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Special Theory of Relativity of Albert einstien..…

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  1. 1. Presentation on Special Theory of Relativity By :- Vishal Thakur
  2. 2. The Special Theory of Relativity ( published in 1905 by Albert Einstein) <ul><li>Aimed to answer some burning questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could Maxwell’s equations for electricity and magnetism reconcile with the laws of mechanics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where was the Luminiferous aether ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( null result of 1887 Michelson–Morley experiment) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Postulates of Relativity : First <ul><li>“ The laws of physics are same for all the observers in uniform motion relative to each other ” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Second <ul><li>“ The  speed of light  in vacuum is same for all the observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Speed of light c = 3 x 10 8 metres/second = 670,616,629 mph) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facts of Relativity <ul><ul><li>Regardless of speed or direction, observers always measure the speed of light to be the same value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of light in vaccum is the maximum possible speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizes  Galileo's principle of relativity —all uniform motion is relative, there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of the theory confirms Lorentz Transformations and mostly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are related by Lorentz factor </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CONSEQUENCES :- Relativity of Simultaneity <ul><li>Events which are simultaneous in one frame may not be in another! </li></ul><ul><li>Each observer is correct in its own frame of reference . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Time Dilation <ul><li>Time lapse between two events is not invariant to observer, but depend on the relative speeds of the observers reference frames. </li></ul><ul><li>Observer measure moving clock run slow. </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Twin Paradox ( concerns a twin who flies off in a spaceship traveling near the speed of light and returns to discover that his or her twin sibling has aged much more) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Length Contraction <ul><li>Observers measure moving objects to be shorter than they were at rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Only applies to the direction parallel to the motion on objects moving near to the speed of light! </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1 + 1 not equals to 2 <ul><li>Velocities(and speeds) do not simply add up. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called  composition law for velocities . </li></ul><ul><li>For collinear motions of two objects (u and v as their velocities),the velocity of </li></ul><ul><li>each object relative to a stationary </li></ul><ul><li>observer is :- </li></ul><ul><li>Isn't noticeable at low velocities but as the velocity approaches the speed of light it becomes important. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thomas Rotation <ul><li>Orientation of an object (i.e. the alignment of its axes with the observer's axes) may be different for different observers. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other relativistic effects, this effect becomes quite significant at fairly low velocities as can be seen in the  spin of moving particles . </li></ul>
  11. 11. E = mc 2 <ul><li>Famous Mass-Energy equivalence … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also the Rest Mass Energy of the particle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much amount of energy is released when a relative small amount of mass gets lost!   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear fission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(as in atom bombs)… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear fusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(as in sun and other stars)! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How does SR help us? <ul><li>Mass Energy Equivalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles can annihilate with their antiparticles, releasing much energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of new particles! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows particles to travel much further than previously expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to detect and identify particles! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and Time – now considered different components of single entity . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided in different ways by observers in relative motion. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How does SR hinder us? <ul><ul><li>Accelerator beam energy must be high enough for the mass of particles you want to produce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to have long acceleration times than expected. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SLAC( Stanford Linear Accelerator Center ) accelerator needs a 3-km path to get speed that Newtonian dynamics predicts for 1.5 cm! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LHC ( Large Hadron Collider - world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator ring) diameter = 27 km! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Summary <ul><li>2 postulates, strange consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relativity of simultaneity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of velocities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass - Energy Equivalence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particle physics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of new particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to measure, harder to accelerate </li></ul></ul>
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