Power of vocabulary

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  • SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), gravity, galaxy, universe, planet, star, Mars, Uranus, Venus, Neptune, Saturn, sun, inner planets, pulsar, axis, tilt, satellite, tail, aperture
  • Power of vocabulary

    1. 1. The Power of Vocabulary Instruction for Struggling Students IRA 2008 Atlanta, GA May 7, 2008
    2. 2. IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    3. 3. independence Background knowledge manifests itself as vocabulary equality knowledge. Words are labels for our knowledge packets; the more words we have, the more civil rights packets of knowledge, the more background knowledge. Robert Marzano, 2004IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    4. 4. A Summation of the Research “We know too much to say we know too little, and we know too little to say we know enough.” Baumann & Kameenui (1991) cited in Allen, 1999.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    5. 5. Indirect vs. Direct Vocabulary Instruction• Indirect instruction--sometimes referred to as implicit instruction-- occurs as students read widely. • Direct instruction --often called explicit instruction-- is purposefully providing practice with vocabulary words.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    6. 6. Indirect Instruction Through Wide Reading• “Students must have the skills to infer word meaning information from the contexts they read.”• Struggling readers “do not engage in wide reading” and are “less able to derive meaningful information from the context.”(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)• “The chances of learning a word from context are moderated by a student’s ability level and grade level, and the density of the text.” (R. Marzano, 2004)IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    7. 7. Indirect Instruction Through Wide Reading Moderator Level of Chances of Moderator Learning Word Ability Low 8% Medium 12% From Marzano, High 19% 2004, Grade Level Grade 4 8% p.67 Grade 11 33% Text Density 1 new word for 7% every 10 words 1 new word for 14% every 75 words 1 new word for 30% every 150 wordsIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    8. 8. Words in Context• Think-alouds• Contextual clues:  Looking at the words around the unknown word  Synonyms, antonyms, definitions, examples, contrasts• Typographic clues:  Glossary, footnotes, pictures, graphs, chartsIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    9. 9. Three Tiers of Vocabulary (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan)• Tier 1: the most basic words; require little 1 instructional attention (happy, baby, walk)• Tier 2: high frequency; found across a 2 variety of domains (absurd, fortunate, merchant)• Tier 3: lower frequency; often domain 3 specific (isotope, refinery, peninsula)IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    10. 10. Choosing Vocabulary for Instruction• How useful is the word? Will students see it in other texts?• How does the word relate to other words, or to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to a topic of study in the classroom?• What does the word bring to a text or situation?IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    11. 11. Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary• Full understanding and use of vocabulary “occurs only over time and multiple encounters.” (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)• Knowing many words is to have breadth of word knowledge. A word’s literal meaning, its connotations, semantic associations such as synonyms and antonyms - these refer to depth of word knowledge. (August et al, 2005)IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    12. 12. Word Know it Know Have Do not well, can something seen or know the explain it, about it, can heard the word can use it relate it to a word situation skeptical surreptitious grapnel repugnant placid purportIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    13. 13. Allen, J. (1999). Words, Words, Words.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    14. 14. Vocabulary and ELLs• “ELLs who experience slow vocabulary development are less able to comprehend text at grade level.”• “They may be at risk of being diagnosed as learning disabled…due to limited English vocabulary and poor comprehension that results in part from this limitation.” (August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005)IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    15. 15. Vocabulary and ELLs• Take advantage of students’ first language (if this language shares cognates with English)• Ensure ELLs know the meaning of basic words• Review and Reinforce• Students need the opportunity to talk about reading and words (August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005)IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    16. 16. Cognate Knowledge• Spanish-speaking students “can often call on their knowledge of cognates … to determine the meanings of words” in English.• “The number of cognates they will encounter tends to increase with the grades as they encounter increasing numbers of words with Latinate roots, especially in their science and social studies courses.” (Green, L.C.) IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    17. 17. False Friends • Spanish:  Embarazada  Asistir • German:  Carpeta  Bald  Bekommen • French:  Dom  Blesser  La chair  FormidableIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    18. 18. Dictionary Definitions• (Most) dictionary definitions are not effective for learning the meanings of words.• Students often take one or two words from a definition to be a word’s entire meaning.• There are often multiple definitions; which is the most appropriate?• Dictionaries often use the word itself in the definition!IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    19. 19. Dictionary DefinitionsSome examples:  Skeptical - inclined to skepticism  Plummet - a piece of lead or other weight attached to a line; something that weighs down or depresses; to plunge  Puzzle - something puzzling; puzzled or perplexed condition; bewildermentIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    20. 20. Online DictionariesIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    21. 21. Word Parts• Prefixes: un-, dis-, re-, sub-• Roots: act (do), aud (hear), vid (see)• Suffixes: -ion, -est, -ology, -ableunrecognizableun- = notrecognize = know it when you see it-able = able toIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    22. 22. Uninterested Not interested bored Allen, J. (1999). Words, Words, Words.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    23. 23. IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    24. 24. Vocabulary Activities (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan)• Word associations: ask students to associate a known word with a new word. Go beyond synonyms to deal with relationships.• Have you ever…? Ask students to associate words with contexts and experiences from their lives.• Applause, Applause! Students are asked to clap in order to indicate how much they’d like to be described by a word (and why or why not)• Idea Completions: sentence stems requiring students to use words in context.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    25. 25. Vocabulary Activity• Write as many words as you can think of related to the solar system using the following letters: a, e, i, u, g, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, x, yIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    26. 26. Vocabulary Activity• This activity can be used for any content area• A good way to assess prior knowledge before beginning a unitIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    27. 27. Word Wizard• Create an environment where words matter.• Word Wizard encourages students to look for target words outside the classroom.• A chart with the students names has check marks for each time a student brings back a word and context in which it was used.• Even fabricated contexts, if used correctly, count!IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    28. 28. Characteristics of Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction (Marzano)• Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions.• Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways.• Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures.• Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms.• Students should discuss the terms they are learning.IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    29. 29. GOs can be used to help students represent words linguistically and nonlinguisticall yIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    30. 30. CA Resources• CA101• Topics in EducationIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    31. 31. Call to Action• Try at least one new vocabulary activity when you go back to your classroom.• Let your students see you experiencing vocabulary.• Have fun with words. After all…IRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    32. 32. Words form the thread on which we string our experiences. Aldous HuxleyIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08
    33. 33. LArmour@CAinc.comIRA 2008 www.Curriculum 5.7.08

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