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  1. 1. First Aid Notes…Lectures...
  2. 2. Content Page• Introduction (First Aid)• Wounds• Bleedings• Fractures• Burns• Cardio- Pulmonary Resuscitation• Shock• Asthma Attack
  3. 3. Introduction (First Aid)• What is First Aid?• Aims of First Aid• The ABC of Life• First Aid Priority• 4 stages of consciousness• Examination Techniques
  4. 4. What is First Aid?• Initial help given to a casualty before the arrival of professionals
  5. 5. Aims of First Aid• To preserve life• To promote recovery• To prevent others injuries
  6. 6. The ABC of Life• Airway- Check the airways are open and clear, no obstructions• Breathing- Look and see that the chest is rising and falling. Sound of breathing• Circulation- Check for pulse
  7. 7. First Aid Priority• Safety• Consciousness• Pulse & Respiration• Bleeding• Fractures• Poisoning• Shock• Disposal of casualty
  8. 8. 4 stages of consciousness• Fully Conscious• Drowsiness• Stupor• Coma
  9. 9. Examination Techniques• Hands- Check nails and palms for anaemia• Pulse- Check the rate, rhythm & volume• Blood pressure- Hypotension is low, hypotension is high• Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth• Neck- check not broken or bruised• Chest- Lungs and heart
  10. 10. • Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth• Neck- check not broken or bruised• Chest- Lungs and heart• Abdomen- Liver, spleen, kidneys• Limps- Look, feel, move
  11. 11. Wounds• Incised wound• Laceration• Abrasion(Graze)• Contusion(Bruise)• Puncture wound• Gunshot wound• Treatments
  12. 12. Incised wound• Straight Cut• Profuse bleeding• Caused by blade/ broken glass
  13. 13. Laceration• Rough tear by crushing on ripping forces• Bleed less profusely than incised wound• Often contaminated by germs
  14. 14. Abrasion(Graze)• Caused by sliding fall of friction burn• Superficial wound
  15. 15. Contusion(Bruise)• Blunt blow• Caused by hammer etc.
  16. 16. Puncture wound• Caused by nail and needle• Small site of entry deep track of internal damage• Risk of infection is high
  17. 17. Gunshot wound• Caused by bullet
  18. 18. Treatments• Remove any clothing from around the wound• Clean the skin round the wound and irrigate the wound to remove any dirt• Cover it with a clean dressing
  19. 19. DressingWhen applying sterile dressing…• Remove the wrapping• Unfold the dressing pad, holding the bandage on each side of the pad. Put the pad directly on the wound.
  20. 20. • Wind the short end of the bandage once around the limb and the dressing to secure the pad, leaving the tail hanging free• To secure the bandage, tie the ends in a reef knot, tied over the pad to exert firm pressure on the wound• Check the circulation to the extremity of the injured limb
  21. 21. Bleedings• Arterial bleeding• Venous bleeding• Capillary bleeding• Treatment for bleeding• Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding
  22. 22. Arterial bleeding• Bright red• Spurts out• Under high pressure• Richly oxgenated
  23. 23. Venous bleeding• Dark red• Gushing out• Under lesser pressure than arterial bleeding• Given up its oxygen
  24. 24. Capillary bleeding• Red in colour• Oozing out
  25. 25. Treatment for bleeding– Severe wounds• Apply direct pressure to the wound in order to stop the flow of the blood• Apply sterile dressing with firm pressure to control the bleeding• If there is no fracture, try to raise the limb that has been wounded & support it
  26. 26. and symptoms of internal blee• Pale, clammy skin• Rapid and weak pulse• Rapid, shallow breathing• Tenderness in abdomen• Any pain of discomfort• Nausea and/or vomiting• Shock
  27. 27. Fractures• What is a fracture?• Types of fractures• Signs• Treatment
  28. 28. What is a fracture?• A closed, or simple, fracture is where the broken bone ends remain beneath the skin, whereas an open, or compound, fracture is where both ends of the bone protrude through the skin
  29. 29. Types of fractures• Simple fracture• Compound fracture• Complicated fracture ( includes organs)• Neck fracture• Skull fracture• Fractured ribs• Greenstick Fracture(happen to small children )
  30. 30. Signs• Swelling• Deformity or projecting bone ends• Severe pain, made worse by movement• Bruised• Tenderness
  31. 31. Treatment• Do not try to force the bones back together again but seek medical assistance• Treat all open wounds with a clean dressing• Splint the fractured area in exactly the position that you find it in, pending removal to hospital or the arrival of expert medical aid
  32. 32. • If the arm is fracture, splint it, and then set up a sling if the arm can be moved across the chest.• Do not move the victim at all if you suspect a spinal injury
  33. 33. Burns• - Type of burn• First degree• Second degree• Third degree
  34. 34. First degree• Top layer of skin• Skin turns red and then peels off• Treatment: Rehydrating creams, Cool water at regular intervals
  35. 35. Second degree• Deeper damage to the skin, causing blisters. Shock.• Treatment: Use antibacterial dressing, or leave wound undressed but kept scrupulously clean.
  36. 36. Third degree• Damage to all layers of skin• Treatment: Requires specialist treatment
  37. 37. Cardio- Pulmonary Resuscitation• What is CPR?• Steps of CPR
  38. 38. What is CPR?• Used when the patient has stopped breathing and when there is no pulse• Only be performed by someone who has had training in this method
  39. 39. Steps of CPR• Tilt victim’s head backwards in order to open the airway• Pinch the victim’s nose with thumb and forefinger• Take a deep breath, place your mouth tightly over the victim’s mouth and blow air from yours into their mouth
  40. 40. • Stop blowing when the victim’s chest is expanded• Lift your hand from the victim and watch for the chest to fall. Give the victim further quick breaths, taking a deep breath yourself between each one.
  41. 41. • Carry on blowing into the victim’s lungs at a rate of 12 breaths per minute until the victim begins to breathe on his or her own.• You can stop blowing at this stage.
  42. 42. Shock• What is shock?• Signs• Treatment
  43. 43. What is shock?• Rapid lowering of blood pressure owing to lack of circulating volume to vital body organs, such as the brain, heart, liver and kidneys.
  44. 44. Signs• Weak and giddy• Nausea/ may vomit• Thirst• Rapid shallow breathing• Weak Pulse
  45. 45. Treatment• Lay casualty down• Reassure the casualty• Raise and support the leg• Loosen tight clothing• Keep casualty warm• Check and record the casualty’s breathing, pulse, level of response
  46. 46. Asthma attack– Treatment• Reassure and calm casualty• Find a position that the person finds comfortable• Tell him/her to try taking slow, deep breaths• Help to find the reliever(Blue)
  47. 47. • Allow casualty to use it and it will take effect within minutes• If attack eases within 5-10 minutes, encourage him/her to take another dose and breathe slowly and deeply• Tell casualty to inform doctor if attack is very severe or first attack
  48. 48. End of presentation!!Hope you have learnt moreabout First Aid !!!