Traffic volume study


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A brief description on traffic volume study.

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  • The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure.
  • Traffic volume study

    2. 2. Presentation outline ►Definition ►Objective ►Scope ►Methodology ►Data collection Reconnaissance Survey ►Data analysis ► Conclusion ►Limitations
    3. 3. Definition Traffic volume study is the procedure to determine mainly the volume of traffic moving on the roads at a particular section during a particular time.
    4. 4. Definitions(continues) Service flow rate: The maximum hourly rate of a roadway section during a given period under prevailing roadway condition. LOS: “Qualitative measures that characterize operational conditions within a traffic stream and their perception by motorists and passengers.” (Highway capacity manual, 1994)
    5. 5. Definitions(continues) ADT: Average daily traffic is the volume of traffic counted on the roadway(two way) over a given time period (greater than one day but less than one year) divided by the number of days in that time period. AADT: Average annual daily traffic is obtained by adding daily traffic counts over one year divided by 365 days.
    6. 6. Definitions(continues) Directional Distribution: Directional distribution refers to the percentage of traffic flow in one direction during a particular time of day. This factor is particularly important in the case of commuter roads, where maximum flow occurs in one direction in the morning and the other in the evening. This also needs to be considered for efficient geometric design
    7. 7. Definitions(continues)  PCE: PCE means passenger car equivalent to express various types and characteristics vehicles to a common type usually the passenger car. One car is considered to one unit.  Volume/flow: The total number of vehicles that pass over a given point or section of a lane or roadway during a given time interval. It may be expressed in terms of annual, daily, hourly, or sub-hourly periods; usually in vph or vpd. Volume is an actual number of vehicles observed or predicted to passing a point during a given interval.
    8. 8. Objectives The objectives of carrying out traffic volume study are designing, improving traffic system, planning, management etc.  Design purpose: Structural and geometric design of pavements, bridge, and other highway facilities; intersection design including minimum turning path, channelization, flaring, traffic control devices viz. traffic signs, markings, signals based on approach volume and turning proportions etc.
    9. 9. PURPOSES Improvement purposes: To allocate limited maintenance budget rationally; to improve the roadway operating condition; to examine the existing operating/service condition; to determine the type of improvement measure need to be taken etc. Planning Purposes: Accurate information on the amount of traffic on the roads is vital for the planning of both road maintenance and improvement policies
    10. 10. PURPOSES(continues) Dynamic Traffic Management Purposes: Up to date and continuous flow/congestion information is essential for optimizing; Network productivity by providing information to the road user etc.
    11. 11. PURPOSES(continues) Other Purposes:  Estimation of highway usage  Measurement of current demand of a facility  Estimation of trends  Economic feasibility evaluation  Computation of accident rates etc.
    12. 12. Scope Of Traffic Volume Studies: Magnitudes, classifications and the time and directional split of vehicular flows Proportions of vehicles Scope Flow fluctuation on different approaches at a junction Hourly, daily, yearly and seasonal variation of vehicular flows
    13. 13. Methodology Automatic Counting Method Traffic volume study Contact system based Contactless system based Direct Method Manual Counting Method indirect Method
    14. 14. Manual Counting Method: Direct method Data is counted by using hand tally and manual counters/enumerators.  Advantages: By this method traffic volume as well as vehicle classification and turning proportions can be obtained. Data can be used immediately after collection.  Disadvantages: This method is not practicable for long duration count and when flow is high. Error is common especially when volume is high. Count cannot be cross checked. Count cannot be done in bad weather.
    15. 15. Mechanical Counting Boards Mechanical count boards consist of counters mounted on a board that record each direction of travel. Common counts include pedestrian, bicycle, vehicle classification, and traffic volume counts.
    16. 16. Electronic Counting Boards Electronic counting boards are battery-operated, lighter, more compact, and easier to handle. They have an internal clock that automatically separates the data by time interval.
    17. 17. Instruments used in Direct method Hand Counter Instrument to Measure Distance
    18. 18. Example of data collection in tally method.
    19. 19. Direct method A Typical Data Sheet of Manual Method
    20. 20. Manual Counting Method: Indirect Method In this method, data is collected using video camera. Video is captured for long time and data is collected later by rewinding.  Advantages: Besides traffic volume, several traffic parameters can be obtained from recorded film. Data can be cross checked and quality can be ensured. This method is applicable when volume is high. It is suitable for non-lane based traffic operation.  Disadvantages: A suitable elevated place is required for filming operation. Data cannot be used immediately after collection.
    21. 21. Manual Counting Method: Indirect Method Video cameras are mounted to record the traffic condition on a road.
    22. 22. Automatic counting method: In this method, vehicles are counted automatically without any human involvement. Contact system based (pneumatic, mechanical, magnetic or piezoelectric method) Contactless system based (electrical/optical, ultrasound/infrared radar, micro wave, CCTV/video image processing method etc.) • Advantages: This method is suitable for long duration or continuous count. Count is not affected by bad weather condition. • Disadvantages: It requires strict lane discipline. Non motorized vehicles are hard to detect
    23. 23. Equipment used for Automatic counting method: Contact system Motion sensors Pneumatic Road Tube Counter
    24. 24. Equipment used for Automatic counting method: Contactless system Vehicle numbers are recorder using ultrasound, light beam or other infrared technology.
    25. 25. Data collection Data: May, 2012 Group no: 3 Group Member: 7 Location: Russel square Method: Manual counting method (Direct) Equipment: Stop watch; Data sheet. Weather: Partly cloudy
    26. 26. Data collection Survey location and our group position
    27. 27. Reconnaissance Survey The number of private car is predominant in this road; second most available vehicle along this road is Rickshaw. There is a foot over bridge used by Square Hospital. There are a number of commercial buildings, shops, on both side of the road
    28. 28. Reconnaissance survey ►Abrupt movement of Pedestrian. ► Traffic flow at intersections are controlled by police.
    29. 29. Bar chart of vehicle composition 300 281 250 200 150 100 77 50 0 11 0 22 41 32
    30. 30. Vehicle composition of traffic stream in percentage. Light vehicle 64% Bus(3%) NMV 9% Auto rickshaw 18% Bus 3% Motorcycle 5% Light Vehicle(64%) NMV(9%) Motorcycle(5%) Autorickshaw(18%)
    31. 31. Service flow rate Type of vehicle Number PCE Converted number Light Vehicle 281 1 281 Autorickshaw 77 0.5 39 Bus 11 3 33 Motorcycle 22 0.1 3 NMV 41 0.5 21 Truck 0 0.75 0 Total 377 Traffic flow(10.20 AM-10.40 AM)=377 PCU Service flow rate(11.00 AM-12.00 PM)=377*3=1131 PCU/hr
    32. 32. PCU/hr VS. Time Graph 1200 1000 PCU/hr 800 600 From Panthapath to Russell Square 400 From Russell Square to Panthapath Average 200 0 Time
    33. 33. Level of service LOS Service Flow Rate (PCU/hr) A 600 B 700 C 900 D 1200 E 1400 F >1400 According to the calculated service flow rate the level of service during survey period was D.
    34. 34. Directional distribution Direction PCU/ Average Directional 100 hr PCU/hr Distribution Time 9:00 AM10:00 AM 860 10:00 From PanthaPath AM-11:00 900 to Russell Square AM 11:00 AM-12:00 1131 AM 9:00 AM10:00 AM 726 10:00 From Russell AM-11:00 Square To 856 AM Panthapath 11:00 AM-12:00 837 AM 80 963 54% 60 40 20 0 807 46%
    35. 35. ADT, AADT Estimate 24-hr volume using the hourly expansion factors = {(860+726) * 18.8 + (900+856)*17.11 + (1131+837)*18.52}/6 = 16052 Adjust the 24-hr volume for Thursday to an average volume for the week using the daily expansion factors Total weekly volume = 16052 *7.012 = 112557
    36. 36. ADT, AADT(continues) Average 24-hr volume (or Average Daily Traffic, ADT) = 112557/7 = 16080 Since the data were collected in May, using the monthly expansion factors for May Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) = 16080*1.395 = 22432 So, obtained value of Average Daily Traffic,(ADT) is 16080 PCU/day and Annual Average Daily Traffic,(AADT) is 22432 PCU/day.
    37. 37. ADT, AADT(continues) ADT AADT 16080 22432
    38. 38. ADT, AADT (continues) ADT AADT Panthapath to Russell Square 17,534 24,460 Russell Square to Panthapath 14,623 20,400 Direction
    39. 39. % ADT Flow Fluctuation Curve 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 From Panthapath to Russell square From Russell Square to Panthapath Average 9.00-10.00 10.00-11.00 11.00-12.00
    40. 40. Conclusion Vehicle composition :  Light vehicles (Car, Jeep, etc.) occupied 64% of total vehicle.  Percentage of Auto rickshaw is relatively high.  Percentage of Public transport is very low.
    41. 41. Conclusion(continues) Level of Service: • The LOS of the road is D • The road was constructed to serve as a Collector road. • Collector road should have a LOS C.
    42. 42. Conclusion(continues) Directional Distribution: Directional distribution was found nearly equal (54% and 46%) in both side of the road. So it can be said that the geometric design of the road is adequate for present traffic. Flow Fluctuation Curve: From the flow fluctuation curve it is seen that the vehicle movement is nearly uniform in that road. %ADT is highest for Panthapath to Russel Square direction at 11.00-12.00.
    43. 43. Conclusion(continues) Recommendation: • NMV should not be allowed • Amount of public transport should be increased. • To increase the LOS necessary steps should be taken to prevent the entrance of NMV, stop road side parking, prevent pedestrian crossing; introduce optimum traffic signal system. • Construct foot over bridges at necessary point for pedestrian crossing.
    44. 44. Limitations  Short count was taken (20 min)  Now a days automatic counting method based on CCTV/Video image processing is reliable and popular. But due to resource constraint it was not possible.  Limited and unskilled enumerators.