Citations
ESL 015: Section 002
November 4, 2008
(election day! =O)
What are in-text citations?
   Citations (references to an outside
    source) that appear within the body of
    a text.
When must a writer use in-text
citations?
   Whenever the writer is referring to
    another person’s ideas or words, or ...
How does the writer benefit by
using in-text citations?
 Establishes his/her credibility (ethos!)
  by referring to a rep...
How does the reader benefit
when the writer uses in-text
citations?
 The reader knows he/she can trust the
  writer’s cla...
Two pieces of info in every in-
text citation (APA format)
 Name (last name of author(s))
 Date:
    ◦ Publication: jour...
Listing Citations in the
Reference Section
   Order
    ◦ Alphabetical (by last name)
   Formatting issues
    ◦ The fir...
Must I follow the nit-picky APA
guidelines exactly?
   YES!

Journal Article:
Last, F. (YEAR). Title of paper. Journal
 N...
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Citations

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Citations

  1. 1. Citations ESL 015: Section 002 November 4, 2008 (election day! =O)
  2. 2. What are in-text citations?  Citations (references to an outside source) that appear within the body of a text.
  3. 3. When must a writer use in-text citations?  Whenever the writer is referring to another person’s ideas or words, or a fact presented in someone else’s writing, whether in the form of: ◦ a quote ◦ a paraphrase
  4. 4. How does the writer benefit by using in-text citations?  Establishes his/her credibility (ethos!) by referring to a reputable source  Increases the credibility of his/her argument  The writer cannot be accused of plagiarism
  5. 5. How does the reader benefit when the writer uses in-text citations?  The reader knows he/she can trust the writer’s claim (if source is reputable)  The reader sees that the writer has read about, and thus must know about, the issue
  6. 6. Two pieces of info in every in- text citation (APA format)  Name (last name of author(s))  Date: ◦ Publication: journal, newspaper, etc. ◦ Copyright: book  One study showed that people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (Jones, 2002).  A study published in 2002 showed that people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (Jones).  According to Jones, people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (2002).  According to Jones’ study published in 2002, people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions.
  7. 7. Listing Citations in the Reference Section  Order ◦ Alphabetical (by last name)  Formatting issues ◦ The first line is not indented. All subsequent lines must be indented. Abdo, G. (2006). Mecca and Main Street: Muslim life in America after 9/11. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. Ahmad, M. (2004). A rage shared by law: post-September 11 racial violence as crimes of passion. California Law Review. 92(5), 1259-1330. Fung, Heidi. (1999). Becoming a moral child: the socialization of shame among young Chinese children. Ethos, 27(2), 180-209. Mageo, Jeannette M. (1991). Samoan moral discourse and the Loto. American Anthropologist, 93(2), 405-420.
  8. 8. Must I follow the nit-picky APA guidelines exactly?  YES! Journal Article: Last, F. (YEAR). Title of paper. Journal Name. Volume(issue), pages. Ahmad, M. (2004). A rage shared by law: post-September 11 racial violence as crimes of passion. California Law Review. 92(5), 1259-1330.

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