Housing & Land Use


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Housing & Land Use, Housing Strategy Studies using the examples of Sydney & Glasgow

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Housing & Land Use

  1. 1. Housing & land use: Housing Strategy Studies using the examples of Sydney & Glasgow
  2. 2. <ul><li>Housing is usually the largest bulk of urban dev. & part of a v.complex urban system. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Salem: per capita consumption of space in UAE: world highest for middle income nationals in Dubai (71.4 as opposed to 31.5 sq.m in high income countries, 15.9 in middle income </li></ul>For Abu Dhabi (year 2030)
  3. 3. Housing as a QOL indicator <ul><li>Housing: a basic human right, & one of the QOL indicators . </li></ul><ul><li>QOL definitional criteria for Housing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of housing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing for all income groups ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing Mix (diff types for all); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality /standards of housing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Housing is within the context Land use planning : as observed in the following housing strategy: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sydney <ul><li>Sydney Size:, one of the largest cities in its land size ( =London & >double New York (1580 sq km) </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal city : Sydney is without sunshine for only 23 days of the year, attractive harbour & Great Barrier reef  tourist destination (Dubai!) </li></ul>http://www.sydneycity.net/sydneyfacts2.htm <ul><li>Australia’s commercial capital, </li></ul><ul><li>Population:3.5 million, expected to grow to 5.3 million by 2031. Comparable to UAE emirates </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sydney cont’d <ul><li>High growth rate (similar to UAE) </li></ul><ul><li>average household sizes anticipated to fall from 2.65 to 2.36 people per private dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>will have a total of 2.2 million dwellings (currently 1.6 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Will have a different population structure ex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2031, there is likely to be about 700,000 more people aged 55 and above in the city than in 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> requires a range of housing options that is significantly different from the current stock. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sydney’s Housing vision <ul><li>Vision: balancing growth with better quality development around transport (TOD), & increasing supply of land & new releases for housing developments </li></ul><ul><li>Smart planning : protect suburbs by constraining & balancing urban growth in centers & within transportation nodes) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy for Housing structured to meet metropolitan strategy aims : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>livability , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e conomic competitiveness by housing mixes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e quity by accessibility to affordable services , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e nvironment al protection, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved governance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General structure of housing strategy; <ul><li>1. Background & review on current conditions </li></ul><ul><li>2. problems, needs and concerns identified </li></ul><ul><li>3. conclusions drawn </li></ul><ul><li>4. planning actions to be done- listed as key objectives of the metropolitan strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>6. sub-targets within each main objective to serve as detailed steps to achieve each . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key Objectives of each metropolitan strategy Note similarities & differences: (red denotes differences) similarities always tend to exist due to common temporary urban issues..
  9. 9. Notes <ul><li>we can’t just imitate best practices/plans from other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney studied its local conditions before strategizing its plan (to give direction) </li></ul><ul><li>Only the ideas in the plan maybe useful, but not the LUP itself..so plan according to local situation.. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sydney report example-Background on local conditions & conclusions - applicable to UAE <ul><li>NOTE: The conclusions are used here to give HINTS for actions (the actual structure & details of planning actions is presented later) </li></ul><ul><li>1) anticipated changes in household types require a wider mix of housing types ( Population growth , more bachelors & young ppl ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> identify housing opportunities & zone residential dev </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2)housing affordability has declined in all major world cities as they became primary economic hubs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic & pop growth, investment, low interest rates  strong housing demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate income housing most impacted -more than half the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> focus on those with upto 120% of median household income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning actions to prevent housing stress (social housing ( UAE? ), community housing providers, housing schemes for duty exemptions& savings ex:in mortgages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sydney <ul><li>Sydney: </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Note that the rate of increase in prices is > rate of increase in income </li></ul>
  13. 13. UAE! <ul><ul><li>Growing  similar requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by year 2010 Dubai population is projected to be 1.845 million - an increase of 432,000 people between 2006 and 2010. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>housing inadequacy : Gulf news, 2007: “ Housing demand in Dubai poised to continue soaring” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DCCI, 2007: projected expansion in pop  demand for > 43,000 additional residential units in 2010 (international standard of 2.5 persons/room). 40,000 to 50,000 housing units will be supplied annually in Dubai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population in Dubai & Sharjah almost equal, but housing units are less in Dubai, why? (UAE National Census,200) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National housing: alot are on waiting lists..supply according to oil revenue, sustainable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing un-affordability: inflation of prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulfnews.com (2007, July 20): Abu Dhabi residents “were priced out of the capital's housing market and many of them were forced to send their families home.”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: income 5,000-6,000 Dhs (50% of AD population) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Residents, who are not granted company or government-provided accommodation, are bearing the brunt,&quot; (social housing) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. UAE (cont’d) <ul><li>Housing inaffordability: </li></ul><ul><li>Gulfnews.com (2006, Oct 09): bachelor accommodation problems, cramped, social problems, health & safety risks.. </li></ul><ul><li>construction of low-cost buildings.. in satellite towns ?? So far: accommodation complexes for 300,000 workers ( uaeinteract.com,2007, March 10 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Actually for laborers working in AD urban development projects, not for middle-low income residents.. </li></ul><ul><li> need to use census results, zone land for additional residential developments…with appropriate housing mix for different income levels (increased supply counteracts inflated prices… at appropriate locations ! </li></ul><ul><li>Note incoming Sydney strategy for doing so… </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3 rd conclusion :State planning & local planning of strategic & local centres <ul><li>Centres as Employment attraction areas (industrial, commercial, recreational, around stations)  major destinations , economically significant </li></ul><ul><li>focus development in centres (major & neighborhood)- </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: vibrant spaces, TOD (sustainable), multiple use of CF, design & character of urban space, local planning with public consultation  economy </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration: between State gov & local gov </li></ul><ul><li>Will also plan for resource lands, ecological & recreational areas beyond the urban area </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated into constituent of the Economy and Employment Centres and Corridor Strategies  contextual development </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>strategy has identified different types of centres which will accommodate development </li></ul><ul><li>(diff radii, size & number of shops & services, housing density & types.. </li></ul><ul><li>From Local library, to school,shops,supermarket, butcher, hairdresser …etc </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4 th Sydney report finding: <ul><li>DEVELOPMENT NEAR TRANSPORT:“over the last 5 years, 43% of new housing in existing areas has been located within easy access of public transport”. </li></ul><ul><li> target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>locate more housing near transit nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the proportion to 66% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by year 2013. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 5 th Sydney finding: density differences <ul><li>differences in evolutionary changes  density in some parts of the city is significantly higher than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: the more recently developed areas can change positively just as older centres of the city did. </li></ul>
  19. 19. UAE <ul><li>Any state & local planning & collaboration,?? </li></ul><ul><li>Not much state planning, each emirate plans on its own.. </li></ul><ul><li>What about regional or contextual planning/dev? </li></ul><ul><li>TOD? Centre dev? </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai-Sharjah case (housing, jobs & commuting.. </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf news( 2006, December 9) : Dubai and Sharjah 'must cooperate to reduce traffic' </li></ul><ul><li>Al Shafei&quot;There has to be an agreement to link the 2 emirates [Dubai and Sharjah],&quot; …”will be reached in near future” ?? </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The biggest challenges of RTA are the up-coming real estate projects and the development of a transport strategy to cope with the rapid growth in Dubai,&quot; </li></ul>Sydney’s rail network, but is that of UAE effective??
  20. 20. UAE-cont’d <ul><li>Too much new infrastructure, rather than making use of what’s existing.. </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered & suburban development & sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Broad guidelines for planning actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Urban infill dev elopment, Downtown revitalization, compact building design, mixed use developments, zone for higher densities, Density transfers & TDR  counteract sprawl & demand for C.F ,energy & water </li></ul><ul><li>Align transit with other developments (ex: residential & commercial), Non-motorized transportation planning & design  accessible sustainable transport, pedestrian friendly community </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster development (to get density for saving ‘unbuildable’ portions of land ex: mountains, wetlands, native desert, green space )  Preserve open space, native desert, ecological& coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for Stakeholder Collaboration and input in the decision making process for a proposed land use  public participation & interest. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Key factors affecting density choice <ul><li>Cost of development (if high  high rise dev </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of land </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of operation & mainatainance of the residential development. </li></ul><ul><li>Support of mass transit </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sydney’s 1 st action: (applicable to UAE?) <ul><li>ensure adequate supply of land and sites for residential development . </li></ul><ul><li>Land release strategy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>past (only land that is serviced by infrastructure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Growth Centre Plan (release new land & low density areas with detailed planning for housing & C.F (to accommodate the rapid growth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Local Environmental Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will provide for 40% of Sydney’s new housing needs to the year 2031 …….. think of UAE </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. UAE <ul><li>Suburban expansion rather than densification. </li></ul><ul><li>In land allocation for housing locals, land is not downgraded  houses usually built before the rest of C.F.  land is not habitable </li></ul><ul><li>UAE Case studies: (interview with AD planning directorate): </li></ul><ul><li>#1: Al Shamkha area, along Sweihan In native bare desert land ( no services ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>challenging in its design planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(cone shape &morphology of desert area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special case: direct request from the former ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(sponsor & monitor to finish in 1.5 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed Planning & estimating capital facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private directorate of ruler + 12 consultants & 15 contractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> v.efficient approval, financing & implementation  successful </li></ul></ul>Squared urban blocks
  24. 24. <ul><li>was not successful “despite its simple and usual grid iron design” </li></ul><ul><li>Land for locals </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides (residents and government) depending on loans </li></ul><ul><li>Each side waiting for the other! </li></ul><ul><li> after 20 years: still a lifeless area, no residents & C.F. (only 30% finished) </li></ul><ul><li>Manager of town planning :“reasons are not clear: Is it not enough money..or residents?” </li></ul>#2 The Opposite! Khalifa Alif area Example of lifeless & non-appealing ‘residential’ area around AUS
  25. 25. <ul><li>Area nearby AUS: Once some people colonize and capital facilities are available in an area, it becomes appealing for others to reside in there. </li></ul>Residents bring other Residents
  26. 26. <ul><li>One way planning, coming from the powerful authoritarian side (ruler, his private directorate, municipality)  need of public participation & stakeholder contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizing design as a challenge over planning (design background)  need of educating ‘planners’ (more like designers) about the definition & extent of the planning profession. </li></ul><ul><li>prioritization of roads as base for design of urban blocks (traditional design rather than modern tracking for pedestrian environment)  need to update UAE planners on new design & planning strategies, ex: smart growth, public spaces, NMT </li></ul>Implications from Al Shamkha case
  27. 27. UAE-cont’d <ul><li>Land allocation for Housing ? </li></ul><ul><li>Housing & land use incompatibility: </li></ul><ul><li>Case of Madiant Moh’d bin Zayed… </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage plant near houses </li></ul><ul><li>Mirdiff.. </li></ul><ul><li>Airport near houses </li></ul><ul><li>Ras Al Khaima: </li></ul><ul><li>Quaryying near houses! </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1c.Sub-regional planning in Sydney (UAE?) <ul><li>For planning comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different local governments : city divided into south, East, North, North East…etc sub regions.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy for long term possible housing distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sub regional housing capacity targets: supply development sites in excess of forecasted demands ( for affordability ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus new development in strategic & local centres /corridors , monitoring trends  plans…etc (to achieve key objectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>partnerships between state & local government, and with associations & agencies..) </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1d. Monitor Future Housing & Employment Supply (UAE?) <ul><li>housing potential assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li> determine levels & locations of zoning capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> infrastructure planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor market for commercial, retail and industrial lands : </li></ul><ul><ul><li> understand the employment demands and available supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> develop plans for needed retail floor space capacity for sufficient employment  zone commercial areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> encourages nearby residential development (in centres ) </li></ul></ul>Also could be as part of a strategy to alleviate any homelessness (by decreasing unemployment) UAE?
  30. 30. 1.e. increase usage & viability of existing housing stock <ul><li>redevelop existing apartments & encourage higher occupation of existing dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>( make use of existing infrastructure ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: second kitchens, design standards for underground parking & accessibility for disabled people </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: increases costs of reform </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to UAE? </li></ul>SOME HOUSES MAY CONTAIN MORE THAN ONE DWELLING
  31. 31. 2 nd housing action: housing mix (for UAE?) <ul><li>2a. plan for a housing mix near jobs, transport and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li> VIBRANT SPACES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> large residential population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> high land values  high rise developments  zone for them! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Kogarah Town Square , Sydney (mix of retail, commercial, basement parking, hospital, banking sector, traditional main street. </li></ul>
  32. 32. housing mix- 2b. self care housing for seniors & disabled <ul><li>Seniors Living SEPP guidelines (part of Local environmental plans) </li></ul><ul><li>Also mechanisms for their effective public & private delivery, and to maintain their availability. </li></ul><ul><li>UAE? </li></ul>SHOP–TOP HOUSING PROPOSED AGED CARE Housing mix- 2c. market analysis <ul><li>to guide local environmental plans </li></ul><ul><li>To meet needs of a changing and ageing population whist considering market trends . </li></ul><ul><ul><li> wide range of housing in a flexible market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> appropriately located affordable housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UAE? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 3 rd action: Urban renewal/regeneration <ul><li>Sydney: 3 rd action: renew local centres; by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sub-regional planning identifying local centres for renewal . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative developer  Government’s renewal agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revitalized centres will then serve as models for other areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Sydney: State owned sites: significant area  catalysts for the urban renewal  assessed and evaluated comprehensively (in relation to open space, facilities, surrounding areas)  contextual dev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues possible in UAE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favoring suburbanization rather than redeveloping lower density areas or downtown.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government investing in key projects for downtown attractive dev ( here housing ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>land reclamation and funding (infrastructure & transport </li></ul>
  34. 34. 4 th Sydney Planning Action: housing affordability <ul><li>developing economically  prices increasing.. </li></ul><ul><li>a. special committees, strategies & programs, focus on moderate income. </li></ul><ul><li>b. major property owners (via market:7.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>c. support social housing, community housing providers </li></ul><ul><li>d. high rise dev (in urban renewal centres, corridors and major residential/mixed use ….. sites… </li></ul><ul><li>Other possible options: facilitated national mortgage and rent schemes (to enable tenants to stay in their homes </li></ul><ul><li>investment in old, disrepaired housing (stays cheaper than what’s new) </li></ul><ul><li>For UAE? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sydney’s 5 th key action <ul><li>Improve the quality of new development and urban renewal; Achieved by: </li></ul><ul><li>a. good design / urban design & competition ./ landmark site design  attractive </li></ul><ul><li>b. local gov training & education </li></ul><ul><li>c. design quality criteria </li></ul><ul><li>d. local cultural & environmental plans (art is an element) </li></ul><ul><li>Other possibilities (not in strategy): </li></ul><ul><li>Develop quality specifications.(now energy efficiency & environment important </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade / invest in old disrepaired housing </li></ul>
  36. 36. Other issues <ul><li>Equality of access to housing (irrespective of race, gender, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>UAE: EstatesDubai.com: “Tenants see discrimination among nationalities ” (Indian Vs European!-landlord’s requirements  real estate agents comply.. </li></ul><ul><li> need of monitoring, policies & housing for all types.. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of providing housing services ( specialist agency allocation, housing advice, stakeholder participation ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Homelessness , ex in Glasgow: chronic problem </li></ul><ul><li>UAE: current housing stress may lead to this problem.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>re-housing ( UAE: rigid local housing location & size because of policy& funding strategy (can’t sell or rent it..  Once & for all) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special needs (ex: drug misusers ,learning disabilities, bachelors, housing alarms, room size & flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. General Census <ul><li>issues </li></ul><ul><li>Why important </li></ul><ul><li>Using results in actual planning </li></ul><ul><li>Need of Relevant, high quality, timely information.. </li></ul><ul><li>Scope & contents for housing plans: </li></ul><ul><li>Population demographics, with social & economic charactersitics </li></ul><ul><li>Building & housing characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex:# of buildings, housing units, locations, cost/types of materials, crowding, overcrowding, # of ppl/unit, future demand.. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Gulfnews.com (2007, April 02 ) Housing demand in Dubai poised to continue soaring </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gulfnews.com/articles/07/04/02/10115404.html </li></ul><ul><li>Gulfnews.com (2007, July 20) Low cost housing for bachelors in Abu Dhabi, Retrieved March 4, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gulfnews.com/articles/07/07/20/10140374.html </li></ul><ul><li>  uaeinteract.com (2007, March 10 ) Dh2.5b accommodation complexes for workers to be built in Abu Dhabi , Retrieved March 4, 2008, from http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Dh2.5b_accommodation_complexes_for_workers_to_be_built_in_Abu_Dhabi/24756.htm </li></ul><ul><li>  Gulfnews.com (2006, Oct 09) Housing for bachelors in Abu Dhabi under study </li></ul><ul><li>, Retrieved March 4, 2008, from http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/06/10/09/10073324.html </li></ul><ul><li>M. Al Serkal, Mariam (2006, December 9), Dubai and Sharjah 'must cooperate to reduce traffic'. archive.gulfnews.com, Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/trafficwatch/dubai-sharjah_road/10088058.html </li></ul><ul><li>NSW Government, nd, City of Cities; A plan for Sydney’s Future-Housing Strategy for Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metrostrategy.nsw.gov.au/dev/uploads/paper/housing/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow City Council, 2007, Glasgow's Local Housing Strategy 2003-2008 , retrieved March 10 2008 from http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/93E7E617-DA68-4EEE-A064-9EC109B011B9/0/lhs_230404.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Sydneycity.net, 2008, Sydney Facts retrieved March 15 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sydneycity.net/sydneyfacts2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.estatesdubai.com/2007/03/tenants-see-discrimination-among.html </li></ul>