Air Pollution in KazakhstanThe dangerously high level of air pollution in Kazakhstan, due to multiple sources including variousindustrial enterprises and automobile emissions, is threatening the health and well being of Kazakhstanicitizens. LeadМetal that is emitted into the air as small particles (from automobile emissions, industrial emissions)Auto transport emits polluting substances (sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide) with exhausted gas whichtotal at over 2 million tons.Contribution of auto emissions to the air basin pollution has reached more than 60% in recent years90% in Almaty Substance LevelEmissions from stationary sources surveyed in 1999 resulted in 2308 thousand tons of pollutingsubstances. Sources of Pollution A 1998-99 analysis of various economic activities and their role in air pollution showed thefollowing enterprises to be at fault:-Industrial pollution-Production of Crude -Oil/Natural Gas-Manufacturing-Metallurgy-Production of Materials for Power-Production/Distribution of Gas, Electric Power, and Water-Automobile emissions-Mining Activity-Transport and Communication-Radioactive/Nuclear testing Industrial EnterprisesThe majority of the Kazakhstan population resides in areas around or near industrial centers, due to thejob opportunities offered in these areas.About 1/3 of these enterprises have no sanitary zones meeting size standards.Besides harmful chemicals and emissions, residents living near industrial centers experience pollution inthe form of noise, electric magnet fields, dust, and vibration.These enterprises emit dangerous levels of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbonmonoxide, and other toxic pollutants.
Oil and Gas EnterprisesSubstances emitted by these industries are relatively dense. Many are emitted withouttreatment.Treatment methods are either not up to code or in some cases simply not implemented at all.In 2002, the total gas and oil enterprise emissions gone untreated reached 7.7% .Тhese emissions include dangerous chemicals such as nitrogen oxides, carbondioxides, sulphur dioxides,benzypyrene, and also suspended dust particles. Balkhash CopperLake Balkhash region suffers greatly from disulphide pollution Balkash Copper Smelter recentlyrestarted operation after a long period of Idleness .Copper is produced without purification in the utilization of disulphide.The operation also creates dust, sulphur, and nitrogen oxidepollution. Nuclear RadiationAfter effects of nuclear arms testing in the Semipalatinsk Nuclear .Testing Range left Kazakhstanterritories as “Environmental Disaster Zones”.From 1949-1989, radioactive fall-out over the borderingterritories occupied over 300,000 km including Pavlodar, Karagandin, and Eastern KazakhstanOblasts
Effects on KazakhstanIn recent years, vital statistics have continued to deteriorate at a rapid rate due to multiple factors,including the high level of air pollution.For example, birth rates decreased from 19.9 in 1992 to 14.9 in1997 (down by 25.2%).Mortality rate increased from 8.1 in 1991 to 10.2 (up by 20.6%)Health HazardsThe incidence rates of communicable and non-communicable diseases have increased.Natural population growth has dropped from 11.8% in 1992 to 4.6% in 1997 (or by 2.6times).Deterioration of various health factors have been mainly caused by both natural and occupationalenvironmental influences. Higher morbidity rates have been linked to increasing incidences ofconditions such as respiratory disease,nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinaldisease, and circulatory disease.Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions. TuberculosisAmong the infectious diseases, tuberculosis stands out as a problem of special concernThe number of deaths associated with tuberculosis is rising annually 11.7 (per 100,000) in 1992 and34.6 in 1996 Harmful EmissionsPollution has been found to have a chronically damaging impact on the health of the general populationof Kazakhstan (cancer, respiratory diseases, damage of organs and systems, reduction of total resistance,and cardio-vascular diseases)Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation,emissions in general, and technogenic hotspots.
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН СЕМИПАЛАТИНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ имени ШАКАРИМА Гуманитарный факультет Кафедра теории и практики перевода ДОКЛАДПо дисциплине «Специально-профессиональный иностранный язык» На тему: Загрязнение воздуха в Казахстане
Выполнила: студентка IVкурса Группы ПД710 Амренова Зарина Проверила:Семей 2011