Hazardous Waste


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  • Hazardous Waste

    1. 1. Hazardous Waste Production and Disposal
    2. 2. Hazardous Waste <ul><li>Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludge. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Hazardous waste characteristics <ul><li>Ignitable ( flash point > 60 °C ) </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosive ( PH <2, or >12.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic ( harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive ( unstable under normal conditions ) </li></ul><ul><li>See US Environmental protection agency website, www.epa.gov </li></ul>
    4. 4. Main classes of hazardous waste <ul><li>Heavy Metals (lead, Zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Organic Compounds (DDT, Dioxin) </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum Products (Oil, Grease, Gasoline) </li></ul><ul><li>Acids (hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological substances (bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive materials (medical, military) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Sources of hazardous waste in the UAE <ul><li>Petroleum industry </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sector </li></ul><ul><li>Health sector </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><li>Household </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hazardous Waste and Pollution in Abu Dhabi Emirate
    7. 7. Overview of the situation in Abu Dhabi Emirate <ul><li>Since 1960s, municipalities were responsible for overall management of waste in the emirate, Except for those generated by oil sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities established compost plants for green waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability of landfills to receive hazardous wastes prompted Oil companies to established there own facilities for hazardous waste handling and disposal. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Overview of the situation in Abu Dhabi Emirate (cont.) <ul><li>City of Abu Dhabi is served with one landfill at Al Dhafra (60 km away from Mussafah composting plant), where there is no weighbridge and no recording of incoming waste quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>The landfill frequently receives some liquid and hazardous wastes. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Overview of the situation in Abu Dhabi Emirate (cont.) <ul><li>Currently, solid hazardous wastes are mostly disposed in landfills. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid industrial wastes are treated in the site before being discharged into sewerage network or given to private companies for treatment and disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Some quantities of solid and liquid hazardous wastes are illegally dumped. </li></ul>
    10. 10. The landfills in Abu Dhabi Emirate are below international standards in the following aspects: <ul><li>Design and operating standards are inadequate. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planned engineering approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff are not trained or experienced in modern sanitary landfill practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The health and safety of workers is at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater resources are potentially threatened by pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of regulation and control of waste disposal practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled dumping of liquid and hazardous waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory practice of burning solid waste. </li></ul>
    11. 11. To overcome these problems, Al Ain municipality started a project that aimed to provide the following: <ul><li>Transfer stations at Al Ain sub-municipalities (Sweihan, Al Hayer, Ramah and Al Wagen), by providing a waste compaction machine. </li></ul><ul><li>A sorting station at Seeh Al Hemmah (west of Al Ain city). The station shall receive wastes from Al Ain city as well as from the transfer stations. The station has four conveyor belts , laborers stationed on both sides of the belt would separate the unwanted wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic-rich materials are diverted to the compost plant, recyclable wastes are collected and sorted for further marketing, and the remaining unwanted materials are transported to the landfill site. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hazardous waste from the oil sector <ul><li>Hazardous waste from the oil sector are mostly chemical in nature (Hydrocarbon sludge, contaminated soils, drilling fluids and waste oil) adding to that radioactive waste and gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste handling unites will be created to treat the wastes already stored, as well as those </li></ul><ul><li>generated by the 19 ADNOC companies. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hazardous waste from the oil sector (cont.) <ul><li>All hazardous wastes are packed , labeled and shipped to Abu Dhabi and then to Ruwais ADNOC waste handling facility for storage. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Hazardous waste from the oil sector (cont.) <ul><li>Radioactive waste are generated from well logging and certain other operations. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Hazardous waste from the oil sector (cont.) <ul><li>Air pollution: the majority of air emission due to exploration and production activities arises from the use of fuel or from controlled flaring and venting. </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable amount of the emissions are : </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur Dioxide (SO₂) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Dioxide (NO₂) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul>
    16. 16. Air pollution in the oil-gas sector of Abu Dhabi Emirate
    17. 17. Hydrocarbons flaring by ADNOC
    18. 18. Annual Report by ADNOC http://www.adnoc.com/adnoc/english/hse/annual_report_2005_en.pdf
    19. 19. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL FACILITY <ul><li>Confirming with the land use planning and zoning of the local area. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible in all weather conditions to the type of transportation that will be used during the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Having secured safeguards against any potential air, surface water and ground water pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability with respect to the sensitivities of the residents </li></ul><ul><li>Located where the operation is not likely to induce adverse impact on the environmentally sensitive resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Large enough to accept and process hazardous wastes during the life of the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective and economically profitable, while complying with applicable rules and regulations. </li></ul>http://discovery.bits-ilani.ac.in/discipline/chemical/bvb/TsdfVidisha99.pdf An ideal hazardous waste TSDF should meet the following requirements:
    20. 20. The selection of a best site can be achieved by following the sequential steps of the methodology given below: <ul><li>General evaluation of site selection (physical features, ecological features, land-use features, logistics, climate and human values.) </li></ul><ul><li>Site selection criteria using constraint mapping. (using GIS for eliminating unsuitable areas for narrowing down the site selection such as parks, wetlands, watersheds for public water supply, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment studies . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Possible Solutions for Hazardous Waste <ul><li>Waste Management: Minimizing the Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Waste Prevention: Minimizing the Volume </li></ul>
    22. 22. Waste Management <ul><li>The process in which waste materials, the ones usually produced by human activities, are collected, transported, processed, recycled or decomposed, for health and aesthetic reasons </li></ul>
    23. 23. Examples on waste management practices: <ul><li>Government can increase regulations on the disposal of hazardous waste to ensure that problems do not occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Government could limit the amount of waste industries are allowed to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Industries can break down chemical compounds into less dangerous forms. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Waste Prevention: Minimizing the Volume <ul><li>1. Recycle and compost as much waste as possible. 2. Reuse as many things as possible. 3. Chemically or biologically treat or incinerate waste that can't be reduced, reused, recycled, or composted. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Environmental Performance Index <ul><li>tracks national environmental results on a quantitative basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The EPI centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>1) reducing environmental stresses on human health. </li></ul><ul><li>2) protecting ecosystem vitality. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Environmental health and ecosystem vitality are gauged using six policy categories: <ul><li>Environmental Health. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity and Habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive Natural Resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Energy. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Construction of EPI
    28. 28. Overall EPI Results <ul><li>The top five countries in the 2006 EPI are: New Zealand, Sweden, Finland, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest five ranked countries are: Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Chad, and Niger. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>EPI published March 2002 and presented at World Economic Forum. First time UAE included, and ranked 141 out of 142 countries evaluated. Leadership in UAE concerned, and issue is blamed on lack of good data. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Dhabi commits $5M and 5 years to improve data situation and demonstrate UAE commitment to sustainability in the country. </li></ul>
    30. 31. UAE Performance http://www.yale.edu/epi/ Policy Category Rank EPI Score Environmental Health 35 92.7 Air Quality 107 38.5 Water Resources 109 62.1 Biodiversity and Habitat 57 55.5 Productive Natural Resources 59 77.8 Sustainable Energy 118 34.3