around the outlet of the wastewater discharge pipes of this plant.
    • raw materials, end and by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry.
    The main objective of this work
  • 6. Fertilizer Sediment Water Plant Experimental Methods (I) Sampling Samples Characteristics Sample Preparation Fertilizer Sediment Water Plant pH TOM Fluoride TDS( total dissolved salt) Bicarbonate
  • 7.
    • - For fertilizer samples
    • 3gm + 20 ml H 2 O
    • Preparation for XRF Measurment
    • ground sieved pressed at 9 ton
    • 1 cm diameter pellet
    • Preparation for F Content Measurment
    • - For sediment samples
    • 1gm + 10 gm(Na 2 CO 3 ) melting at 1000
    • dissolved to prepare 20 ml
  • 8. Radiation hazard indices calculations Absorbed dose rate: (world average value = 59 nGy h -1 ) D (nGy h -1 ) = 0.462 C U (Bq kg -1 ) + 0.604 C Th (Bq kg -1 ) + 0.0417 C K (Bq kg -1 ) Radium equivalent (world average value = 370 Bq kg -1 ) Ra eq (Bq kg -1 ) = C Ra (Bq kg -1 ) + 1.43 C Th (Bq kg -1 ) + 0.077 C K (Bq kg -1 ) external hazard index H ex : internal hazard index H in :
  • 9. Results Characteristics of samples Radioactivity content measurements pH, TOM, TDS and Bicarbonate Fertilizer, sediment, water and plant XRF measurements Fertilizer and sediment concentration - correlation - comparison F content
  • 10. Characteristics of Samples
  • 11.  
  • 12. Fig. 3.1. The fluoride concentration (mg/g) for sediment samples collected from up stream, wastewater discharge pipe and down stream locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively .
  • 13. Fig. 3.2. The fluoride concentration (mg/l) for water samples collected from up stream, wastewater discharge pipe and down stream locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively .
  • 14. Heavy metals concentration
  • 15. Fig. 3.3. Examples of some selected X-ray spectra of the fertilizer samples (F3 and F5) and background measured with the Si(Li) detector.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Fig. 3.4. The elemental concentration (mg/kg) for sediments samples collected from different locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively
  • 18. Table 3.3. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of any two elements determined in phosphate fertilizer and sediment samples assuming a linear relation. Sr Sn Ba Fe Phosphate Fertilizer Samples Sr 1.00 Sn 0.15 1.00 Ba 0.11 0.3 1.00 Sediment Samples Sr 1.00 Sn 0.55 1.00 Ba 0.07 0.14 1.00 Fe 0.76 0.29 0.10 1.00
  • 19. Radioactivity concentration
  • 20.  
  • 21. Table 3.5. Continued.
  • 22. Fig.3.5. Gamma-ray spectra of the fertilizer sample (F4) and background measured using HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors. All energies are in keV.
  • 23. Fig. 3.6. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in phosphate raw (F1 and F2), fertilizer products (F3, F4, F5 and F6), waste product (F7) known as phosphogypsum measured using NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors.
  • 24. Fig. 3.7. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for sediment samples collected from different locations measured using NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors.
  • 25. Fig. 3.8. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 k for sediment samples collected from different locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively.
  • 26. Fig. 3.9. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 k for water samples collected from different locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively.
  • 27. Fig. 3.10. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 k for plant samples collected from different locations. The solid and dotted lines show the mean value for each group and one standard deviation (1σ), respectively.
  • 28. Fig. 3.11. The mean concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for sediment samples collected from different locations. The ranges are shown as boxes while mean values are shown as solid circles .
  • 29. Fig. 3.14. The concentration of 226 Ra for super phosphate raw, single super phosphate, triple super phosphate and phosphogypsum samples. The ranges are shown as boxes while mean or single values are shown as close circles.
  • 30. Fig. 3.17. The concentration of 226 Ra for sediment, plant and water samples. The ranges are shown as boxes while mean or single values are shown as close circles .
  • 31. Table 3.8. The correlation coefficients between the concentration of any isotope in fertilizer, sediment and water samples, and Sr, Sn, Ba and Fe heavy metals concentrations and other characteristics. 226 Ra 232 Th 40 K Super Phosphate Fertilizer Samples Sr 0.85 0.55 0.0005 Sn 0.06 0.18 0.03 Ba 0.49 0.86 0.39 F 0.79 0.41 0.34 pH 0.51 0.06 0.19 Sediment Samples Sr 0.19 0.11 0.60 Sn 0.28 0.47 0.50 Ba 0.82 0.09 0.13 Fe 0.23 0.82 0.04 F 0.56 0.06 0.44 pH 0.01 0.23 0.04 TOM 0.22 0.75 0.30 Water Samples F 0.19 0.13 0.27 pH 0.55 0.27 0.53 Bicarbonate 0.6 0.29 0.52 Salinity 0.1 0.5 0.77
  • 32.  
  • 33. Fig. 3.20. The concentration of Ra eq for super phosphate raw material and super phosphate fertilizer samples. The ranges are shown as boxes while mean or single values are shown as close circles.
  • 34. Conclusion
    • The phosphate fertilizer showed higher values of fluoride concentration than those for other types of fertilizers .
    • The lowest fluoride content was found in Abu-Tartor phosphate raw materials.
    • The highest fluoride concentration was found in wastewater discharge pipe locations.
    • The results indicated that the wastewater polluted with fluoride produced from the fertilizer company may be affecting the environment.
    • No clear results were deduced for heavy metals to allow testing of this possible effect because of the limited number of samples.
  • 35.
    • The results indicated that the 226 Ra activity concentration of the phosphate fertilizer samples is higher than that in other types of fertilizer.
    • There is a great variation in the 226 Ra concentration of phosphate raw material (F1 and F2) because the geological origin of the phosphate ore is not the same.
    • The environment may be slightly affected with low concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th isotopes due to the discharged wastewater from the phosphate fertilizer industry.
    • The results showed that there is a correlation between the 226 Ra and F concentrations in fertilizer samples (liner correlation coefficient, r = 0.79) due to the elemental composition of phosphate raw materials.
  • 36. Recommendations
    • The treatment of the wastewater produced from the phosphate fertilizer industry is an important way to reduce the impact of this industry on the environment.
    • Using raw materials that contain low levels of natural radioctivities, heavy metals and fluoride for the phosphate fertilizer industry is preferable.
    • A good ventilation of the industrial area of the phosphate fertilizer plant and the storage places of the end products and by-products is necessary to avoid radon accumulation.
    • We should encourage the reinvestigation of the same studied region with extending area and larger numbers of environmental samples and other similar industrial regions to obtain a larger view about the impact of different industries on the Egyptian environment.
  • 37. Thank you for your attention
  • 38. Study Area
  • 39. Table 2.1. Some information of the collected fertilizer samples . Samples code Commercial Name Composition Comments F1 Read sea raw materials (31%) 31% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F2 Abu-Tartor raw materials (29%) 29% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F3 Single super phosphate (end product) 18.20% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F4 Triple super phosphate 40 - 48 % P 2 O 5 Collected from local market F5 Super phosphate (abo nakla) 18.20% P 2 O 5 Collected from local market F6 Improved super phosphate 0.5 P 2 O + 23 Ca + 18 S Collected from local market F7 Phosphogypsum CaSO 4 . x H 2 O Collected from local market F8 Fero Fert (19 N -19 P - 19K) + Mg + T.E Collected from local market F9 Crystal Nasser (20 N- 20 P- 20 K) + T.E Collected from local market F10 Chema 33.5% 33.5 N + 0.06 Ca + 2 MgNO 3 + 0.2 S Collected from local market F11 Chema 33.5% azote 33.5% azote Collected from local market F12 Urea 46% azote + 0.2%S Collected from local market
  • 40. Fertilizer Sampling Sediment Plant Water ~24l: ~0.3l V=300 cc ~1.5l for characteristics 20 ml (F, pH, TDS, Bicarbonate) ~2 kg with depth~20-30cm V=150cc 10 gm (TOM) 0.5 gm (F) 2 gm (pH ) ~1 gm (XRF) ~5 kg fresh weight V=300cc 0.5 kg V=150cc 3 gm (F) 10 gm (pH) ~1 gm (XRF)
  • 41.  
  • 42. Characteristic Measurements TDS & Bicarbonate pH TOM
    • Crison 501
    • pH/mV-meter
    Adsorption, Solubility and migration
    • Loss on ignition
    • at 550 ºC
    Why?
    • Using a Ds meter
    • Using acid titration
  • 43. Fluoride Measurment Fertilizer, sediment and water samples Ion Selectivity Meter (Orion EA 940) at Water & Soil Analysis Unit, Central Lab., Desert Research Center
  • 44. Table 2.1. Some information of the collected fertilizer samples . Samples code Commercial Name Composition Comments F1 Read sea raw materials (31%) 31% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F2 Abu-Tartor raw materials (29%) 29% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F3 Single super phosphate (end product) 18.20% P 2 O 5 Collected from selected company F4 Triple super phosphate 40 - 48 % P 2 O 5 Collected from local market F5 Super phosphate (abo nakla) 18.20% P 2 O 5 Collected from local market F6 Improved super phosphate 0.5 P 2 O + 23 Ca + 18 S Collected from local market F7 Phosphogypsum CaSO 4 . x H 2 O Collected from local market F8 Fero Fert (19 N -19 P - 19K) + Mg + T.E Collected from local market F9 Crystal Nasser (20 N- 20 P- 20 K) + T.E Collected from local market F10 Chema 33.5% 33.5 N + 0.06 Ca + 2 MgNO 3 + 0.2 S Collected from local market F11 Chema 33.5% azote 33.5% azote Collected from local market F12 Urea 46% azote + 0.2%S Collected from local market
  • 45. Radioactivity concentration measurements Using γ -ray spectrometer employing 5"×5" NaI(Tl) and 10%HPGe detector Experimental Methods (II) Heavy metal concentration measurements XRF spectrometer employing Si(Li) detector
  • 46. Gamma-Ray Measurements Fig. 2.3. A block diagram of electronics used for the γ-ray spectrometer employing NaI(Tl) or HPGe detector Detector Preamplifier Amplifier MCA Bias Supply For HPGe PC Low BG lead shield 10% HPGe Bias supply for NaI(Tl)
  • 47. Results