_____________________________________________________________________________________
Support for educators and trainers
W...
1.Teacher Retention and Mobility
Teaching involves many complex tasks. New teachers, no matter which route of preparation ...
First year teachers are typically focused on developing their practice and do so by gathering information
to improve techn...
Multiple levels of support are necessary and effective in retaining new teachers by building their self-
image as competen...
Beginning in the 2006-2007 school year, every district school board was required to provide a New
Teacher Induction Progra...
• receive adequate feedback and opportunity for input;
• receive timely notice of concerns and assistance to improve;
• ha...
If the mentoring relationship is not effective, it may be necessary to explore opportunities for new
mentoring partnership...
6. Overplan.
Make sure you have plenty of activities to cover classroom time. It is wise to have several go-to activities ...
Whether you are teach a kindergarten class, at an elementary school, middle school, or high school, it is best to
“Expect ...
10.Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. (2003). Pursuing a "sense of success": New teachers explain
their career decisions. Ame...
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Support for educators and trainers Bucharest 2014

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Teacher induction, defined as inservice support for beginning teachers, is separate from preservice preparation and ideally serves as a bridge linking preservice and inservice education. Common objectives of teacher induction include teacher development, socialization into the profession, assessment of teaching effectiveness, and support in refining practic. Although programs vary between schools and context, they typically include a variety of activities such as orientation, classroom support, workshops, collaboration with colleagues, and mentoring (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011).
Teachers often struggle when inducted to the profession without a sufficient transitional period that allows them to practice their teaching skills prior to undertaking the responsibilities the job requires (Ganser, 2002). As a result, first year teachers are, on average, less effective than their more experienced colleagues (Rockoff, 2008). In analysis of data from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, Ingersoll and Merrill (2010) concluded that the majority of teachers are either beginners or nearing retirement. More than a quarter of teachers are in their first five years of teaching. Thus, the teacher force is on the verge of being expanded, replaced, and re-made (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010).

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Transcript of "Support for educators and trainers Bucharest 2014"

  1. 1. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Support for educators and trainers What is new teaching? How could we use new methods and ICT to support this? I Teacher quality is an important school-level factor in student achievement and the focus of ongoing effort by policy makers and practitioners to ensure that all students have effective teachers throughout their school years. New teacher induction is an essential component in teacher development and retention . Teacher induction, defined as inservice support for beginning teachers, is separate from preservice preparation and ideally serves as a bridge linking preservice and inservice education. Common objectives of teacher induction include teacher development, socialization into the profession, assessment of teaching effectiveness, and support in refining practic. Although programs vary between schools and context, they typically include a variety of activities such as orientation, classroom support, workshops, collaboration with colleagues, and mentoring (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011). Teachers often struggle when inducted to the profession without a sufficient transitional period that allows them to practice their teaching skills prior to undertaking the responsibilities the job requires (Ganser, 2002). As a result, first year teachers are, on average, less effective than their more experienced colleagues (Rockoff, 2008). In analysis of data from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, Ingersoll and Merrill (2010) concluded that the majority of teachers are either beginners or nearing retirement. More than a quarter of teachers are in their first five years of teaching. Thus, the teacher force is on the verge of being expanded, replaced, and re-made (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010).
  2. 2. 1.Teacher Retention and Mobility Teaching involves many complex tasks. New teachers, no matter which route of preparation taken, are not fully prepared for their first day of teaching and have a lot to learn. In recent years due to high attrition as well as retirement, the demand for teachers has increased (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010). Teacher turnover is substantially higher in high poverty schools than it is in suburban schools with low poverty . Turnover in low performing schools is further compounded by the challenge of filling the vacancies with highly qualified teachers . Research studies have documented that teacher shortages are heavily impacted by numerous teachers leaving the profession within the first five years, also referred to as the revolving door . As teachers continually leave these schools and the education profession altogether, many new teachers are needed, and as such, induction and mentoring offer an avenue to prepare and retain effective teachers. Researchers note a movement in recent years to improve new teacher induction programs (Wayne, Youngs, & Fleishman, 2005). Successful programs help teachers understand their roles and guide them to be effective practitioners, which effects teachers' decisions to stay in their schools and the profession altogether . In contrast, teachers leave schools where they are not supported, feel ill equipped to meet students' needs, and ultimately, feel ineffective. These conditions are more widespread in low performing schools with high percentages of minority populations (Loeb, Darling-Hammond & Luczak, 2005) and where induction programs are less common . However, high performing schools with high poverty and minority populations also retain effective teachers, which indicates that teacher turnover is more closely related to the environment and support that teachers receive than socioeconomic and ethnic status of the students (Johnson, Kraft, & Papay, 2012). To support beginning teachers and shape effective patterns in their teaching , comprehensive induction programs including individualized mentoring and professional collaboration within a supportive culture are necessary. 2.Comprehensive New Teacher Induction Comprehensive induction programs are defined as opportunities to collaborate in small learning communities, observe experienced colleagues' classrooms, be observed by expert mentors, analyze their own practice, and network with other novice teachers (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). Teachers learn about exemplary teaching by seeing what it looks like, talking about it, and experimenting in their own classrooms. Quality induction must sanction time for teachers to be observed and reflect on their own teaching, as well as on their students' learning (Darling-Hammond et al., 2009). Teachers are socialized in various ways including the observation of their previous teachers known as the apprenticeship of observation , their preparation programs, and especially their first on-the-job experiences. Teachers often underestimate the demands that will be placed on them in their first year of teaching. As a result, they struggle when the support system is not strong enough to help them implement the ideas and knowledge that they learn in their preparation years (Villani, 2002). 3. Mentoring
  3. 3. First year teachers are typically focused on developing their practice and do so by gathering information to improve technical skills (Gabriel, 2010). In this crucial developmental stage, research has shown that teachers who were provided a mentor from the same content area, and received support in their first year of teaching, including planning and collaboration with other teachers, were less likely to leave the profession after their first year (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). The guidance of a mentor can support new teachers to make decisions as part of an experienced team, rather than in isolation. Effective mentors use inquiry-based questioning and support meaningful teaching and learning through an analysis of individual needs and goals based on teacher standards . Furthermore, Fletcher, Strong, and Villar (2008) established a mentoring-achievement link, noting that more hours of mentoring yielded higher student achievement gains compared with others teachers who spent less time with a mentor. In sum, instructional mentoring is effective when it is consistent and based on an explicit vision of good teaching as well as an understanding of teacher learning. 4. Professional Collaboration In addition to mentoring, professional collaboration is a key component of a successful induction program. Learning to teach is a process, not solely a function of a teacher preparation program or induction experiences, and teachers need opportunities to continuously learn and improve their practice. Hord and Sommers (2008) argued the best form of professional development includes providing opportunities for reflection on practice to develop teachers' understanding of content, pedagogy, and learners. In addition to increasing teacher learning and student achievement, professional collaboration further increases teacher job satisfaction . Quality teachers with experience and content knowledge exist in many schools and are often the most untapped resources. At a time when many schools and teachers feel pressure from national, state, and district mandates to improve test scores, many successful schools are turning to teachers and tapping into their rich knowledge base via professional learning communities . These types of structures on the school campus can be helpful for new teachers to receive continual support in developing their curriculum and repertoire of best teaching practices. Such programs can be structured in ways that provide teachers with consistent and meaningful collaboration with colleagues, afford them opportunities for learning, and allow them to be learners alongside their students (Meier, 2002; Metropolitan Life Insurance, 2010). 5. School Environment For teachers to do their jobs well, they need supportive school environments where they are valued, trusted, and empowered to collaborate for the purpose of improving instruction (Ingersoll & May, 2011). Research on organizational cultures indicates that schools based on individuality rather than collaboration leave many teachers to sink or swim . On the other hand, when teachers believe administrators are focused on student and teacher success, they feel more positive about school environment and choose to stay. Further, Angelle (2006) found that when new teachers view their instructional leader's monitoring as supportive, it positively effects their teaching practices and their decision to stay. When instructional leaders support teachers and promote a culture of continual learning by the school community, teachers enjoy their work and are more successful.
  4. 4. Multiple levels of support are necessary and effective in retaining new teachers by building their self- image as competent professionals. Establishing networks of support for teachers, both novice and veteran, can serve as highly effective professional development. Incorporating mentoring, coaching, and critical dialogue in the teacher's day can increase students' understanding and achievement, as well as teacher job satisfaction (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). 6. Induction in Middle Level Schools Comprehensive induction programs have strong implications for middle level schools—grade 5 to grade 9—where teachers often lack the specific preparation and experience for their role as a teacher of young adolescents (Jackson & Davis, 2000). Adolescents are dealing with many changes in their bodies, as well as social and emotional issues that can impede their learning if not dealt with appropriately . Teachers who do not have sufficient preparation to adequately organize their classroom and instruction to meet young adolescents' unique needs are at a disadvantage as they begin their careers. Jackson and Davis (2000) maintained that middle level schools should be filled with expert teachers who are prepared to teach and advocate for young adolescents during their emotional, social, and academic development. The lack of specialized licensure and preparation leaves the majority of educators who teach young adolescents ill prepared when they begin their careers to meet young adolescents' unique developmental needs (McEwin, Dickinson, & Anfara, 2005). Beginning teachers' lack of understanding of how to teach young adolescents amplifies frustrations and learning difficulties in the classroom. To circumvent the lack of preparation, many high performing middle schools have resorted to providing inservice workshops for their teachers . Successful schools help teachers understand why young adolescents act the way they do and provide strategies to enable them to address their needs. Young adolescents are unique and learn best by varied curriculum and instructional strategies that take into account their social, emotional, and developmental needs. New teachers are at a disadvantage if they II Let's look at the experience of the USA: Recent changes to the Education Act establish a new induction program for new teachers as well as a separate appraisal process. Understanding the elements of these changes is important for new teachers as well as experienced teachers involved in mentoring programs. New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP)
  5. 5. Beginning in the 2006-2007 school year, every district school board was required to provide a New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP) for certified teachers new to the teaching profession (including teachers trained out-of-province) who have been hired into permanent positions (full-time or part- time). The NTIP must include the following components: 1. Orientation for new teachers by the school and school board; 2. Professional development and training in specified areas; 3. Mentoring programs established by the school board and principals; and 4. Two teacher performance appraisals for each new teacher in the first 12 months of hire. Successful completion of the NTIP will be noted on the new teachers’ Ontario College of Teachers certificates and the public register. If a new teacher moves to a different school board before completing the NTIP, the process will carry on with the new school board. Information collected by the first school board in the context of the NTIP and appraisal process will be forwarded to the new school board. Performance Appraisal of New Teachers The Education Act and Regulations outline the process required for teacher evaluation. New teachers must achieve two satisfactory performance appraisals within the first 24 months of teaching in order to successfully complete the New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP). As soon as two satisfactory appraisals are achieved, the NTIP is complete. The teacher is then placed on the regular five-year evaluation cycle for experience teachers from that point onward. This may be as early as the second year of teaching. If a new teacher receives a not satisfactory rating, the teacher has a chance to continue with the NTIP with an enrichment plan and further appraisal. If a new teacher receives two not satisfactory ratings in the course of the NTIP, the teacher may continue with the NTIP with an improvement plan established but will be placed "on review." A further not satisfactory appraisal may result in termination of employment and notification to the College of Teachers. A rating is not satisfactory if it is either "Development Needed" or "Unsatisfactory." Advice to New Members If you are a new teacher, it is very important that you become familiar with the expectations and components of the performance appraisal process. You have the right to: • know what standards of performance are expected of you;
  6. 6. • receive adequate feedback and opportunity for input; • receive timely notice of concerns and assistance to improve; • have the opportunity to work on the identified improvements; • have a federation representative present at any meetings regarding the performance appraisal process. You also have other rights as defined in your local collective agreement or entitlements arising out of your school board’s policy or procedures on performance appraisals. If you are not in agreement with the summative report of your performance and the evaluator is unwilling to change it, you may attach a response to address what you believe to be inaccuracies, omissions or concerns about the evaluation process. You should also consider contacting your ETFO local office or ETFO staff in professional relations (PRS) for assistance with your response. You will be asked to sign the report. Your signature is acknowledgment that you have read and received the report. It does not constitute agreement with its contents. Members can contact the Federation at anytime throughout the process; however, if you receive an unsatisfactory rating, it is very important that you contact the Federation as soon as possible for support and advice. Mentoring Programs Mentoring programs are a necessary part of the NTIP. Experienced teachers may be asked to volunteer to mentor new teachers. Consult your school or board for details specific to the mentoring program in place for you and what release time will be available to you for mentoring. Be sure to ask what release time will be available to you to work with your mentor. Mentoring may be carried out in a number of different ways depending on the needs of the individual new teacher. However, the key to any form of mentoring is the relationship between the people involved. This relationship must maintain the professionalism demanded of our profession and should be built on trust and respect. A mentor is not a supervisor or an evaluator. A mentor is a colleague, a coach, a support, and a resource. Mentors normally need training to be effective. The Ministry of Education has indicated that school boards should include training as part of their mentoring programs. Some of the skills for which training will be important concern the following: development of mentoring plans, consulting, coaching and collaborating without supervising or evaluating; identifying resources to share; providing meaningful feedback; elements of an effective mentoring relationship; effective and supportive mentoring communication skills; dealing with teachers in crisis; and maintaining confidentiality of the mentoring relationship.
  7. 7. If the mentoring relationship is not effective, it may be necessary to explore opportunities for new mentoring partnerships. Teachers should consult the processes established under the school board’s mentoring process for this or consult the Federation for advice. III Advice to New teachers: 1. Start the year tough. Many teachers make the mistake of starting the school year with a poor discipline plan or without any classroom management plan at all. It is so much easier to start tough and then lighten up, then to start light and discipline more. At the beginning of the year, students quickly assess the situation and realize what they will be allowed to get away with. Starting the year tough will give you control and flexibility. 2. Be fair to all students. Students are the first to recognize a teacher’s favorites or biases. This is dangerous because it could lead to disruption if they sense that a teacher has favorites. Treat all without partiality and make sure all are included and engaged in class material. Without fairness, knowing all of the best teaching methods and strategies will be useless. 3. Be prepared for disruptions and don’t let them phase you. Students often amplify their teacher’s reaction to disruptions—be ready for them and be ready to calmly and quickly pick up where you left off. Having a joke or interesting comment ready to bring attention back to you will allow you to transition back to the material. It is also good to be prepared for emergencies. Taking the time to structure your lessons and units around specific objectives will keep students focused and prevent them from drifting off topic. Organization permeates every facet of teaching and classroom life. From knowing where classroom materials are located to understanding how you want to plan lessons, organization can make the difference between a smooth or rocky classroom. 4. Instill high expectations Expect that your students will behave, not that they will disrupt. Reinforce this with the way you speak to your students. When you begin the day, tell your students your expectations for the day and they will have the goals engrained in their head and will be less likely to cause trouble. It’s never too early to encourage students to act with personal responsibility. Show them that there are consequences, both positive and negative, to their actions and decisions. Include them when possible in creating rules and methods of evaluation in the class, and provide them the opportunity to lead class discussions. They will approach these situations more seriously if they can claim a sense of ownership. 5. Incentivize good behavior. Motivating students though rewards like no homework, watching a video, ice cream, or free-activity time can help students by giving them a goal. This can also help students hold each other accountable to class goals and stigmatize negative behavior even more. Always understand that young students are not adults, but they will feel empowered and motivated that they possess independence and individuality in the classroom, which can provide lessons and skills that will benefit them well after they have left your class.
  8. 8. 6. Overplan. Make sure you have plenty of activities to cover classroom time. It is wise to have several go-to activities to do if and when a lesson finishes early. It is sometimes the point of no return when students realize they are done with planned activities. Consider the best way to present lesson plans to students, whether it’s through syllabus handouts, daily updates on your whiteboard, or through using computer resources. By being organized, you and your students will look back at year’s end and feel accomplished at everything that’s been done. 7. Have a clearly expressed disciplinary plan…with consequences! Make sure students know the disciplinary ladder well. Any hint of ambiguity can leave a loophole for excuses (and students are great at making excuses!). Warn students when they are close to breaking a rule so there will be no ambiguity when that line is crossed. Strong, direct communication is pivotal in establishing rules and explaining assignments, but it is also just as important when addressing poor behavior in the classroom. If a student is acting out, use clear, decisive language when communicating to them about what they have done wrong. Failing to be direct lessens the impact of the discipline and risks other students questioning your authority because they see there is little consequence for acting out. You strive to establish strong communication with your students, and it is important to use it when necessary to correct misbehaviors in the classroom. 8. Focus on relationships. A teacher than can connect positively with their students will make students behave and easier to manage because students will regard the teacher much like a friend. Using positive reinforcement to build a positive reputation for the child gives the student confidence that their teacher believes in them and will make it harder to disappoint the teacher with bad behavior or work ethic. Parent-teacher conferences, open houses and other school sponsored events are great opportunities to interact with parents and talk about how their child is doing in class, but it also pays off to reach out directly beyond these events. Taking the time to share both areas of strength and areas of improvement about their kids will build trust with parents, and create a strong channel of communication that will have a positive impact on the student. Fostering a relationship with parents can go a long way in anticipating and addressing any problems that may arise both in and outside of the classroom. 9. Be careful about confrontation. Confrontation needs to not humiliate nor does it need to be done in front of others. A bad confrontation situation could cause turn a teacher into an enemy in the eyes of a studen. This will only amplify bad behavior. As a teacher, you are the unquestioned leader of the classroom, and it is vital you set the tone for the year by establishing rules to follow and the expectations you have for students. But it is also important to engage with students and allow them to ask what they expect from you and the class. Students will feel empowered knowing that they have a voice, and will also feel more confident tackling the work ahead because they understand what to expect going forward. You will have a stronger understanding of classroom dynamics, and may even be able to prevent misbehaviors and problems from occurring because you have established a two-way channel of communication and feedback. Direct engagement with students about these matters will ensure both you and your students are on an equal level of understanding going forward. 10. Be patient and keep practicing. Don’t worry if things don’t go well right away…controlling your classroom is learn-able but will always be a challenge with some students.
  9. 9. Whether you are teach a kindergarten class, at an elementary school, middle school, or high school, it is best to “Expect the Unexpected” and be ready for adversity! Samobor,03.04.2014. References 1.Alliance for Excellent Education. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high quality teachers. Washington, DC: Author 2.Darling-Hammond, L, Wei, R.C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the U.S. and abroad: Technical report. Dallas: National Staff Development Council and The School Redesign Network at Stanford University. 3.DuFour, R. (2007). Professional learning communities: A bandwagon, an idea worth considering, or our best hope for high levels of learning? Middle School Journal, 39(1), 4–8. 4.Fletcher, S. H., Strong, M., & Villar, A. (2008). An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California. Teachers College Record, 110, 2271–2289. 5.Flowers, N., & Mertens, S. B. (2003). Professional development for middle-grades teachers: Does one size fit all? In P. G. Andrews & V. A. Anfara, Jr. (Eds.), Leaders for a movement: Professional preparation and development of middle level teachers and administrators (pp. 145– 160). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. 6.Gabriel, R. (2010). The case for differentiated professional support: Toward a phase theory of professional development. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 4(1), 84–93. 7.Ganser, T. (2002). The new teacher mentors: Four trends that are changing the look of mentoring programs for new teachers. American School Board Journal, 189(12), 25–27. 8.Ingersoll, R., & May, H. (2011). Recruitment, retention, and the minority teacher shortage. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania and Center for Educational Research in the Interest of Underserved Students, University of California, Santa Cruz. 9.Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, L. (2010). Who's teaching our children? Educational Leadership. 67(8), 14–20.
  10. 10. 10.Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. (2003). Pursuing a "sense of success": New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581–617 11.Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L., & Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3), 44–70. 12.McEwin, C. K., Dickinson, T. S., & Anfara, V. A., Jr. (2005). The professional preparation of middle level teachers and principals. In V. A. Anfara, Jr., G. Andrews, & S. B. Mertens (Eds.), Encyclopedia of middle grades education (pp. 59–67). Greenwich, CT & Westerville, OH: 13.Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458. 14.Smith, M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Education Research Association, 42(3), 681–715. . 15.Villani, S. (2002). Mentoring programs for new teachers: Models of induction and support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Links : 1. Support Our Teachers - The Truth Behind the Medford Teacher's St http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnOsYcm703w 2. What is creative teaching? How could we use ICT to support this? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiMHUW7-yKs 3. ICT in the classroom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4yZG69sm4Q 4. Ict in the Classroom - Then and Now http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLmdu74ehYA 5. Can Technology Change Education? Yes!: Raj Dhingra at TEDxBe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0s_M6xKxNc

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