The five most commonly considered physical characteristics are temperature, taste, colour, odour and turbidity.
Water is a tasteless, odorless liquid at standard temperature and pressure .
The color of water and ice is, intrinsically, a very light blue hue, although water appears colorless in small quantities.
Ice also appears colorless, and water vapor is essentially invisible as a gas.
The freezing point of water is 0° Celsius or 32° Fahrenheit.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit under standard conditions at sea level (at one atmosphere of pressure). The boiling point of water and any other substance depends on the atmospheric pressure, which changes with elevation. At higher altitudes, the pressure is lower, and so water boils at a lower temperature. If the barometric pressure is not at the standard value, the boiling point will be different.
The unique ability of water to dissolve, to some extent, virtually every chemical compound and support practically every form of life means that raw water supplies contain many contaminants. The major categories of impurities found in raw water include:
Suspended particles, including colloids
Dissolved inorganic salts
Dissolved organic compounds
Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H 2 O) into oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen gas (H 2 ) due to an electric current being passed through the water.
solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute , resulting in a solution .
solution in which the maximum amount of solvent has been dissolved. Any more solute added will sit as crystals on the bottom of the container.
ACIDS Taste: Sour. Touch: Like water. Tested with litmus paper: Turn blue litmus red. pH value: From 0 to less than 7. Reaction with metals: Form hydrogen and a salt. Reaction with carbonates: Form a salt, water and carbon dioxide. Reaction with ammonium compounds: No reaction. ALKALIS Taste: Bitter. Touch: Soapy. Tested with litmus paper: Turn red litmus blue. pH value: From above 7 to 14. Reaction with metals: No reaction. Reaction with carbonates: No reaction. Reaction with ammonium compounds: Give off ammonia gas NEUTRAL
is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from raw water.
The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption ( drinking water ) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including to meet the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications.
In general the methods used include
physical process such as filtration and sedimentation
biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge
chemical process such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light .
Is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties in the water industry , commonly a public utility , of water resources of various qualities to different users. Irrigation is covered separately.