Phonetics and Phonology – related fields Basic differences Phonetics – Deals with the physical properties of speech sounds – way it is produced, transmitted and perceived. Phonology – Deals with the organisation of speech sounds into sound systems/patterns and their meaning – within and across languages.
Articulatory phonetics – action of speech organs and speech production. How speech is physically created Vocal tract movements to create different speech sounds
Phonology – Who did you see Graham with? Who did you see Graham and? The English speaker knows that there is more to the two sentences than the differences between with and and
Difference between - He told the man who he knew. - Ambiguous He told the man how he knew. I usually go to the movies with my friends. I usually went to the movies with my friends. I used to went to the movies with my friends. I used to go to the movies with my friends. By instinct a native speaker knows. – unconscious knowledge. Even not having knowledge of syntax to semantics.
Linguists believe – - A native speakers’ unconscious knowledge must also contain phonological knowledge. - can tell how many syllables there are in a word without having any idea of what a syllable is, consciously. - it shows they have the ability to recognize syllables.
-similar way, a native speaker can also point out the sequence of segments e.g. [blᴧ g], - it is a utterance of a word, an English word. And the sequence of segments in [tʰlᴧ is not an g] English word. They may never have heard of these sequences before.
Thus assumeing - that they have access to an unconscious knowledge which constitutes ‘the phonology of English’. Phonology refers to the study of - mental abilities and largely unconscious state of the native speaker’s knowledge of the sound system of a certain (his/her) language.
- the abstract system organizing the speech sounds of a language.
Phoneme – Smallest meaningful unit/segment in the sound system of a language that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning in words or morphemes. /pin/ and /bin/ Smallest phonetic unit, which distinguishes meaning, A mental category How many phonemes - in SBE/RP pronunciation?
Phonological System/Rules of English – - Constraints (restrictions/limitations) - form or structure of language Syntactic rules – Phonological rules - The Phonemic Principal –
1. Aspirated and unaspirated voicelessstops in English – /p/, /t/, /k/ a.pool [ᴧpʰuɫ] c. appear [əᴧpʰɪə] b.spurt [ᴧspɜ:t] d. despite [dəᴧspaɪt] e.top [ᴧtʰɒp] ʰ h. attack [əᴧt æk] f.stop [ᴧstɒp] g. destroy [dəᴧst ɔɪ] ɹ i. kill [ᴧkʰɪl] k. accrue [əᴧkʰɹu:] j. scold [ᴧskoʊɫd] l. discover [dɪᴧsk və] ᴧ
Rule – - voiceless stops are aspirated when they are at the beginning of a stressed syllable, - but unaspirated when preceded by a voiceless alveolar fricative. Fortis – phonemes produced with force - strong Lenis – phonemes produced with less force - weak
Korean words a. [pʰul] – grass, b. [pul] – fire c. [tʰal] – mask, d. [tal] – moon e. [kʰɛda] – dig, f. [kɛda] - fold Different realisations of the phonemes .
Distribution – the range of places within a word which a given sound may occur in, is called its distribution.
In English – Where one kind of stop occurs, the other kind never occurs in the same environment. They are in complementary distribution. - Two or more sounds are realisations of the same phoneme. - they are phonetically similar (to the English speaker) - no semantic contrasts -
In Korean, Bangla – Where one kind of stop occurs, the other kind can also occurs in the same environment. Aspirated and unaspirataed stops overlap. They are in Parallel distribution – - Two or more sounds are realisations of different phonemes. - they are phonetically distinctive (to the Korean, Bangla speakers) - the two sounds are semantically contrastive -
Minimal pairs – when a pair of words are identical in all respect, except for one sound segment, they are referred to as minimal pairs. - The two sounds are in parallel distribution - Semantically contrastive. Allophones – variations/realisations of a given phoneme.