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parts of speech and tense

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tenses Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  ENGLISH GRAMMARLEARN AND TEACH
  • 2. PART OF SPEECHNOUNPRONOUNADJECTIVEVERBADVERBPROPOSITIONCONJECTIONINTERJECTIONUNIT 1
  • 3. TENSESPRESENT TENSEPAST TENSEFUTURE TENSEUNIT 2
  • 4. PRESENT TENSEPRESENT SIMPLE TENSEPRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSEPRESENT PERFECT TENSEPRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEUNIT 3
  • 5. PAST TENSEPAST INDIFINATE TENSEPAST CONTINUOUS TENSEPAST PERFECT TENSEPAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEUNIT 4
  • 6. FUTURE TENSEFUTURE INDIFINATE TENSEFUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSEFUTURE PERFECT TENSEFUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEUNIT 5
  • 7. PART OF SPEECH• NOUNA word (other than a pronoun) used toidentify any of a class of people, places, orthings (common noun), or to name aparticular one of.• PRONOUNA word that can function as a noun phraseused by itself and that refers either to theparticipants in the discourse.UNIT 1
  • 8. PART OF SPEECH• ADJECTIVEA word or phrase naming an attribute, addedto or grammatically related to a noun tomodify or describe it.• VERBA word used to describe an action, state, oroccurrence, and forming the main part of thepredicate of a sentence.UNIT 1
  • 9. PART OF SPEECH• ADVERBA word or phrase that modifies or qualifies anadjective, verb, or other adverb or a phrase,expressing a relation of place, time.• PREPOSITION• A word governing, and usually preceding, anoun or pronoun and expressing a relation toanother word or element in the clause, as in...UNIT 1
  • 10. PART OF SPEECH• CONJECTION A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunctionjoins two parts of a sentence.INTERJECTION "Interjection" is a big name for a little word.Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um orAh! They have no real grammatical value but we usethem quite often, usually more in speaking than inwriting. When interjections are inserted into asentence, they have no grammatical connection to thesentence.UNIT 1
  • 11. PRESEN SIMPLE TENSE• It is used to express an action in present time, habitual orusual actions or daily event or universal fact. It is used toexpress an action in present time which is usually done on aregular basis. For example a student says, “I go to school”. It isa daily activity of a student to go to school, so such actions areexpressed by present simple tense. Another example is, “Iwork in a factory”. It tells about a usual action of a person thathe works in a factory on regular basis.Rules. 1st form of verb or base verb is used as main verbin sentence.
  • 12. PRESEN SIMPLE TENSE• Structure of sentence –• Rules• Subject + Main verb + Object• Subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + Object Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular orproper noun” then “s” or “es” is added to the first form ofverb or base form in the sentence.Examples.I write a letter.He gets up early in the morning.Sun rises in east.
  • 13. PRESEN SIMPLE TENSE• Negative Sentences• Subject + auxiliary verb +NOT + Main verb +object• Subject + Do not/Does not + 1st form of verb• (or base form) + object• Examples.• I do not write a letter.• He does not get up early in the morning.• Sun does not rise in east.
  • 14. PRESEN SIMPLETENSE• Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb “do or does” alongwith “not” is used. If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it,singular or proper noun”, then “Does not” is used aftersubject in sentence. If subject is “I, we, they, you or plural”then “Do not” is used after subject in sentence. “s” or “es” isnot added to main verb in negative sentence• Interrogative Sentence• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object• Do/Does + Subject + 1st for of verb (or base verb) + Object
  • 15. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE• Examples.• Do I write a letter?• Does he get up early in the morning?• Does sun rise in east?Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular orproper noun” the sentence is started with Auxiliary verb“Does”. If the subject in a sentence is “I, we, they, you orplural” the sentence is started with auxiliary verb “Do”. “s” or“es” is not added to main verb in Interrogative sentence
  • 16. PRESEN SIMPLE TENSE• More Examples• Positive Sentences• I sing a song.• He drinks water• They read lessons• Birds chirp• John reaches home in time.• Water maintains its surface level.
  • 17. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE• Negative Sentences• I do not sing a song• He does not drink water• They do not read lessons• Birds do not chirp• John does not reach home in time.• Water does not maintain its surface level.
  • 18. PRESEN SIMPLE TENSE• Interrogative Sentences• Do I sing a song?• Does he drink water?• Do they read lessons?• Do birds chirp?• Does John reach home in time?• Does water maintain its surface level?
  • 19. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• It is used to express a continued or ongoing action atpresent time. It expresses an action which is in progress at thetime of speaking. For example, a person says, “I am writing aletter”. It means that he is in the process of writing a letterright now. Such actions which are happening at time ofspeaking are expressed by present continuous tense. PresentContinuous tense is also called Present progressive tense.• Rules. Auxiliary verb “am or is or are” is used in sentence. 1stform of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used asmain verb in sentence.
  • 20. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Structure of sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) +object• Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) +object• If the subject is “I” then auxiliary verb “am” is used aftersubject in sentence.• If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” thenauxiliary verb “is” is used after subject in sentence.
  • 21. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “are” isused after subject in sentence.• The participle “ing” is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going(go) writing (write)• Examples• I am playing cricket.• He is driving a car• They are reading their lessons.
  • 22. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSENegative Sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Presentparticiple) + object• Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + objectRules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject innegative sentences are same as mentioned above.• Examples.• I am not playing cricket.• He is not driving a car• They are not reading their lessons.
  • 23. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative Sentences• Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) +object• Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing)+ object• Examples.• Am I playing cricket?• Is he driving a car?• Are they reading their lessons
  • 24. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• More Examples• Positive Sentences• I am listening to the news• You are washing your clothes• She is riding on horse• They are playing football.• It is raining
  • 25. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative Sentence• I am not listening to the news.• You are not washing your clothes.• She is not riding on a horse.• They are not playing football.• It is not raining.• Interrogative Sentences• Am I listening to the news?• Are you washing your clothes?• Is she riding on a horse?• Are they playing football?• Is it raining?
  • 26. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• It is used to expressed an action which happened orcompleted in past but usually the action which happened orcompleted at a short time before now (near past) not a verylong time before now. Specific time such as two years ago, lastweek or that day is usually not used in the sentences of in thistense. It means that this tense expresses the action whosetime when it happened, is not exactly specified but it soundsto refer to some action that happened or completed in nearpast.• Rules: Auxiliary verb “has or have” is used in sentence. 3rdform of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
  • 27. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Structure of Sentence• Positive Sentence• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) +Subject• Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle +subject• If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” thenauxiliary verb “has” is used after subject in sentence.• If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have” isused after subject in sentence.
  • 28. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Examples• I have eaten meal• She has learnt a lesson• Negative Sentence• Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle)+ Subject• Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or pastparticiple + subject• Rules for using auxiliary verb “has or have” in negativesentence are same as mentioned above.
  • 29. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Examples• I have not eaten meal.• She has not learnt a lesson.Interrogative Sentences• Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) +Subject• Has/have + Subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle +subjectInterrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is“He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentencestarts with auxiliary verb “has”.If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts withauxiliary verb “have”.
  • 30. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Examples• Have I eaten meal?• Has she learnt a lesson?More Examples.Positive Sentences• They have gone to school.• They have bought a new car.• I have started a job• It has rained.• The guests have arrived• John has left for home.• You have told a lie.
  • 31. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Negative Sentences• They have not gone to school.• They have not bought a new car.• I have not started a job• It has not rained.• The guests have not arrived.• John has not left for home.• You have not told a lie.
  • 32. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE• Negative Sentences• Have they gone to school?• Have they bought a new car?• Have I started a job?• Has it rained?• Have the guests arrived?• Has John left for home?• Have you told a lie?
  • 33. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• It is used to express a continued or ongoing action thatstarted in past and is continued until now. There will be a timereference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” fromwhich the action has been started. A sense of time referenceis found in these sentences which gives an idea that actionhas been continued from some time in past till now. Suchtime reference or sense of time reference is the identity ofPresent perfect continuous tense because it tells that actionhas started from a particular time in past. For example, “Hehas been reading in this school since 2005”, so the it meansthat he has started his education in this school in 2005 and heis studying in this school till now.
  • 34. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Note: If there is not time reference or sense of timereference then it is not Present perfect continuous tensebecause there is no hint about the time of action when itstarted in past and it seems just an ongoing action atpresent time which resembles “present Continuoustense. So the reference of time differentiates betweenPresent perfect continuous tense and Present continuoustense.
  • 35. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Rules: An auxiliary verb “has been or have been” is used insentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (presentparticiple) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” isused before the “time reference” in sentence. If the timereference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then“since” is used before the time in sentence. If the timereference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years,four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence.Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly knownbecause we don’t know that about which three hours a day istold in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told insentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time.•
  • 36. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Structure of sentence.• Positive Sentence.• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) +Object + Time reference• Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or baseverb + ing) + object + time reference• If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” thenauxiliary verb “has been” is used after subject in sentence.• If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “havebeen” is used after subject in sentence.
  • 37. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Examples.• He has been watering the plants for two hours.• I have been studying since 3 O’clockNegative Sentence.• Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb(present participle) + Object + Time reference• Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb orbase verb + ing) + object + time reference
  • 38. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• To make negative sentence, the word “not” is writtenbetween the auxiliary verbs, so it becomes like “has not beenor have not been”. The rule for using auxiliary verb “has beenor have been” in negative sentences is as same as mentionedabove.• Examples.• He has not been watering the plants for two hours.• I have not been studying since 3 O’clock.•
  • 39. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative Sentence.• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (presentparticiple) + object + time reference• Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or baseverb+ing) + object + time reference• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subjectis “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentencestarts with auxiliary verb “has” and auxiliary verb “been” isused after subject• If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence startswith auxiliary verb “have” and “been” is used after subject
  • 40. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Examples.• Has he been watering the plants for two hours?• Have I been studying since 3 O’clock?• More examples.• Positive sentences• It has been raining for three days.• I have been living in America since 2003.• He has been playing cricket for two hours.• They have been watching television since 6 O’clock.• She has been working in this office since 2007.
  • 41. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• It has not been raining for three days.• I have not been living in America since 2003.• He has not been playing cricket for two hours.• They have not been watching television since 6 O’clock.• She has not been working in this office since 2007.
  • 42. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Positive sentences• Has it been raining for three days?• Have I been living in America since 2003?• Has he been playing cricket for two hours.• Have they been watching television since 6 O’clock?• Has she been working in this office since 2007?
  • 43. • It is used to express an action that happened or completed inpast, usually a very little time before speaking, or actionwhich is just completed. Time of action is not specified interms of long time ago or short ago but it make a sense thatthe action has done a little time ago. For example, a personsays, “I watched a movie”, it means the speaker of thissentence watched a movie a little time ago or little time ago inthe same day.PAST SIMPLE TENSE
  • 44. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Rules:2nd form of verb (past simple) is used asmain verb in the positive sentences and baseform is used in negative and interrogativesentences.• Structure of sentences• Positive Sentence• Subject + main verb (past simple) + object• Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object• Examples• I killed a snake• He ate a mango.
  • 45. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Negative sentences• Subject + (auxiliary verb + not) main verb (base form) +object• Subject + did not + 1st form of verb or base form + objectIn negative sentence “did not” is written and the 1st form ofverb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or pastsimple verb).Examples.• I did not kill a snake• He did not eat a mango
  • 46. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (base verb) + object• Did + subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + object• Interrogative sentence starts with “did” and the 1st form ofverb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or pastsimple verb).• Examples• Did I kill a snake?• Did he eat a mango
  • 47. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• More Examples• Negative sentences• He gave me a gift• They went to cinema.• She wrote a letter to him.• I made a table.• You answered correctly.• Negative sentences• He did not give me a gift• They did not go to cinema.• She did not write a letter to him.• I did not make a table.• You did not answer correctly.
  • 48. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Did he give me a gift?• Did they go to cinema?• Did she write a letter to him?• Did I make a table?• Did you answer correctly?
  • 49. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• More Examples.• Positive Sentences• They have gone to school.• They have bought a new car.• I have started a job• It has rained.• The guests have arrived• John has left for home.• You have told a lie.
  • 50. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Negative Sentences• They have not gone to school.• They have not bought a new car.• I have not started a job• It has not rained.• The guests have not arrived.• John has not left for home.• You have not told a lie.
  • 51. PAST SIMPLE TENSE• Negative Sentences• Have they gone to school?• Have they bought a new car?• Have I started a job?• Has it rained?• Have the guests arrived?• Has John left for home?• Have you told a lie?
  • 52. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, anongoing action which occurred in past and completed at somepoint in past. It expresses an ongoing nature of an action inpast. For example, “he was laughing.” This sentence showsongoing action (laughing) of a person which occurred in past.Past continuous tense is also called past progressive.• Rules: Auxiliary verb “was or were” is used in sentence. 1stform of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used asmain verb in sentence.
  • 53. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEStructure of sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) +objectSubject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing)+objectIf the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” thenauxiliary verb “was” is used. If subject is “you, we, they orplural” then auxiliary verb “were” is used.Examples.She was crying yesterday.They were climbing on a hill.
  • 54. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb (presentparticiple) + object• • Subject + was/were + NOT + (1st form of verb or baseverb +ing) +object• Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same asmentioned above.• Examples.• She was not crying yesterday.• They were not climbing on a hill.
  • 55. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (present participle) +object• Was/were + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing)+object• The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. Ifthe subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then thesentence starts with auxiliary verb “was”. If subject is “you,we, they or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliaryverb “were”.• Examples.• Was she crying yesterday?• Were they climbing on a hill?
  • 56. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• More Examples• Positive sentences• They were laughing at the joker.• He was taking exam last month• You waiting for him yesterday• She was working in a factory.• It was raining yesterday.
  • 57. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• They were not laughing at the joker.• He was not taking exam last month• You were not waiting for him yesterday• She was not working in a factory.• It was not raining yesterday.
  • 58. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Were they laughing at the joker?• Was he taking exam last month?• Were you waiting for him yesterday?• Was she working in a factory?• Was it raining yesterday?
  • 59. PAST PERFECT TENSE• it is used to express an action which has occurred in past(usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred inpast before another action in past.For example,• I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers toa completed action in past and especially a long time ago)• The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part ofsentence “The student has gone” is sentence of past perfect tense,it says about an action which occurred before another action in pastwhich is “the teacher came”. The second part “the teacher came” issentence of past simple tense. So such a sentence which express anaction in past before another action in past comprises two partswhere the first part of sentence is past perfect tense)
  • 60. PAST PERFECT TENSE• Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form ofverb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence• Structure of sentence.• Positive sentence• • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) +object• • Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle +object• Examples.• He had taken the exam last year• A thief had stolen my watch.
  • 61. PAST PERFECT TENSE• Negative sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (pastparticiple) + object• Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle +object• “Not” is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence.• Examples.• He had not taken the exam last year• A thief had not stolen my watch.
  • 62. PAST PERFECT TENSE• Interrogative sentence• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) +object• Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle +object• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had”• Examples.• Had he taken the exam last year• Had a thief stolen my watch?
  • 63. PAST PERFECT TENSE• More Examples• Positive sentences• They had visited a doctor.• He had slept.• I had finished my work last year.• It had rained heavily last month.• The film had started before we reached cinem
  • 64. PAST PERFECT TENSE• Negative sentences• They had not visited a doctor.• He had not slept.• I had not finished my work last year.• It had not rained heavily last month.• The film had not started before we reached cinema.
  • 65. PAST PERFECT TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Had they visited a doctor?• Had he slept?• Had I finished my work last year?• Had it rained heavily last month?• Had the film started before we reached cinema.
  • 66. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• t is used to express a continued or ongoing action that startedin past and continued until sometime in past. (Remember, anongoing action in past which continued till some time in past)There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for threehours etc” from which the action had started. A sense of timereference is found in these sentences which shows that actionhad started in past and continued till some time in past. Suchtime reference or sense of reference is the identity of Presentperfect continuous tense because it tells that action hasstarted from a particular time in past or for some time period.For example, “He had been studying in this school since2005”, so the it means that he had started his education inthis school in 2005 and he studied in this school till sometimein past.
  • 67. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Note: If there is not time reference or sense of timereference, then it is not Past perfect continuous tensebecause there is no hint about the time of action when itstarted in past or continued for some time period, so itseems just an ongoing action in past which resembles“past Continuous tense”. So the reference of timedifferentiates between Past perfect continuous tense andpast continuous tense.
  • 68. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Rules: An auxiliary verb “had been” is used in sentence.1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) isused as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is usedbefore the “time reference” in sentence. If the timereference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then“since” is used before the time in sentence. If the timereference is not exactly known such as three hours, sixyears, four days, then “for” is used before the time insentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is notexactly known because we don’t know that about whichthree hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5days in a month is told in sentence. While the 1995 isexactly known time.
  • 69. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Structure of sentence.• Positive Sentence.• • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) +Object + Time reference• • Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing)+ object + time reference• Examples.• I had been waiting for him for one hour.• She had been playing chess since 7 O’clock.•
  • 70. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative Sentence.• Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verbs + main verb(present participle) + Object + Time reference• Subject + had not been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ ing) + object + time reference• To make negative sentence, the word “not” is addedinside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “had not been”.• Examples.• I had not been waiting for him for one hour.• She had not been playing chess since 7 O’clock.
  • 71. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative Sentence.• Auxiliary verb+ Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb(present participle) + object + time reference• • Had + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or baseverb+ing) + object + time reference• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had”and auxiliary verb “been” is used after subject insentence.• Examples.• Had I been waiting for him for one hour?• Had she been playing chess 7 O’clock?
  • 72. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• More examples.• Positive sentences• I had been living in America since 2003.• He had been playing cricket for two hours.• They had been watching television since 6 O’clock.• She had been working in this office since 2007.• It had been raining for three days.
  • 73. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• I had not been living in America since 2003.• He had not been playing cricket for two hours.• They had not been watching television since 6 O’clock.• She had not been working in this office since 2007.• It had not been raining for three days
  • 74. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Positive sentences• Had I been living in America since 2003?• Had he been playing cricket for two hours.• Had they been watching television since 6O’clock?• Had she been working in this office since2007?• Had it been raining for three days?
  • 75. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet andwill occur after saying or in future. For example, “I will go tozoo tomorrow”, in this sentence the person intend fortomorrow’s visit to zoo. In short, these sentences expressactions which will be done in future.• Rules. Auxiliary verb “will” is used in sentence. 1st form ofverb or base form is used as main verb in sentence.
  • 76. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• Structure of sentence• Positive sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +object• Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object• Examples.• I will buy a computer tomorrow.• They will come here.
  • 77. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• Negative sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb+ not + main verb (present participle)+ object• Subject + will +not + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) +object•• To make negative sentence “not” is written after auxiliaryverb in sentence.• Examples.• I will not buy a computer tomorrow.• They will not come here.•
  • 78. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• Interrogative sentence• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (presentparticiple) + object• • Will + subject + (1st form of verb or base form+ing) + object• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb“will”• Examples.• Will I buy a computer tomorrow?• Will they come here?
  • 79. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• More Examples• Positive sentences• He will start a business.• She will send me a letter.• I will give you a pen tomorrow• Students will take exams at the end of semester.• They will buy a new car.• The Pattern of exam will change next year.
  • 80. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• Negative sentences• He will not start a business.• She will not send me a letter.• I will not give you a pen tomorrow• Students will not take exams at the end of semester.• They will not buy a new car.• The pattern of exam will not change next year.
  • 81. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE• interrogative sentences• Will he start a business?• Will she send me a letter?• Will I give you a pen tomorrow?• Will students take exams at the end of semester?• Will they buy a new car?• Will the Pattern of exam change next year?
  • 82. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action infuture. For example, “I will be waiting for you tomorrow”, itconveys ongoing nature of an action (waiting) which will occurin future.Rules. Auxiliary verb “will be” is used in sentence. 1st form ofverb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb insentence.
  • 83. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• Structure of sentence• Positive sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +object• Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (presentparticiple) + object• Examples.• I will be waiting for you.• You will be feeling well tomorrow.
  • 84. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentence• Subject + not between auxiliary verbs+ not + main verb(present participle) + object• Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb or base form+ing(present participle) + object• To make negative sentence “not” is written between auxiliaryverbs “will and be” in sentence.• Examples.• I will not be waiting for you.• You will not be feeling well tomorrow.
  • 85. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative sentence• Auxiliary verb + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (presentparticiple) + object• Will + subject + be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing(present participle) + object• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” andauxiliary verb “be” comes after subject in interrogativesentence• Examples.• Will I be waiting for you?• Will you be feeling well tomorrow?
  • 86. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• More Examples• Positive sentences• We will be shifting to a new home next year.• He will be flying a kite.• It will be raining tomorrow.• She will be enjoying her vacations.• He will be expecting honesty from his employees.• She will be delivering a speech to people.
  • 87. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• We will not be shifting to a new home next year.• He will not be flying a kite.• It will not be raining tomorrow.• She will not be enjoying her vacations.• He will not be expecting honesty from his employees.• She will not be delivering a speech to people.
  • 88. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative sentence• Will we be shifting to a new home next year?• Will he be flying a kite?• Will it be raining tomorrow?• Will she be enjoying her vacations?• Will he be expecting honesty from his employees?• Will she be delivering a speech to people?
  • 89. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• It is used to express an action which will occur in future and isthought to be completed in future. It expresses a sense ofcompletion of an action which will occur in future. Forexample, “John will have gone tomorrow”. It shows a sense ofcompletion of an action (go) which will occur in future(tomorrow).Rules. Auxiliary verb “will have” is used in sentence. 3rd form ofverb or past participle form of verb is used as main verb insentence.
  • 90. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• Structure of sentence• Positive sentence• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) +object• Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle +object• Examples• She will have finished the work by Wednesday.• I will have left for home by the time he gets up.• You will have started a job.
  • 91. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• Negative sentence• Subject + Not between auxiliary verbs + main verb (pastparticiple) + object• Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb or pastparticiple + object• Examples• She will have finished the work by Wednesday.• I will have left for home by the time he gets up.• You will not have started a job.
  • 92. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• Interrogative sentence• Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (pastparticiple) + object• Will + Subject +have + 3rd form of verb or past participle +object• Examples• Will she have finished the work by Wednesday?• Will I have left for home by the time he gets up?• Will you have started a job?
  • 93. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• More Examples• Positive sentences• He will have finished his work.• You will have made a new chair.• She will have decorated her home.• I will have bought a computer.• They will have shifted to a new home.• Students will have passed the examination.
  • 94. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• Negative sentences• He will not have finished his work.• You will not have made a new chair.• She will not have decorated her home.• I will not have bought a computer.• They will not have shifted to a new home.• Students will not have passed the examination.
  • 95. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE• Interrogative sentences• Will he have finished his work?• Will you have made a new chair?• Will she have decorated her home?• Will I have bought a computer?• Will they have shifted to a new home?• Will students have passed the examination?•
  • 96. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that willstart in future and is thought to be continued till sometime infuture. (Remember, an ongoing action in future which willcontinue till some time in future). There will be a timereference, such as “since 1980, for three hours” from whichthe action will start in future and will continue. A sense oftime reference is found which gives an idea that action willstart at some time in future and will continue for some time.Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identityof Future perfect continuous tense because it tells that actionwill start at a particular time in future. For example, “He willhave been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it meansthat he will start studying in this school in 2005 and will studyin this school till sometime in future
  • 97. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time referencethen it is not future perfect continuous tense because there isno hint about the time of action when it will start in futureand it seems just an ongoing action in future which resembles“future Continuous tense. So the reference of timedifferentiates between Future perfect continuous tensebetween future continuous tense.
  • 98. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Rules: An auxiliary verb “will have been” is used in sentence.1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is usedas main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the“time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactlyknown such as 1995, 4 O’clock then “since” is used before thetime in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly knownsuch as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is usedbefore the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3 hoursor 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know thatabout which three hours a day is told in sentence or aboutwhich 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the 1995 isexactly know time.
  • 99. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Structure of sentence.• Positive Sentence.• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) +Object + Time reference• Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing)+ object + time reference• Examples.• I will have been waiting for him for one hour.• She will have been playing football since 20
  • 100. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative Sentence.• Subject +”Not” inside Auxiliary verbs + main verb (presentparticiple) + Object + Time reference• Subject + will not have been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ ing) + object + Time reference• To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added insideauxiliary verb, so it becomes “will not have been”.• Examples.• I will not have been waiting for him for one hour.• She will not have been playing football since 2015.
  • 101. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Interrogative Sentence.• Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (presentparticiple) + object + time reference• Will + Subject + have been + (1st form of verb or baseverb+ing) + object + time reference• Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” andauxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence.• Examples.• Will I have been waiting for him for one hour?• Will she have been playing football since 2015?
  • 102. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• More examples.• Positive sentences• I will have been living in America since 2003.• He will have been playing cricket for two hours.• They will have been watching television since 6 O’clock.• She will been working in this office since 2007.• It will have been raining for three days.
  • 103. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Negative sentences• I will not have been living in America since 2003.• He will not have been playing cricket for two hours.• They will not have been watching television since 6O’clock?• She will have been working in this office since 2007.• It will not have been raining for three days.
  • 104. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE• Positive sentences• Will I have been living in America since 2003?• Will he have been playing cricket for two hours.• Will they have been watching television since 6 O’clock?• Will she have been working in this office since 2007?• Will it have been raining for three days