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sewage infrastructure management

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sewage infrastructure management

sewage infrastructure management

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  • 1. United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics
  • 2.
    • municipial sewage = domestic + commercial + industrial wastewater
    • wastewater management has seen very little change
    • sewage industry is huge  Government responsibility ( municipalities +other levels )
    • Authority varies (for the construction & management of plants, trunk sewers and branch collectors)
    Trunk sewers Storm sewers & tanks www.iconeng.com/past_projects.htm
  • 3.
    • UAE: In AD, Dubai & Sharjah: local Water &Electricity Authorities ,
    • Northern emirates : Ministry of electricity &water
    • Expand & Expand….
    • Sharjah Population 500,000  800 000 since 2004
    •  extension of (STW).
    • 2004 total treatment capacity : 148,000 m 3 of sewage /day (satisfy >50%) – Science Direct Journal:41,8
    • Dubai : The Drainage & Irrigation Dep of Municipality  new sewage treatment plant in the Aweer area , for 330,000 gallons of sewage water per day. 100,000 gallons /day of treated water for irrigation ( uaeinteract.com,2005)
    • Ajman signs Dh815m sewage finance deal: Municipality will supervise the 2 companies
    • Abu Dhabi : Mafraq STWE - The largest sewage treatment of its kind in the UAE
  • 4. NOW: huge surge in its privatization : DEVELOPERS forced Municipality unable to support /receive all the sewage Private sewage plants like Eagle Electromechanical, Arabian Ranches, expanded tenfold since 2000 (Hijaz, 2007) Q: Will others private companies be allowed in market?
  • 5.
    • Environmental & health: proper drainage & disposal of wastewater; nutrient& water recycling,
    • Preventing floods
    • Preserving receiving water quality
    • Economic: resource recovery/
    • optimization
  • 6.
    • water is a precious resource! plan should encompass a water cycle that has a minimal env impact, involves efficient water and wastewater systems
    • Water Issues:
    • 2.75 billion people, or 50 % of the world’s population, still lack water enough for sanitation and public health
    • year 2025, 2/3 of the world population will suffer from a water crisis
    • UAE: Water is the scarcest resource in the sandlands
    • climate: dry
    • Water resources : ground water, desalinated & recycled sewage water.-
    • No falajes left in ALAin
    • Desalinated water :satisfy 70% of the total potable water needs (250 million gallons per day =11 % of World ( Abu Dhabi Chamber Of Commerce & Industry )
  • 7.
    • Abu Dhabi Emirate Water Production, Coutesy of EAD
        Abu Dhabi Emirate Water Production                     AD WATER CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR   2003
  • 8.
    • Examples:
    • Singapore “NEWater”:public utility (mixed with reservoir water then treated
    • Tokyo 1984 water recycling centre: lower charge toilet flushing
    • Sharjah, UAE : “Most residents around Rolla Square have been using drinking water to flush toilets..”(Secretdubai , MAY, 2006)
  • 9.
    • For: watering green areas, fertilizer extraction, recharging ground water reservoirs
    • Dubai : Now it’s a big business : greenery & golf courses
    • Abu Dhabi is the green capital of the Gulf.
    • High quality treated sewage: less contaminated than desalinated water by <0.1% (below 1,000mg/litre.
    • UAE desalinated water :
      • heavily accused of causing cancer
      • billions of dollars of expansion (in AD: by 200 fold in the last 25 years before 2000, but reviews still predicted shortfalls (demand will increase from142 to 600 million gallon per day by 2010- unlimited
      • Recycled Sewage water?
  • 10.
    • http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/manage/effic/a6f4e-rev.gif
    • Sewage Collection: combined or separate sewers
    • Pumping Stations: gravity & pumping  plant
    • (rainwater  sub/surface aquifers )
    C. Wastewater Treatment Plants ( role: remove pollutants & discharge effluent
  • 11.
    • Grit Chamber(settling & screening)
    • 1 Sedimentation Tank (2-3 hrs
    • Aeration Tank (6-8hrs) & Activated sludge (m/o)
    • 2 Sedimentation Tank
    • sludge treatment :
    • 1.dehydrate & burn  ash ( 1% of the original volume)
    • 2.Fertilizer, or 3.landfill
  • 12.
    • Includes:
      • installation of the collection system & machinery
      • engineering and construction ( of pumping stations , treatment plants , infrastructure
    • Urban construction considerations:
    • 1.Underground Obstacles, rerouting (time & money)
    • 2. Space & land,
    • 3. interfering with other projects ex: road construction, waterways
    • 4. Disposal of Soil
    • 5. Cooperation of Stakeholders ex: ex: ISO14001, meetings, public input
  • 13. Road & sewage network projects Same will be done at Al Abbar and Al Hazzanah areas next year Target: promote Sharjah civil services @ a cost of Dh. 1.42 billion Within 3 years
  • 14.
    • master plan of Sharjah major projects includes the 7 th phase of the sewage station expansion to link new areas (Dh. 100 million)- Halcrow (since 1969)& CCIC
    • 1 st phase of STW was commissioned in 1978
    • Al Waha, No.39: “ More than 20 areas got linked (completely) to sewage project . The rest on the way”. Road projects are still running ‘”in full swing”
    • “ The City of Sharjah appeared to be a huge
    • workshop that does not stop at any
    • Time… to provide all means of prosperity”..
    • “… Perhaps people were annoyed or got
    • angry against traffic jams at construction
    • Sites.. We do understand but understand!!
    • [& we invite you to cooperate] Director General
    • municipality blamed , roads have been diverted and somewhere blocked..
  • 15.
    • Gov Websites for public : contacts and recommendations http://www.westwiltshire.gov.uk
    • (Dubai)shocked engineers :“We have found shirts, bras, mobile phones, pants and rocks,” (Blue Gold & EWP Blog)
    • uaeinteract.com, 2007 : “[Private]Plant to treat oil waste soon- treat and process 50 m3
    • oily waste clogs network & kills bacteria
    • Director of Drainage & Irrigation Dep blamed tankers from restaurants
    • Municipality will supervise
    • install grease separators , recycling charge : 250 to Dh300
    • Dubai Now : 3 sewage and hazardous waste treatment plants , 1 at Al Aweer, 2 Jebel Ali. None treat oil/grease waste . (Emirates Today)
  • 16.
    • Should be preventive (sewer systems unseen  get little attention  reactive/complaint-driven management)
    • Note that sewage facilities operate under severe 24-hr conditions .
      •  Maintenance needed (regular inspections, cleaning and repair )
      • new techniques to reduce costs.
    • A. Sewers (mains &piplelines): affected by external factors  pipe break/crack.
    • B. Pumping Stations : issues: heavy rain, need also constant operation .
    • C. Wastewater Treatment Plants: requires trained operators & financial resources (complexity & capacity)
  • 17.
    • Information Systems & others improve efficiency & reliability of inf. (Tokyo)
    • Rainfall Information Systems (floods)
    • Sewage Mapping and Data Management Systems : allows to systematize sewage facility & create a database for operational purposes ex: Tokyo
  • 18.
    • Enhancing Green Space and Recreational Opportunities : harmony with surrounding area/env, allow integration of green space/ recreational facilities . (ex: green roofs)
    • AD: the largest sewage treatment plant ,Mafraq STWE: Support a green oasis & wildlife
  • 19.
    • B. Preventing Odours and Emissions/ smoke (resident comfort)
    •  contain & deodorize (chemical/biological methods)
    • C. Measures against &quot;urban flooding”:
    • 1.Capacity increase (of sewers& pumping stations)
    • 2.rainwater storage tanks & infiltration facilities to control inflow
  • 20.
    • D. Improving the Performance of Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs):
    • interceptor strategy :
    • 1)CSO storage tank
    • 2) screens
    • secretdubai (Nov 2005): “ Oh we do like to be beside the Creekside , But maybe not to actually swim in it”
    • One in 20 people become ill from swimming in waters polluted by sewage ( Vandeweed, 2004) (study: islands drowning in rubbish )
    • jet ski rental at Garhoud Bridge used to be within the infected area (1 s.treatment plant used to exist)
    • Khor Khalid-Sharjah
  • 21.
    • 1. Utilization of Reclaimed Water : only about 4% of all water produced by Mafraq i s re-used (EAD)
    • 2. Utilization of Sludge :useful by-products derived from sludge -ash :
    • Concrete ex reinforced-concrete pipes ,
    • Lightweight aggregate ex water-permeable construction materials
    • Compressed baked blocks ( press and burn technology) 1050 Celsius  durable interlocking bricks  pavement and park landscaping .
    • Sludge melted slag ( 1500 °C to burn organic, inorganic remainder used: ½ volume, highly stable with no heavy metals dissolution  used in road bed or construction materials
  • 22.
    • 3.Utilize Wastewater Heat  ( energy savings & reduced air pollution
    • ( Dubai advanced cooling systems)
    • 4. (Industrial ) Pretreatment Requirements: effluent standards, monitoring, inspections
    • 5. financial accounting system : local public utility mostly responsible, promotes effectiveness & incremental improvement
    • sources of revenue : often national subsidies, bonds, and funds from general tax, remainder from user fees .
    • UAE: Dubai Industrial City 2007 agreement  Dubai Recycling Park (the 1 st fully integrated waste management & recycling park in the Middle East.
    • It is believed that it will be their most important project from a socially responsible stand point & that it should be replicated across the region.
  • 23.
    • Dr Clifford Randall: “Building dykes may be in Dubai’s future” (Global Warming)
    • “ By 2020, the effects will be massive”
    • UAE: Emirates inaugral global warming conference 2007: “Cut Pollution Now” (recyclingdubai.com-News)
  • 24.
    • http://uaeinteract.com
    • http://www.adcci.gov.ae:90/public/media/Magazines/april2001/local.htm
    • http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/Freshwater/FMS10/7addressing.asp
    • http://www.biwater.com/case_studies.html?id=7&serv=%2Four_services%2Fwastewater_treatment
    • http://www.questjournalists.com/index.php/site/treated_water_clean_pure_sewage_sir/
    • http://www.westwiltshire.gov.uk
    •   http://www.sciencedirect.com
    • http://secretdubai.blogspot.com/search/label/environment
    • www.unep.org/cpi/briefs/Brief02April04.doc
    • http://www.ead.ae/en/?T=2&ID=179
  • 25.  
  • 26.