Key Threats to Quality of Life (QOL) in the UAE
Contents <ul><li>Basic statistics for the UAE </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Of Life (QOL) </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to quality of life (QOL) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of some major threats to our QOL in the UAE with solutions (Ground Water) </li></ul>
Basic statistics for the UAE * gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all the goods and services produced within the borders of a nation in a given year. 250 mm From 60 To 150mm 4. Annual rainfall in U.A.E UAE: 1,881 (% 2,27) Abu Dhabi : 1,627 5. total area of vegetation (sq km) NA $ 45,200 *7. GDP per capita NA % 62 6. % employment 6,500,000 82,880 3. Total land area (sq km) NA 824,921 (% 20,1) 2. Total Nationals 300,000,000 4,104,695 1. Total population Middle East (region) UAE
Quality Of Life (QOL) <ul><li>QOL is the degree of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced in everyday life as opposed to financial or material well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life is a descriptive term that refers to people’s emotional, social and physical wellbeing, and their ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living. </li></ul>
Threats to quality of life (QOL) <ul><li>Help me on this one Professor. </li></ul><ul><li>please </li></ul>
The Availability of Freshwater <ul><li>There is a shortage in water in Middle East. As cities expand, they can accommodate growth only by developing water resources for new homes, business, and industries. Underground water resources are being utilized in such away that many countries gone heavily into desalination. Such as UAE </li></ul>
Desalination <ul><li>Desalinating of 1 cubic meter of water is casting the government Dhs 4.4 </li></ul><ul><li>The government is providing 1 cubic meter of desalinated water to residents with the rate of Dhs 2.2 </li></ul>
Eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate’s Water Sources Identified Areas of Fresh, Brackish, and Saline Ground Water Water-Quality Map of Al Ain Area
Abu Dhabi Emirate’s Water Sources Identified Areas of Fresh, Brackish, and Saline Ground Water Identified Areas of Renewable and Non-Renewable Fresh Water Liwa, Non-Renewable at least 7,000 years old Eastern Region, Al Ain Area, Renewable 25-45 years old near Al Hayer.
Location of GWP wells sampled, and age of ground water. Age of ground water is shown as the number of years it took for water to flow through the ground water system to the well after rain fell in the mountains and wadis. Al Hayer 27 Years old 36 Years old 45 Years old 28 Years old 33 Years old 33 Years old 31 Years old Air2 Wadi Sinebil Wadi Mugayrah
Water Level Declines Since 1980 Al Remah Al Saad Water-level decline, in meters Al Foah Mohayer
Hydrographs showing water levels changes in monitoring wells. Water levels declined 60 meters in 2 years from 1998 t0 2000,
<ul><li>In the 1960’s the Emirate began an program of developing farms, gardens, and forests using ground water and treated water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of wells have been drilled for this program. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers and agricultural chemicals are heavily applied to many agricultural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture activities have caused water-level declines in areas and in some cases caused the ground water to change from fresh to brackish with large increases in nitrate and salt concentrations. </li></ul>Discontinuing agriculture in recharge areas may allow recharge to dilute and flush away contaminants.
LANDSAT satellite images from 1996 and May 2004, showing large changes in areas near Al Ain and Abu Dhabi.
<ul><li>Maps show the large increases in farm areas since the late 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, almost 3% of the land area of the Emirate is measured vegetation, up from the 0% in 1972. </li></ul>
Results <ul><li>The Al Ain, Al Khazna, and Al Hayer, study areas had increased at least a 1.5 times in measured areas of vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>Al Wagan increased over 4 times the measured vegetation in 1996. </li></ul>
Results <ul><li>The total area of vegetation measured from 1996 imagery was 77,200 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>The total area of vegetation measured from 2000 imagery was 162,700 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of measured vegetation more than doubled between 1996 to 2000 </li></ul>
InSAR land deformation map averaged from 1996 to 1999 Deformation along E-E’ Distance (km) Distance (km) Deformation along F-F’ The graphs show deformation or land subsidence possibly caused by ground-water declines causing soils to collapse. Some deformation sites are located in areas of large ground-water pumpage. Line-of-sight deformation (mm) Line-of-sight deformation (mm) A A’ B B’ C C’ D D’ E’ E F F’ G G’
Effects of Agriculture on the Ground–Water Resources In Abu Dhabi Emirate <ul><li>In the last few years the Nitrate concentrations in ground water in farm areas has increased from 2 mg/L to more than 200 mg/L (WHO Standard is 10 mg/L), and concentrations of salts have also increased dramatically. </li></ul>
Cancer in UAE <ul><li>The number of cancer cases in the UAE increased due to various factors including pollution, uncontrolled use of insecticides and fertilizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is the third major cause of death in the UAE after heart diseases and road accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of cancer incidence is more than one thousand case annually. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Recommendations : </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE CONTAMINATION OF FRESH WATER AQUIFERS. </li></ul><ul><li>LIMIT PUMPING OF FRESH GROUNDWATER . </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAIN A RESERVE OF FRESH GROUND WATER FOR EMERGENCY USE. </li></ul><ul><li>MONITOR AND STUDY GROUND-WATER CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENT ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER. </li></ul>
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