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  • 1. Citations ESL 015: Section 002 November 4, 2008 (election day! =O)
  • 2. What are in-text citations?  Citations (references to an outside source) that appear within the body of a text.
  • 3. When must a writer use in-text citations?  Whenever the writer is referring to another person’s ideas or words, or a fact presented in someone else’s writing, whether in the form of: ◦ a quote ◦ a paraphrase
  • 4. How does the writer benefit by using in-text citations?  Establishes his/her credibility (ethos!) by referring to a reputable source  Increases the credibility of his/her argument  The writer cannot be accused of plagiarism
  • 5. How does the reader benefit when the writer uses in-text citations?  The reader knows he/she can trust the writer’s claim (if source is reputable)  The reader sees that the writer has read about, and thus must know about, the issue
  • 6. Two pieces of info in every in- text citation (APA format)  Name (last name of author(s))  Date: ◦ Publication: journal, newspaper, etc. ◦ Copyright: book  One study showed that people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (Jones, 2002).  A study published in 2002 showed that people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (Jones).  According to Jones, people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions (2002).  According to Jones’ study published in 2002, people who think before they act tend to be happy with the results of their actions.
  • 7. Listing Citations in the Reference Section  Order ◦ Alphabetical (by last name)  Formatting issues ◦ The first line is not indented. All subsequent lines must be indented. Abdo, G. (2006). Mecca and Main Street: Muslim life in America after 9/11. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. Ahmad, M. (2004). A rage shared by law: post-September 11 racial violence as crimes of passion. California Law Review. 92(5), 1259-1330. Fung, Heidi. (1999). Becoming a moral child: the socialization of shame among young Chinese children. Ethos, 27(2), 180-209. Mageo, Jeannette M. (1991). Samoan moral discourse and the Loto. American Anthropologist, 93(2), 405-420.
  • 8. Must I follow the nit-picky APA guidelines exactly?  YES! Journal Article: Last, F. (YEAR). Title of paper. Journal Name. Volume(issue), pages. Ahmad, M. (2004). A rage shared by law: post-September 11 racial violence as crimes of passion. California Law Review. 92(5), 1259-1330.