Di akhir sesi pembelajaran pelatih dapat :1.Menghuraikan lokasi kelenjarkelenjar sistem endokrina.2.Menyenaraikan kelenjarkelenjar sistem endokrina.3.Menyatakan fungsi kelenjar a.Pitutari b.Tiroid c.Paratiroid d.Adrenal e.Pineal f.Timus
Sistem endokrina dikelaskan kepada dua:1. Kelenjar endokrina selsel, tisutisu danorganorgan yang merembeskan hormon ke dalam cecair badan secara langsung tanpa duktus.2. Kelenjar eksokrina bhg organ yg merembeskan penghasilan ke dlm dan permukaan badan melalui duktus.
Nama kelenjar Lokasi1 kelenjar Terlekat pada hipotalamus –pituitari sella turcica ( pelana turki )1 kelenjar tiroid Di bawah larink , depan trakea4 kelenjar Di permukaan posterior tiroidparatiroid2 kelenjar adrenal Di atas pada setiap ginjal
Nama kelenjar Lokasi1 kelenjar pineal Di antara hemisfera serebral Di permukaan posterior ligamen2 ovari lebar, melekat pada mesovarium2 testis Di dalam kaviti skrotumSel-sel islets Bertaburan di pankreaslangerhans
Nama kelenjar LokasiPlasenta Di uterus semasa ibu hamilTimus Di mediastinumGastrik & mukosa Di dalam kaviti abdomenintestinal
Klasifikasi Hormon Endokrina hormon yang dikeluarkan ke dlm peredaran darah dan hanya berinteraksi dengan sel - sel sasaran . Parakrina hormon yang bertindak ke atas sel - sel yang terdekat . Autokrina hormon yang dikeluarkan dan seterusnya bertindak ke atas sel - sel yang mengeluarkanya .
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Basic principles in hormone actions : This helps maintain HOMEOSTASIS
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Pineal Gland - Main hormone secreted MELATONIN - Role Melatonin -- Mammals : Regulate reproductive activity in response to environmental light cycles e . g . Some mammals mate in summer ( lot of light ), whi others mate in winter ( lo light ).
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Thyroid Gland - Produces 3 main hormones - Triiodothyronine ( T3 ) - Thyroxine ( T4 ) Regulate body metabolism and are important in bone growth and maturati of the brain - Congenital lack of thyroid hormones : Cretinism . - Calcitonin Acts by reducing calcium levels
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Parathyroid Gland - Parathyroid Hormone Raises Blood Calcium ( antagonize Calcitonin ) This hormone acts on bone , kidney and the gut
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Thymus Gland - Thymosin : Stimulates the production of Lymphocyte - Thymostatin : Inhibits the production of Lymphocytes Thymus : Important for the neonatal production of antibodies Thymus : Gland being at the center of endocrine , neural , and immune systems
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Heart - Granular cells in the heart muscle secrete Atrial Natriuretic Factor ( A .. ANF : Regulates blood pressure , blood volume , and excretion of water , sodium and potassium .. ANF : Also a neuropeptide in the brain
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Gastrointestinal Hormones - The mucosa of the GI tract secretes a dozen PEPTIDE hormones 3 most important : 1 . Secretin : Secreted in the small intestine Stimulates the secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate and has other functions on digestion 2 . Gastrin: Secreted in the walls of stomach Stimulate hydrochloric acid secretion stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion 3 . Cholecystokinin : Secreted in the small intestine Stimulate gall bladder contraction Stimulate
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Pancreas Endocrine cells in the pancreas secrete 2 major types of hormones 1 . Insulin : Secreted in response to increase in blood glucose levels ; So insulin LOWERS glucose levels by INCREASING glucose UPTAKE in cells where it is stored as glycogen . 2 . Glucagon: Increases blood glucose levels by stimulating the conversion
A parte : Insulin & Diabetes Insulin & Diabetes Diabetes: Hyperglycemia , ie . Elevated Blood Sugar 2 Types : The distinction is based upon whether the blood sugar problem is caused by insulin deficiency ( Type 1 ) or insulin resistance ( Type 2 ) Type 1 - Insulin Deficiency: There is not enough insulin produced by the pancreas so the patient must inject insulin on a dail basis Type 2 - Insulin Resistance: There is plenty of insulin but the cells of the body are resist to its action so , increase in blood sugar This form is controlled by a strict diet
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Adrenal Glands 2 parts : Medulla & Cortex Adrenal Cortex : 3 categories of steroid hormones 1 . Mineralocorticoids 2 . Glucocorticoids 3 . Sex Steroids Adrenal Medulla 1 . Adrenaline 2 . Noradrenaline
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Adrenal Cortex Androgen Influence sexual differentiation and bodily changes during pubert Estrogen Stress Hormone , converts stored proteins to carbohydrate during Stress . Anti inflammatory and Immunosuppressive functions . If there is a sodium deprivation , Aldosterone is secreted and acts to increase reabsorption of sodium ions ( NA +) in the kidneys salivary glands , and sweat glands .
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Adrenal Medullaline : Released following stress due to environmental extremes ; Increases heart rate and blood glucose levels so , increases the amount of work the musclesenaline : As Adrenaline , act as a NT ( neuro transmiter ) in the brain Periphery ; increase blood pre and constrict blood vessels ( noradrenaline , stress , and heart disease …
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Gonads ; Testes The male gonads : produces Androgens Primary androgen = TESTOSTERONE Other androgen : Dihydrotestosterone Androstenedione Testosterone: Important for masculinization Control of sperm production Development of male sexual characteristics Activation of sexual and aggressive behaviors
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Gonads ; Ovaries 2 major classes of hormones ESTROGENS PROGESTINS Primary ESTROGEN : Estradiol others : Estriol , Estrone Synthetic estrogens : Birth control pil Estrogens : - Development of sexual characteristics at puber - Influence metabolic rat - Influence sexual and maternal behavior
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Gonads ; Ovaries PROGESTIN: Progesterone - Stimulates breast and uterine enlargement at puberty & during menstrual cycle - Maintains pregnancy ( inhibits menstru cycle during pregnancy ) Other hormone released at the end of pregnancy : Relaxin Acts to prepare the birth canal .trogen and Progesterone act in synergy .
The Endocrine Glands & their Hormones Placenta - Hormones secreted by the fertilized egg ( Used in pregnancy tests ) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( HCG ) Act by keeping progesterone high at the beginning of a pregnancy Human Placental Lactogen ( HPL ) Stimulates the mammary glands to begin to secrete milk
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Also called the HYPOPHYSIS
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone - Attached to the HYPOTHALAMUS - Secretion of the pituitary hormone is regulated by hypothalamus - HYPOTHALAMIC - PITUITARY connection
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone ANATOMY ADENOhypophysis NEUROhypophysis - 3 parts --> Anterior Lobe - pars distalis --> Intermediate Lobe - pars intermedia --> Posterior Lobe - pars nervosa (“ neural ” cells ) direct extension of the hypothalamus
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone PVN SON - Neuroscretory Cells - Paraventricular nucleus ( PVN ) - Supraoptic nucleus ( SON ) - Hormones secreted AXONS -OXYTOCIN -VASOPRESSIN Attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum Neurohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone PVN SON OXYTOCIN & VASOPRESSIN - Are really HYPOTHALAMIC hormones - OXYTOCIN : AXONS 2 main functions --> promotes uterine contractio Attaches the --> stimulates milk ejection fr hypothalamus to the mammary glands during pituitary. Also called lactation the Infundibulum Neurohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone PVN SON - VASOPRESIN : --> Antidiuretic hormone --> Raises blood pressure AXONS --> promotes water reabsorption by kidneys --> centrally : may promote memory Attaches the hypothalamus to the - Binding proteins for both pituitary. Also called oxytocin & vasopressin the Infundibulum --> Neurophysins Neurohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone ADENOHYPOPHYSIS ( ANTERIOR ) AXONS Mechanism for release of hormones True endocrine gland because release hormone in the bloodstream ( hypophysal portal system ) Attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary. Also called the InfundibulumAdenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone 1 . Neurosecretory cells of the Median eminence hypothalamus release their hormon at the median eminence 2 . Hormones circulate in bloodstream 3 . Carried to the adenohypophysis 4 . Stimulates secretion of other hormones from the adenophysis 5 . These hormones are then released in the bloodstream to reach their target cells .
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 1. Growth Hormone ( GH ) ( also called ‘ somatotropin ’) AXONS …’ tropic ’= stimulating effect GH = promotes growth in almost all body cells Attaches the hypothalamus to the lot of attention for degenerativ A disease ….. pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum -Alzheimer -Parkinson - Anti - Aging etc .Adenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 2 . Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH Role : Stimulates synthesis and AXONS release of glucocorticoi hormones ‘ Hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal Attaches the Axis ’ hypothalamus to the pituitary. Also called the InfundibulumAdenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 3 . Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH Role : Stimulates the synthesis and AXONS release of thyroxine ( T4 ) and triiodochyronine ( T3 ) from the thyroid . Attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary. Also called the InfundibulumAdenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 3 last hormones = …. gonadotropic hormones 4 . Follicle stimulating hormone ( FS AXONS Role : In both sexes , promotes the development of reproductive cells ( gametes ) and promotes secretion of Attaches the gonadal hormones hypothalamus to the Males : stimulates sperm production pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum Females : stimulates growth of primary follicle of ovaryAdenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 3 last hormones = …. gonadotropic hormones 5 . Luteinizing hormone ( LH ) AXONS Role : Female : Stimulates ovulation and formation of progesterone - Attaches the secreting cells hypothalamus to the Males : Stimulates cells that secret pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum androgens ( e . g . testosterone )Adenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Adenohypophysis : 6 hormones 3 last hormones = …. gonadotropic hormones 6 . Prolactin ( PRL ) AXONS Role : Initiates milk synthesis in mammary glands Other functions related to Attaches the growth & parental behavior hypothalamus to the Interaction with serotonin also pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum( important in depression )Adenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Non traditional hormone from the adenohypophysis --> beta - endorphin Derivative from POMC AXONS POMC : synthesized in the pars distalis and pars intermedia Attaches the Broken down into ACTH , MSH & hypothalamus to the beta - endorphins by enzymes pituitary. Also called the InfundibulumAdenohypophysis
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Beta - Endorphin : Role to play in --> Analgesia --> Learning and Memory --> Psychiatric diseases --> Feeding , Thermoregulation , --> Blood pressure --> also called the ‘ drug of the jogger ’…..
The Pituitary Gland & its Hormone Synthesize the hormone called Melanocyte stimulating hormones which acts in amphibian to change skin color AXONS Attaches the hypothalamus to the pituitary. Also called the Infundibulum